braayofaaita


braayofaaita (Bryophyta) vanaspati jagat ka ek bada varg hai. yeh sansaar ke har bhoobhaag mein paaya jaata hai, parantu yeh manushya ke liye kisi vishesh upayog ka naheen hai. vaigyaanik praaya: is ek mat ke hi hai ki vah varg hare shaivaal se utpann hua hoga. is mat ki poori tarah pushti kisi fausil se naheen ho saki hai. paudhon ke vargeekaran mein braayofaaita ka sthaan shaivaal (Algae) aur teridofaaita (Pteridophyta) ke beech mein aata hai. is varg mein lagbhag 900 vansh aur 23,000 jaatiyaaain hain.

anukram

vargeekaran

braayofaaita ko aarambh mein do bhaagon mein baaainta jaata tha : (1) hipaitisi (Hepaticae) aur (2) masaai (Musci); parantu beesaveen shataabdi ke shuroo se hi ainthosiroteleej (Anthocerotales) ko hipaitisi se alag ek svatantr upavarg ainthosiroti (Anthocerotae) mein rakha jaane laga hai. adhikaansh vaigyaanik braayofaaita ko teen upavargo mein baantatein hain. ye hain :

  • hipaitisi ya hipaitikaupsida (Hepaticopsida),
  • ainthosiroti, ya ainthosirotaupsida (Anthocerotopsida) aur
  • masaai (Musci) ya braayaupsida (Bryopsida).

hipaitikaupsida

ismein lagbhag 225 vansh aur 8,500 jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain. is upavarg mein yugmakodbhid (Gametophyte) chapata aur prushthaadhaari roop se vibhedit (dorsiventrally differentiated) hota hai ya fir tane aur pattiyon jaise aakaar dhaaran karta hai. paudhe ke chaap kaatne se andar ke ootak ya to ek hi prakaar ke hote hain, ya fir oopar aur neeche ke ootak bhinn roop ke hote hain aur bhinn kaarya karte hain. chapate hipaitisi mein neeche ke bhaag se, jo mitti ya chattaan se laga hota hai, patale baal jaise moolaabhaas ya moolaabhaas (rhizoid) nikalte hain, jo jal aur lavan sokhate hain. inke atirikt baingani rang ke shalkapatr (scales) nikalte hain, jo paudhe ko mitti se jakadkar rakhate hain.

is upavarg ko saamaanyat: chaar gan (orders) mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. ye hain :

(1) sfeerokaarapeleej (Sphaerocarpales),

(2) maakainnshiyeleej (Marchantiales),

(3) jangaramainiyeleej (Jungermanniales) aur

(4) kailobriyeleej (Calobryales).

(1) sfeerokaurpeleej gan mein do kul hain :

  • sfeerokaurpeseei (Sphaerocarpaceae), jismein do prajaatiyaaain sfeerokaarpas (Sphaerocarpus) aur jeeothailas (Geothallus) hain. ye dvipaarshv samamit (bilaterally symmetrical) hote hain aur ek hi prakaar ke hote hain.
  • riylesi (Riellaceae) kul mein keval ek hi vansh riyla (Riella) hai, jiski 27 jaatiyaaain vishv mein pai jaati hain. Bhaarat mein keval do jaatiyaaain hain : ri. indika (R. indica) jo Lahore ke nikat pehle pai gayi thi aur ri. vishvanaathi (R. vishwanathii), jo chakiya ke paas lateefashaah jheel (jila Varanasi) mein hi keval pai jaati hai.

