braahmi parivaar ki lipiyaaain

braahmi parivaar un lipiyon ka parivaar hain jinki poorvaj braahmi lipi hai. inka prayog dakshin Asia, dakshinpoorv Asia mein hota hai, tatha madhya va poorv Asia ke kuchh bhaagon mein bhi hota hai.

is parivaar ki kisi lekhan pranaali ko braahmi-aadhaarit lipi ya bhaarateeya lipi kaha ja sakta hai.

in lipiyon ka prayog kai bhaasha parivaaron mein hota tha, udaaharanaarth indo-yooropiyaai, cheeni-tibbati, mangoliyaai, dravideeya, ostro-Asiaee, ostroneshiyaai, taai aur sanbhavat: Koreai mein. inka prabhaav aadhunik Japani bhaasha mein prayukt akshar kramaankan par bhi dikhta hai.

anukram

itihaas

braahmi se utpann kuchh lipiyaaain
pashchaat kaaleen chol kaal se ek praacheen tamil lipi (vatteluttu) ka namoona, 11veen sadi. praacheen tamil seedhe braahmi lekhan pranaali se upaji hai.

braahmi-aadhaarit lipiyaaain braahmi lipi se upaji hain. isa poorv teesari sadi mein ashok ke raajyakaal mein braahmi ka prayog ka saakshya milta hai, unhonne is lipi ka istemaal saamraajyeeya shilaalekhon ke liye kiya tha. lekin iske alaava, haal hi mein, shri lanka mein anuraadhaapur mein isa poorv chhathi sadi ke samay ke mitti ke bartanon par sinhal braahmi mein likhe kuchh bhanjit shilaalekh mile hain[1]. isa poorv chauthi ya paaainchavi sadi ke tamil braahmi ke namoone bhi bhattiprolu va anyatr mile hain.

gupt vansh ke samay uttari braahmi se gupt lipi I aur madhyakaal mein kai likhaavaton ki janani bani, inmein siddham, shaarada aur naagari pramukh hain.

siddham (kaanji: 悉aa曇, aadhunik Japani uchchaaran: shittan) lipi bauddh dharm ke liye kaafi mahatvapoorn thi kyonki kai sootr isi mein likhe gaye the aur aaj bhi Japan mein siddham sulekh ki kala kaayam hai.

dakshini braahmi se granth lipi va anya lipiyon ki upaj hui aur fir inki badaulat dakshinpoorv Asia ki kai lipiyaaain bani.

teesari sadi mein bhattiprolu bauddh dharm ka ek bada kendra tha, yaheen se bauddh dharm poorvi Asia mein faila. aadhunik telugu lipi bhattiprolu lipi ya 'kannad-telugu lipi' se hi janit hai, ise 'praacheen kannad lipi' bhi kehte hain kyonki kannad se iski samaanata kaafi hai[2][3].

shuruaat mein kuchh chhote badlaav hue, usase jo lipi bani use ab tamil braahmi kehte hain, ismein kuchh anya bhaarateeya lipiyon ke mukaabale kaheen kam akshar hain kyonki ismein alag se mahaapraan ya saghosh vyanjan naheen hain. baad mein granth ke prabhaav se vettulutu ka praadurbhaav hua jo ki aadhunik malayalam lipi jaisi dikhti hai. 19veen aur 20veen sadi mein aur bhi badlaav hue taaki chhapaai aur tankan ke liye suvidha ho aur is prakaar samakaaleen lipi saamane I.

geri ledayaard ne parikalpana ki hai ki haangul lipi, jo Koreai likhne ke kaam aati hai, vaastav mein mangol fagspa lipi se upaji hai, jo ki tibbati ke jariye braahmi parivaar se utpann hui thi.

visheshataaeain

kuchh visheshataaeain, jo sanbhavat: har lipi mein na ho, is prakaar hain:

