braahman

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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vigrah
praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

HinduSwastika.svg

hindu maapan pranaali

braahman (vipr, dvij, dvijottam, bhoosur) yeh aaryon ki samaaj v‍aayavas‍aatha arthaat varn v‍aayavas‍aatha ka sarvochch varn hai. Bhaarat ke saamaajik badlaav ke itihaas mein jab bhaarateeya samaaj ko hin‍aadoo ke rup mein sambodhit kiya jaane laga tab braahman varn, jaati mein bhi pari‍avartit ho gaya. ab yeh braahman varn hindu samaaj ki ek jaati bhi hai. eetihaasik roop se aaryon ki varn v‍aayavas‍aatha mein chaar varn hote hain. braahman (aadhyaatmikta ke liye uttaradaayi), kshatriya (dharm rakshak), vaishya (vyaapaari) tatha shoodr (sevak, shramik samaaj).

yask muni ki nirukt ke anusaar - brahm jaanaati braahman: -- braahman vah hai jo brahm (antim satya, ishvar ya param gyaan) ko jaanta hai. at: braahman ka arth hai - "ishvar ka jnyaaata". kintu hindu samaaj mein eetihaasik sthiti yeh rahi hai ki paaramparik pujaari tatha pandit hi braahman hote hain.

yadyapi bhaarateeya janasankhya mein braahmanon ka pratishat kam hai, tathaapi dharm, sanskॄti, kala, shiksha, gyaan-vigyaan tatha udyam ke kshetr mein inka yogadaan aparimit hai.

anukram

itihaas

braahman samaaj ka itihaas praacheen Bhaarat ke vaidik dharm se aarambh hota hai. "manu-smॄti" ke anusaar aaryavart vaidik logon ki bhoomi hai. braahman vyavahaar ka mukhya srot ved hain. braahmanon ke sabhi sampradaaya vedon se prerana lete hain. paaramparik taur par yeh vishvaas hai ki ved apaurusheya (kisi maanav/devata ne naheen likhe) tatha anaadi hain, balki anaadi satya ka praakatya hai jinki vaidhata shaashvat hai. vedon ko shruti maana jaata hai (shravan hetu, jo maukhik parampara ka dyotak hai).

dhaarmik va saanskॄtik reetiyon evam vyavahaar mein vivdhataaon ke kaaran aur vibhinn vaidik vidyaalayon ke unke sanbandh ke chalte, braahman samaaj vibhinn upajaatiyon mein vibhaajit hai. sootr kaal mein, lagbhag 1000 E.poo se 200 E॰apoo॰, vaidik angeekaran ke aadhaar par, braahman vibhinn shaakhaaon mein batane lage. pratishthit vidvaanon ke netॄtv mein, ek hi ved ki vibhinn naamon ki pruthak-pruthak shaakhaaen banane lageen. in pratishthit rishiyon ki shikshaaon ko sootr kaha jaata hai. pratyek ved ka apna sootr hai. saamaajik, naitik tatha shaastraanukool niyamon vaale sootron ko dharm sootr kehte hain, aanushthaanik vaalon ko shraut sootr tatha ghareloo vidhishaastron ki vyaakhya karne vaalon ko gॄh sootr kaha jaata hai. sootr saamaanyat: padya ya mishrit gadya-padya mein likhe hue hain.

braahman shaastrajnyaon mein pramukh hain agnirs, apastambh, atri, bॄhaspati, baudhaayan, daksh, Gautam, vats,harit, kaatyaayan, likhit, manu, paaraashar, samavart, shankh, shattap, ooshaanas, vashishth, vishnu, vyaas, yajnyaavalkya tatha yam. ye ikkees rishi smॄtiyon ke rachayita the. smॄtiyon mein sabse praacheen hain apastambh, baudhaayan, Gautam tatha vashishthi.

braahman nirdhaaran - janm ya karm se

braahman ka nirdhaaran maata-pita ki jaati ke aadhaar par hi hone laga hai. skandapuraan mein shodashopachaar poojan ke antargat ashtam upachaar mein brahma dvaara naarad ko yajnyaopaveet ke aadhyaatmik arth mein bataaya gaya hai,

janmana jaayate shoodr: sanskaaraat dvij uchyate.
shaapaanugrahasaamarthyan tatha krodh: prasannata.