(2) maarkainlshiyeleej - yeh ek mukhya gan hai, jismein chapate paudhe pruthvi par ugate hain aur oopar ke ootak hare hote hain. inmein hava rahane ki jagah rahati hai aur ye mukhyat: bhojan banaate hain tatha neeche ke ootak taiyaar bhojan sanchaya karte hain. is gan mein kareeb 30 ya 32 vansh tatha lagbhag 400 jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain, jinhein paaainch kul mein rakha jaata hain. ye kul hain :

  • (1) raksiaiseei (Ricciaceae),
  • (2) kaurasiniyeseei (Corsiniaceae),
  • (3) taar jioniyeseei (Targioniaceae),
  • (4) maunokliyeseei (Monocleaceae) aur
  • (5) maarkenshiyeseei (Marchantiacae).

mukhya vansh riksiya (Riccia) aur maarkenshiya (Marchantia), taarajioniya (Targionia), aadi hain.

riksiya ki kareeb 130 jaatiyaaain nam bhoomi, ped ke tane, chattaanon, ityaadi par ugati hain. iski ek jaati ri. falooitains (R. fluitans) to jal mein rahati hai. Bhaarat mein riksiya ki kai jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain, jinmein se ri. himaalayensis (R. himalayensis) 9,000 foot aur ri. robasta (R. robusta) to 13,000 foot ki ooainchaai tak pai jaati hain. inmein anya jaatiyon ya vanshon ki bhaaainti laingik tatha alaingik prajanan hote hain.

maarkenshiya (Marchantia) ki bahut si jaatiyaaain Bhaarat ke pahaadon par, mukhyat: himaalaya parvat par, pai jaati hain. do jaatiyon ka to naam hi maarkenshiya nepaalenaasis aur ma. simlaana hai. maarkeinnshiya mein ek prakaar ki pyaali jaisa jema cup (Gemma Cup) hota hai, jismein kai chhote chhote jema nikalte hain. ye prajanan ke kaarya ke liye vishesh prakaar ke saadhan hain.

(3) jangaramaigiyeleej (Gungermanniales) lagbhag 190 vansh aur 8,000 jaatiyonvaala ek gan hai. ye paudhe adhikaansh garam tatha adhik varshaavaale bhoobhaag mein paae jaate hain aur adhikaansh tane evam pattiyon se yukt hote hain. jangaramainiyeleej ko do upaganon mein baaainta gaya hai :

  • metsajeerineei (Metzgerineae) ya aineekrogaainas jangaramainiyeleej (Anaehrogynous jungermanniales) aur
  • jangaramainineei (Gungermannineae) ya ekrogaainas jangaramainiyeleej (Achrogynous Jngermanniales):

metsajeerineei mein lagbhag 20 vansh aur jaatiyaaain hain jinhein paaainch ya chhah kulon mein rakha jaata hai. pramukh paudhe peliya (Pellia), rikaardiya ki lagbhag ek darjan jaatiyaaain Bhaarat mein pai jaati hain. in jaatiyon ke aakaar aur kabhi kabhi rang bhi bahut bhinn hote hain.

jangaramaineeneei ke har paudhe patteeyukt hote hain aur iske lagbhag 180 vansh aur 7,500 jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain. inmein kuchh pramukh paudhon ke naam is prakaar hain: porela ya maidotheeka (Porella or Madotheca), frulaaniya (Frullania), shifneriya (Schiffneria), sefaalojiyela (Cephaloziella), ityaadi. porela ki lagbhag 180 jaatiyaaain hain. inmein 21 himaalaya parvat par ugati hain. kuchh aur dakshin Bhaarat mein bhi pai jaati hain

ainthesirotaupsida

ismein paudhe bahut hi saadhaaran aur prushthaadhari roop se vibhedit (dorsiventrally differentiated) hote hain, par madhyashira (mid rib) naheen hoti. is upavarg mein ek hi gan ainthesiroteleej hai, jismein paaainch ya chhah vansh aur lagbhag 300 jaatiyaaain hain. inmein ainthosiros (Anthoceros) aur notothils (Notothylas) pramukh vansh hain. ye paudhe sansaar ke kai bhaagon mein paae jaate hain. Bhaarat mein yeh himaalaya ki taraai tatha parvat par aur kuchh jaatiyaaain neeche maidaan mein bhi pai jaati hain.