  • harek vyanjan mein ek antarnihit 'a' ka svar hota hai (bangaali, udiya aur asamiya mein ye uchchaaran mein frk ki vajah se 'O' ka svar hai. baaki svar is akshar se jod kar likhe jaate hain. yadi antarnihit svar na ho to viraam/halant ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.
  • har svar ke do roop hain, ek svatantr roop, arthaat jab vah kisi vyanjan ka hissa na ho aur doosra nirbhar roop, jab vah vyanjan ke saath juda hota hai. lipi ke aadhaar par, nirbhar roop mool vyanjan ke baaeain, daaeain, oopar, neeche, ya daaeain-baaeain dono taraf ho sakta hai.
  • vyanjan (devanaagari mein 5 tak) jud ke sanyuktaakshar bante hain. r ke saath kisi aur vyanjan ke sanyuktaaksharon ke liye vishesh chihnon ka istemaal hota hai.
  • kisi bhi vyanjan ke svar ka anunaasikeekaran va saghosheekaran bhi alag chihnon dvaara ingit kiya jaata hai.
  • paaramparik kram is prakaar hai: svar, kanthasth vyanjan, taalavya vyanjan, moordhanya vyanjan, dantya vyanjan, oshthya vyanjan, ant:sth vyanjan, ooshm vyanjan, va anya vyanjan. har vyanjan samooh mein chaar vyanjan hote hain (chaar prakaar ki ghosh va praan ke liye), va ek anunaasik vyanjan hota hai.

tulana

neeche kai pramukh bhaarateeya lipiyon ki tulana ke liye taalikaaeain di gain hain.

vyanjan

braahmi Brah k.png Brah kh.png Brah g.png Brah gh.png Brah ng.png Brah c.png Brah ch.png Brah j.png Brah jh.png Brah ny.png Brah t1.png Brah th1.png Brah d1.png Brah dh1.png Brah n1.png Brah t.png Brah th.png Brah d.png Brah dh.png Brah n.png Brah p.png Brah ph.png Brah b.png Brah bh.png Brah m.png Brah y.png Brah r.png Brah l.png Brah l1.png Brah v.png Brah sh.png Brah s1.png Brah s.png Brah h.png
devanaagari k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya t th d dh n t th the dh na p f b bh m ya r l l l va sh sh s h
asamiya
bangaali
gurumukhi ਲaa਼ ਸaa਼
gujaraati
udiya
tamil கaa் ஙaa் சaa் ஜaa் ஞaa் டaa் ணaa் தaa் நaa் னaa் பaa் மaa் யaa் ரaa் றaa் லaa் ளaa் ழaa் வaa் ஸaa் ஹaa்
telugu
kannad
malayalam
sinhal ​aඣa​
tibbati
thai
barmi က ဉ/ည
khmer
laao

svar

ekal svar har stambh mein baaeain taraf pradarshit hain aur us lipi ke "k" vyanjan mein maatra ke taur par daain taraf hain.

braahmi Brah a.png Brah aa.png Brah i.png Brah ii.png Brah u.png Brah uu.png Brah e.png Brah ai.png Brah o.png
devanaagari a aa ka i ki E ki u ku oo koo kॆ A ke ai kai kॊ O ko au kau ri kru ri kॄ kॢ kॣ
asamiya কaaা অaa্aaযaaা কaa্aaযaaা কaaি কaaী কaaু কaaূ কaaে কaaৈ কaaো কaaৌ কaaৃ কaaৄ কaaৢ কaaৣ
bangaali কaaা অaa্aaযaaা কaaি কaaী কaaু কaaূ কaaে কaaৈ কaaো কaaৌ কaaৃ কaaৄ কaaৢ কaaৣ
gurumukhi ਕaaਾ ਕaaਿ ਕaaੀ ਕaaੁ ਕaaੂ ਕaaੇ ਕaaੈ ਕaaੋ ਕaaੌ
gujaraati કaaા કaaિ કaaી કaaુ કaaૂ કaaે કaaૈ કaaો કaaૌ કaaૃ કaaૄ
udiya କaaା କaaି କaaୀ କaaୁ କaaୂ କaaେ କaaୈ କaaୋ କaaୌ କaaୃ
tamil கaaா கaaி கaaீ கaaு கaaூ கaaெ கaaே கaaை கaaொ கaaோ கaaௌ
telugu కaaా కaaి కaaీ కaaు కaaూ కaaె కaaే కaaై కaaొ కaaో కaaౌ కaaృ కaaౄ
kannad ಕaaಾ ಕaaಿ ಕaaೀ ಕaaು ಕaaೂ ಕaaೆ ಕaaೇ ಕaaೈ ಕaaೊ ಕaaೋ ಕaaೌ ಕaaೃ
malayalam കaaാ കaaി കaaീ കaaു കaaൂ കaaെ കaaേ കaaൈ കaaൊ കaaോ കaaൗ കaaൃ കaa്aaഌ കaa്aaൡ
sinhal කaaා කaaැ කaaෑ කaaි කaaී කaaු කaaූ කaaෙ කaaේ කaaෛ කaaො කaaෝ කaaෞ කaaෘ කaaෲ (ඏ)[4] (ඐ)
tibbati ཨaaཱ ཀaaཱ ཨaaི ཀaaི ཨaaཱaaི ཀaaཱaaི ཨaaུ ཀaaུ ཨaaཱaaུ ཀaaཱaaུ ཨaaེ ཀaaེ ཨaaཻ ཀaaཻ ཨaaོ ཀaaོ ཨaaཽ ཀaaཽ རaaྀ ཀaaྲaaྀ རaaཱaaྀ ཀaaཷ ལaaྀ ཀaaླaaྀ ལaaཱaaྀ ཀaaླaaཱaaྀ
barmi က အaaာ ကaaာ ကaaိ ကaaီ ကaaု ကaaူ ကaaေ အaaေaaး ကaaေaaး ကaaေaaာ ကaaေaaာaa် ကaaၖ ကaaၗ ကaaၘ ကaaၙ