at: aadhyaatmik drushti se yajnyaopaveet ke bina janm se braahman bhi shudr ke samaan hi hota hai.

braahman ka vyavahaar

braahman

braahman maans sharaab ka sevan jo dharm ke viruddh ho vo kaam naheen karte hain. braahman sanaatan dharm ke niyamon ka paalan karte hain. jaise vedon ka aajnyaaapaalan, yeh vishvaas ki moksh tatha antim satya ki praapti ke anek maadhyam hain, yeh ki ishvar ek hai kintu unke gunagaan tatha poojan hetu anginat naam tatha svaroop hain jinka kaaran hai hamaare anubhav, sanskॄti tatha bhaashaaon mein vividhtaaen. braahman sarvejanaasukhino bhavantu (sabhi jan sukhi tatha samॄddh hon) evam vasudhaiv kutumbakam (saari vasudha ek parivaar hai) mein vishvaas rakhate hain. saamaanyat: braahman keval shaakaahaari hote hain (bangaali, udeeya tatha kuchh anya braahman tatha Kashmiri pandit iske apavaad hain).

dincharya

hindu braahman apni dhaaranaaon se adhik dharmaacharan ko mahatva dete hain. yeh dhaarmik panthon ki visheshata hai. dharmaacharan mein mukhyat: hai yagya karna. dincharya is prakaar hai - snaan, sandhyaavandanam, jap, upaasana, tatha agnihotr. antim do yagya ab keval kuchh hi parivaaron mein hote hain. brahmachaari agnihotr yagya ke sthaan par agnikaaryam karte hain. anya reetiyaan hain amaavasya tarpan tatha shraaddh.

dekhein : nitya karm tatha kaamya karm

sanskaar

mukhya lekh : sanskaar

braahman apne jeevanakaal mein solah pramukh sanskaar karte hain. janm se poorv garbhadhaaran, punsavan (garbh mein nar baalak ko ishvar ko samarpit karna), simntonanayan (garbhini stri ka kesh-mundan). baalyakaal mein jaatakarm (janmaanushthaan), naamakaran, nishkraman, annapraasan, choodakarn, karnavedh. baalak ke shikshan-kaal mein vidyaarambh, upanayan arthaat yajnyaopaveet, vedaarambh, keshaant athva godaan, tatha samavartanam ya snaan (shiksha-kaal ka ant). vayask hone par vivaah tatha mrutyu pashchaat antyeshti pramukh sanskaar hain.

sampradaaya

dakshin Bhaarat mein braahmanon ke teen sampradaaya hain - smart sampradaaya, shreevaishnav sampradaaya tatha maadhav sampradaaya.

braahmanon ki upajaatiyaan

braahmanon ko sampoorn bhaaratavarsh mein vibhinn upanaamon se jaana jaata hai, jaise poorvi uttar pradesh, pashchimi uttar pradesh, uttaraanchal, Delhi, Haryana va Rajasthan ke kuchh bhaagon mein (GOUR),vashishth tyaagi, avadh (madhya uttar pradesh) tatha Madhya Pradesh ke bundelakhand se nikle jijhautiya braahman,ram paal madhya pradesh mein kaheen kaheen vaishnav (bairaagi), baajapeyi, Bihar va Bengal mein bhoomihaar, Jammu Kashmir, Punjab va Haryana ke kuchh bhaagon mein mahiyaal, madhya pradesh va Rajasthan mein gaalav, Gujarat mein shreekhand,bhaatakhande anaavil, Maharashtra mein chitpaavan evam kaarve, Karnataka mein ayangar evam hegade, Kerala mein namboodareepaad, Tamil Nadu mein ayangar evam ayyar, Andhra pradesh mein niyogi evam Rao, udeesa mein das evam mishr aadi, Bihar mein maithil braahman aadi tatha Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar mein shaakadveepeeya (mag) [1] aadi.

braahmanon ki vartamaan sthiti

aadhunik Bhaarat ke nirmaan ke vibhinn kshetron jaise saahitya, vigyaan evam praudyaugiki, raajaneeti, sanskruti, paanditya, dharm mein braahmanon ka aparimit yogadaan hai. pramukh kraantikaariyon aur svatantrata senaaniyon me baal gangaadhar tilk, chandrashekhar aajaad ityaadi hain. lekhakon aur vidvaanon mein kaalidaas, rabeendranaath thaakur hain.

yeh bhi dekhein