braayaupsida ya masaai

yeh ek bruhat upavarg hai, jismein lagbhag 660 vansh aur 14,500 jaatiyaaain hain. inhein kabhi kabhi keval maus ya harita bhi kehte hain. ye mitti, patthar ya chattaan, jal, sookhati lakdi ya ped ki daaliyon par aur makaan tatha deevaar par ugate hain. maus ki anek jaatiyon ko nimnalikhit teen bhaagon mein baaainta jaata hai :

(1) ainsfaignobriya (Sphagnobrya), ya sfaigneleej (Sphagnales);

(2) aindriyobriya (Andreaeobrya), ya aindriyeleej (Andreaeales) aur

(3) yoobriya (Eubrya), ya yoobriyeleej (Eubryales), ya keval braaieleej (Bryales).

(1) sfaignobriya mein ek hi vansh sfaignam (Sphagnum) hai, jiski kul 335 jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain. yeh adhikaansh daladali ya chhichhle taalaabon mein kaafi ghane roop se ugata hai. iske marne par ek prakaar ka khaas daladal banta hai, jise peet (peat) kehte hain. iska aakaar patali rassi ki tarah tatha rang hara hota hai. ismein se bahut si shaakhaaeain niklati hain aur tane patali, chhoti pattiyon se yukt hoti hain.

(2) aindriyobriya mein keval do vansh aindreeya (Andrea) aur nyooroloma (Neuroloma) hain. aindreeya kaafi vistrut vansh hai aur iski kul 150 jaatiyaaain hain. nyooroleema ki sirf ek hi jaati hai.

(3) yoobriya mein lagbhag 650 vansh tatha 14,000 jaatiyaaain hain, jinhein lagbhag 15 ganon mein rakha jaata hai. is varg ke paudhe pruthvi ke har bhaag mein uttar se lekar bhoomadhyarekheeya vanon tak mein, taalaab, jharane, daladali mitti, chattaan, ped ke tane ya shaakha par, deevaar ya makaan ki chhat par, ya anya nam sthaanon par ugate hain. kuchh jaatiyaaain to sookhe ya kam prakaashit sthaanon par bhi ugati hain. inmein yugmakodbhid do prakaar ke hote hain : ek to protonima (Protonema), jo patala hota hai jaisa pruthvi mein rahata hai aur kuchh shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit hota rahata hai aur doosra vah jiski prajanan shaakhaaeain in protonima se nikal kar oopar hava mein aa jaati hain aur hari pattiyon se yukt hoti hain. ye bhojan ka nirmaan karti hain aur shaakhaaon ke oopar laingik prajanan hetu nar prajananaang, athva maada prajananaang, ke guchhe banaati hain. inmein ya to pundhaani (Antheridia), ya yonika (Archegonia) banti hain. yoobriya ko lagbhag 15 ganon aur 80 kulon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. ismein fyooneriya (Funaria), baarabula (Barbula), neeyam (Mnium), pauleetraaikam (Polytrichum), daaikrenela (Dicranella), baksabaumiya (Buxbaumia), splaikanam (Splachnum), ityaadi mukhya vansh hain.

moolaang, jo patale dhaage jaisa hota hai, jal tatha lavan mitti se leta hai tatha jad ke sabhi kaarya karta hai. pattiyon dvaara bhojan ka nirmaan in padaarthon tatha kaarban daaioksaaid ki madad se pattiyon mein hota hai. garbhaadhaan ke pashchaat yugmanaj (zygote) badhta hai aur ek prakaar ke nae peedhi ke beejaanu udbhid, (Sporophyte) ko janm deta hai. yeh apne sabhi bhojan ityaadi ke liye yugmakodbhid par hi nirbhar rahata hai. beejaanu udbhid ke oopari bhaag ko sanputik (Capsule) kehte hain. ismein asankhya beejaanu (spores) bante hain, jo jhad jaane par mitti mein gir jaate hain aur ek sire se fir protoniya aur nae paudhe ko janm dete hain.

inhein bhi dekhein