bodhagaya

bodhagaya
nagar
बोधगया का महाबोधि मंदिर
bodhagaya ka mahaabodhi mandir
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Bihar
jila gaya
janasankhya 30,883 (2001 tak )

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 24°a41′a42″aN 84°a59′a28″aE / 24.695°aN 84.991°aE / 24.695; 84.991

Bihar ki rajdhani Patna ke dakshinpoorv mein lagbhag 100 kilometer door sthit bodhagaya gaya jile se sata ek chhota shahar hai. kehte hain bodhagaya mein bodhi ped ke neeche tapasya kar rahe Gautam buddh ko gyaan ki praapti hui thi. tabhi se yeh sthal bauddh dharm ke anuyaayiyon ke liye atyant mahatvapoorn hai. varsh 2002 mein yoonesko dvaara is shahar ko vishv viraasat sthal ghoshit kiya gaya.

anukram

itihaas

kareeb 500 i॰aapoo. mein Gautam buddh faalgu nadi ke tat par pahunche aur bodhi ped ke neeche tapasya karne baithe. teen din aur raat ke tapasya ke baad unhein gyaan ki praapti hui, jiske baad se ve buddh ke naam se jaane gaye. iske baad unhon ne vahaan 7 hafte alag alag jagahon par dhyaan karte hue bitaaya aur fir saaranaath ja kar dharm ka prachaar shuroo kiya. buddh ke anuyaayion ne baad mein us jagah par jaana shuroo kiya jahaan buddh ne vaishaakh maheene mein purnima ke din gyaan ki prapti ki thi. dheere dheere ye jagah bodhgaya ke naam se jaana gaya aur ye din buddh purnima ke naam se jaana gaya.

lagbhag 528 i॰ poo. ke vaishaakh (April-May) maheene mein kapilvas‍aatu ke Rajkumar Gautam ne sat‍aaya ki khoj mein ghar t‍aayaag diya. Gautam gyaan ki khoj mein niranjana nadi ke tat par base ek chhote se gaanv uruvela aa gaye. vah isi gaanv mein ek peepal ke ped ke neeche dh‍aayaan saadhana karne lage. ek din vah dh‍aayaan mein leen the ki gaanv ki hi ek ladki sujaata unke liye ek katora kheer tatha shahad lekar I. is bhojan ko karne ke baad Gautam pun: dh‍aayaan mein leen ho gaye. iske kuchh dinon baad hi unke ajnyaaan ka baadal chhat gaya aur un‍aahein gyaan ki praap‍ait hui. ab vah Rajkumar siddhaarth ya tapas‍aavi Gautam naheen the balki buddh the. buddh jise saari duniya ko gyaan pradaan karna tha. gyaan praap‍ait ke baad ve agale saat sap‍aataah tak uruvela ke najadeek hi rahe aur chintan manan kiya. iske baad buddh Varanasi ke nikat saaranaath gaye jahaan un‍aahonne apne gyaan praap‍ait ki ghoshana ki. buddh kuchh maheene baad uruvela laut gaye. yahaan unke paanch mitr apne anuyaayiyon ke saath unase milne aae aur unase Dixit hone ki praarthana ki. in logon ko Dixit karne ke baad buddh raajageer chale gaye. iske buddh ke uruvela vaapas lautane ka koi pramaan naheen milta hai. doosari shataab‍aadi isa poorv ke baad uruvela ka naam itihaas ke pan‍aanon mein kho jaata hai. iske baad yeh gaanv sam‍aabodhi, vaijarasana ya mahaabodhi naamon se jaana jaane laga. bodhagaya shab‍aad ka ul‍aalekh 18 veen shataab‍aadi se milne lagta hai.

vish‍aavaas kiya jaata hai ki mahaabodhi mandir mein s‍aathaapit buddh ki moortti sambandh s‍aavayan buddh se hai. kaha jaata hai ki jab is mandir ka nirmaan kiya ja raha tha to ismein buddh ki ek moortti s‍aathaapit karne ka bhi nirnaya liya gaya tha. lekin lambe samay tak kisi aise shil‍aapakaar ko khoja naheen ja saka jo buddh ki aakarshak moortti bana sake. sahasa ek din ek v‍aayak‍ait aaya aur use moortti banaane ki ich‍aachha jaahir ki. lekin iske liye usane kuchh sharttein bhi rakheen. usaki shartt thi ki use pat‍aathar ka ek s‍aatam‍aabh tatha ek laim‍aap diya jaae. usaki ek aur shartt yeh bhi thi iske liye use chh: maheene ka samay diya jaae tatha samay se pehle koi mandir ka darvaaja na khole. sabhi sharttein maan li gayi lekin v‍aayagr gaanvavaasiyon ne tay samay se chaar din pehle hi mandir ke darvaaje ko khol diya. mandir ke andar ek bahut hi sundar moortti thi jiska har ang aakarshak tha sivaaya chhaati ke. moortti ka chhaati wala bhaag abhi poorn rup se taraasha naheen gaya tha. kuchh samay baad ek bauddh bhikshu mandir ke andar rahane laga. ek baar buddh uske sapane mein aae aur bole ki un‍aahonne hi moortti ka nirmaan kiya tha. buddh ki yeh moortti bauddh jagat mein sarvaadhik pratish‍aatha praap‍aat moortti hai. naalan‍aada aur vikramashila ke mandiron mein bhi isi moortti ki pratikruti ko s‍aathaapit kiya gaya hai.