asamiya

ank

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
braahmi
devanaagari 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
asamiya
bangaali
gurumukhi
gujaraati
udiya
tamil
telugu
kannad
malayalam
tibbati
barmi

braahmi aadhaarit lipiyon ki soochi

braahmi lipi ka Bhaarat se baahar anya deshon mein prasaar

braahmi se upaji lipiyaaain.

aitihaasik

sabse puraane gyaat lekhon ke aveshesh teesari sadi isa poorv ke hain, is samay tak braahmi lipi ke kai kshetreeya sanskaran ban hi chuke the. braahmi lipi ki banaavat paaainchavi sadi isaveen ke baad se aur adhik vividh hoti gayi aur madhya yug mein isne lagaataar kai nai lipiyon ko janm diya. praacheenakaal ka mukhya vibhaajan tha uttari va dakshini braahmi ke beech ka. uttari samooh mein gupt lipi ka prabhaav kaafi tha aur dakshini samooh mein hindu dharm ke failaav ke saath granth lipi ke jariye sampoorn dakshinpoorv Asia mein braahmi lipiyaaain fail gain.

  • uttari braahmi
  • dakshini braahmi (tamil braahmi, kaling, bhattiprolu)
    • vattelattu
    • granth, 6thi sadi
      • dives akuru
      • kaavi lipi, 8veen sadi
        • batak, 14veen sadi
    • kadanb, 5veen sadi
  • tochariyn lipi ("tirchhi braahmi"), 7veen sadi
  • ahom, 13veen sadi
  • taai thaam (lanna), 14veen sadi
  • maitei mayek lipi

