brahmaand kiran

brahmaandeeya kiran ka urja-spectrum

brahmaand kirnein (cosmic ray) atyadhik urja vaale kan hain jo baahari antariksh mein paida hote hain aur chhitk kar pruthvi par aa jaate hain. lagbhag 90% brahmaand kiran (kan) protaun hote hain; lagbhag 10% hiliym ke naabhik hote hain; tatha 1% se kam hi bhaari tatv tatha ilektraun (beeta mins kan) hote hain. vastut: inko "kiran" kehna theek naheen hai kyonki dharati par pahuainchane vaale brahmaandeeya kan akele hote hain na ki kisi punj ya kiran ke roop mein.

khoj

brahmaand kiran ki khoj ostreeyan-American bhautikvid Victor hes ne san 1912 mein ki thi. is khoj ke liye unhe 1936 mein bhautiki ka Nobel purashkaar diya gaya.

prakaar

brahmaand kirne kai tarah ki hoti hai. saur brahmaand kiran (solar cosmic ray) soorya se niklati hai. iski oorja (107 se 1010 eV) anya sabhi brahmaand kirno se kam hoti hai. saur jvaala va soorya mein hone vaale visfot ke falasvarup iski utpatti hoti hai. doosare prakaar ki brahmaand kiran, gaangeya brahmaand kiran (galactic cosmic ray) hai. iski oorja (1010 se 1015 eV) saur brahmaand kirno se adhik hoti hai. khagolavid samajhte hai ki iski utpatti suparanova visfot, shyaam vivr aur nyootraun taare se hoti hai jo hamaari hi aakaashaganga mein maujud hai. paraagaangeya brahmaand kiran (extragalactic cosmic ray) teesare prakaar ki brahmaand kiran hai. vaijnyaaaniko ki dhaarana hai ki inka strot hamaari aakaashaganga ke baahar hai. vaigyaanik is baare mein nishchit nahi hai. is kiran ki oorja (1018 eV) gaangeya brahmaand kirno se jyaada hoti hai. iski utpatti kvaasar aur sakriya aakaashagangaao ke kendra se hoti hai.

brahmaand kirne jab pruthvi ke vaayumandal se takaraati hai to vo gaiso ke anuo aur paramaanuo ko tod deti hai. is prakaar yeh ek naye brahmaand kiran kan (pauyan, myooon) ka nirmaan karti hai. yeh naya kan anya naye brahmaand kiran kano (ilektraun, paujeetraun,nyootreeno) ko banaati hai aur is tarah brahmaand kirne chaaro or failati jaati hai. nirantar naye brahmaand kiran kan banaane ki prakreeya mein inki oorja ghatati jaati hai. vaayumandal mein brahmaand kirno aur gaiso ke beech aneko baar takkare hoti rahati hai aur ant mein laakho ki sankhya mein dvitiyk brahmaand kirno ka nirmaan hota hai, jise " cosmic-ray shower ya air shower " kehte hai.

brahmaand kirne ek prakaar ka vikirn hai, jo jeevo aur masheeno ko nuksaan pahuaincha sakte hai. ham bhaagyashaali hai ki pruthvi ka chunbakeeya kshetr aur vaayumandal in vikirno se hamaari raksha karti hai anyatha manushya ko pratyek varsh ausat 2.3 millisievert vikirno ka saamana karna padta. millisievert vikirn maapane ki ek ikaai hai aur ise mSv se pradarshit kiya jaata hai. chunbakeeya kshetr aur vaayumandal ke kaaran keval 0.2 mSv vikirn pruthvi tak pahuainch paati hai jo aane waali vikirn ki kul maatra se bahut kam maatr 10 pratishat hoti hai. antariksh yaatreeyon ko adhik maatra mein, lagbhag 900 mSv vikirno ka saamana karna padta hai jab ve pruthvi se door (chandrama ya mangal grah ki or) yaatra karte hai, jahau in vikirno se raksha karne pruthvi ka chunbakeeya kshetr ya anya koi strot maujud naheen hota hai. brahmaand kirne hamaare di N A ko bahut nuksaan pahuainchaate hai jisse keinsar hota hai. vaigyaanik is baare mein chintit hai ki antariksh yaatreeyon ko mangal mission mein bhejane se pehle in vikirno se kaise bachaaenge.

pruthvi par sada samaan maatra mein brahmaand kirne naheen aati hai. jab soorya adhik sakriya hota hai tab pruthvi ki or aane waali in brahmaand kirno ki maatra kam ho jaati hai. soorya har 11 vein saal mein adhik sakriya hota hai. is samay adhik saur jvaala utpann hoti hai aur uske vaataavaran mein kai bavandar uthate hai falasvarup adhik maatra mein brahmaand kirne utpann hoti hai. fir bhi pruthvi par pahuainchane waali vikirn ki maatra kam ho jaati hai kyonki jab soorya sakriya hota hai to usaka chunbakeeya kshetr ya heeleeyosfeyar adhik sakriya ho jaata hai jo sauramandal mein aane waali gaangeya tatha paraagaangeya vikirno ko rok deta hai, jiski oorja saur vikirno ki apeksha kaheen adhik hoti hai. soorya ke sakriya avastha mein antariksh yaatra karna apekshaakrut jyaada surakshit hai.


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