samakaaleen

lipi janani janm ka kaal prayog ISO 15924 yoonikod maala namoona
baali praacheen kaavi 11veen sadi baali bhaasha Bali U+1B00–U+1B7F
baayabaayin praacheen kaavi 14veen sadi tagaalog, filipeens ki anya bhaashaaeain Tglg U+1700–U+171F
buhid praacheen kaavi 14veen sadi buhid bhaasha Buhd U+1740–U+175F ᝊaaᝓaaᝑaaᝒ
barmi vatteluttu 11veen sadi barmi bhaasha, anya bhaashaaon ke liye kai badlaav u. chakama, poorvi va pashchimi pvo karen, geba karen, kaaya, mon, rumai palaung, sagaav karen, shaan Mymr U+1000–U+109F မaaြaaနaa်aaမaaာaaအaaကaa္aaခaaရaaာ
chaam vatteluttu 8veen sadi chaam bhaasha Cham U+AA00–U+AA5F
devanaagari naagari 13veen sadi kai indo-aarya bhaashaaeain Deva U+0900–U+097F devanaagari
poorvi naagari naagari 11veen sadi bangaali bhaasha (bangaali lipi variant), asamiya bhaasha (asamiya lipi variant) Beng U+0980–U+09FF বaaাaaংaaলaaা লaaিaaপaaি / অaaসaaমaaীaaযaa়aaা লaaিaaপaaি
gujaraati naagari 17veen sadi gujaraati bhaasha, kachhi bhaasha Gujr U+0A80–U+0AFF ગaaુaaજaaરaaાaaતaaી લaaિaaપaaિ
gurumukhi shaarada 16veen sadi punjabi bhaasha Guru U+0A00–U+0A7F ਗaaੁaaਰaaਮaaੁaaਖaaੀ
hanunoo praacheen kaavi 14veen sadi hanunoo ki bhaashaaa Hano U+1720–U+173F
jaavaai praacheen kaavi 16veen sadi jaavaai bhaasha Java N/A
kannad kadanb 16veen sadi kannad bhaasha, anya Knda U+0C80–U+0CFF ಕaaನaa್aaನaaಡ ಅaaಕaa್aaಷaaರaaಮaaಾaaಲaaೆ
khmer vatteluttu 11veen sadi khmer bhaasha Khmr U+1780–U+17FF, U+19E0–U+19FF អaaកaa្aaសaaរaaខaa្aaមaaែaaរ
laao khmer 14veen sadi laao bhaashaaa, anya Laoo U+0E80–U+0EFF ອaaັaaກaaສaaອaaນaaລaaາaaວ
lepcha tibbati 18veen sadi lepcha bhaasha Lepc U+1C00–U+1C4F
linbu lepcha 18veen sadi linbu bhaasha Limb U+1900–U+194F
lontara praacheen kaavi 17veen sadi bugini bhaasha, anya; praay: lupt, keval karmakaand ke liye prayukt Bugi U+1A00–U+1A1F
malayalam granth 12veen sadi malayalam bhaasha Mlym U+0D00–U+0D7F മaaലaaയaaാaaളaaലaaിaaപaaി
udiya kaling 12veen sadi udiya bhaasha Orya U+0B00–U+0B7F ଓaaଡaa଼aaିaaୟaaା ଲaaିaaପaaି
rejang lipi praacheen kaavi 18veen sadi rejang bhaasha, praay: lupt Rjng U+A930–U+A95F
Saurashtra granth beesaveen sadi Saurashtra bhaasha, praay: lupt Saur U+A880–U+A8DF
sinhal granth 12veen sadi sinhal bhaasha Sinh U+0D80–U+0DFF ශaaුaaදaa්aaධ සaaිaaංaaහaaල
sundani lipi praacheen kaava 14veen sadi sundani bhaasha Sund U+1B80–U+1BBF
taai le taai lyoo bhaasha Tale U+1950–U+197F
nai taai lue taai thaam 1950aadi taai lyoo bhaasha Talu U+1980-U+19DF
tagbanva praacheen kaavi 14veen sadi palavan ki kai bhaashaaeain, lagbhag lupt Tagb U+1760–U+177F
tamil vatteluttu 8veen sadi tamil bhaasha Taml U+0B80–U+0BFF தaaமaaிaaழaa் அaaரaaிaaசaa்aaசaaுaaவaaடaaி
telugu 16veen sadi telugu bhaasha Telu U+0C01–U+0C6F తaaెaaలaaుaaగaaు లaaిaaపaaి
thai khmer 13veen sadi thai bhaasha Thai U+0E00–U+0E7F อaaัaaกaaษaaรaaไaaทaaย
tibbati siddham 8veen sadi tibbati bhaasha Tibt U+0F00–U+0FFF དaབaུa་aཅaནa་
taai viyet taai daam bhaasha Tavt N/A
Kashmir Kuno
gurumukhi
Landa
Kudhawadi
shaarada
Khojki
dogari
Kusan
Takri
Chameali
Tokharia
uttar braahmi
Siddham
'Phags-pa
Manipur
Tibet
Hangeul (hipotesis)
Lepcha
Gupta
devanaagari
Limbu
Modi
naagari
nandanaagari
gujaraati
Angga
Kaithi
Sylheti naagari
Assam
naagari Timur
Proto-Bengali
Bengali
Tirhuta
Bhujimol
Nepal
Prachalit nepal
Ranjana
tamil-braahmi
Soyombo
Vatteluttu
braahmi
Kolezhuthu
malayalam
Tulu
Sinhala
Dhives Akuru
Saurashtra
Lao
Khmer
Thai
Cham
Bali
Batak
Baybayin
pallav-
granth
Buhid
Hanunó'o
dakshini braahmi
Kawi
Jawa
Lampung
Lontara
Rejang
Sunda Kuno
Sunda Baku
Tagbanwa
Burma
Mon
Kalinga
Chakma
Oriya
Kadamba
Bhattiprolu
Kannada
Telugu
Tai Le
Tai Lue Baru
Ahom


inhein bhi dekhein

  • iski (ISCII) — bhaarateeya lipiyon ko pradarshit karne ke liye rachi gayi kootabandhan pranaali.
  • sarasvati lipi (indas script) - vishv ki praacheenatam lipi
  • lipyantaran (traansalitreshan)

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. http://www.lankalibrary.com/geo/dera1.html esayoo deraaniygal, shri lanka meinitihaas-poorv va aadyaaitihaasik basere
  2. telugu bhaasha va lipi ki praacheenata: http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/stories/2007122054820600.htm
  3. telugu bhaasha va saahitya, S.M.aar. adluri, chitr tee1e va tee1bi: http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/language/script/script1d.html
  4. keval praacheen likhit sinhal