mahaabodhi mandir

Bihar mein ise mandiron ke shahar ke naam se jaana jaata hai. is gaanv ke logon ki kis‍aamat us din badal gayi jis din ek Rajkumar ne sat‍aaya ki khoj ke liye apne raajasihaasan ko thukara diya. buddh ke gyaan ki yeh bhoomi aaj bauddhon ke sabse bade teerthas‍aathal ke rup mein prasiddh hai. aaj vish‍aav ke har dharm ke log yahaan ghoomane aate hain. pakshiyon ki chahachahaat ke beech buddham-sharanam-gach‍aachhaami ki hal‍aki dh‍aavani anokhi shaanti pradaan karti hai. yahaan ka sabse prasiddh mandir mahaabodhi mandir' hai. vibhin‍aan dharm tatha sam‍aapradaaya ke v‍aayak‍ait is mandir mein aadh‍aayaatmik shaanti ki talaash mein aate hain. is mandir ko yoones‍ako ne 2002 mein varl‍aad heritej site ghoshit kiya tha. buddh ke gyaan prapti ke 250 saal baad raaja ashok bodhgaya gaye. maana jaata hai ki unhonne mahaabodhi mandir ka nirmaan karaaya. kuchh itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ki pahli shataabdi mein is mandir ka nirmaan karaaya gaya ya uski marammat karaai gayi.

Hindustan mein bauddh dharm ke patan ke saath saath is mandir ko log bhool gaye the aur ye mandir dhool aur mitti mane dab gaya tha. 19veen sadi mein Sir Alexander Cunningham ne is mandir ki marammat karaai. 1883 mein unhon ne is jagah ki khudaai ki aur kaafi marammat ke baad bodhagaya ko apne puraane shaanadaar avastha mein laaya gaya.

बोधगया की एक सड़क का दृश्य

mukhya aakarshan

bodh-gaya ghoomane ke liye do din ka samay paryaap‍aat hai. agar aap ek raat vahaan rookate hain to ek din ka samay bhi praryaap‍aat hai. bodh-gaya ke paas hi ek shahar hai gaya. yahaan bhi kuchh pavitra mandir hain jise jarur dekhna chaahiye. in donon gaya ko dekhne ke liye kam se kam ek-ek din ka samay dena chaahiye. ek atirik‍aat ek din naalan‍aada aur raajageer ko dekhne ke liye rakhana chaahiye. bodhagaya ghoomane ka sabse badhiya samay buddh jayanti (April-May) hai jise Rajkumar siddhaarth ke janmadivs ke rup mein manaaya jaata hai. is samay yahaan hotelon mein kamara milna kaafi mushkil hota hai. is dauraan mahaabodhi mandir ko hajaaron kaindilon ki sahaayata se sajaaya jaata hai. yeh drush‍aaya dekhna apne aap mein anokha anubhav hota hai. is drush‍aaya ki yaadein aapke jehan mein hamesha basi rahati hai. bodhagaya mein hi magadh vish‍aavavidyaalaya ka kainpas hai. iske najadeek ek sainik chhaavani hai tatha kareeb saat kilometer door antaraashtreeya airport hai jahaaain se Thailand, Sri Lanka barma ityaadi ke liye niyamit saaptaahik udaanein upalabdh hain.

mahaabodhi-mahaaveer-mandir samooh

mahaabodhi mandir

yeh mandir mukh‍aaya mandir ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. is mandir ki banaavat samraat ashok dvaara s‍aathaapit s‍aatoop ke samaan he. is mandir mein buddh ki ek bahut badi moortti s‍aathaapit hai. yeh moortti padamaasan ki mudra mein hai. yahaan yeh anushruti prachilt hai ki yeh moortti usi jagah s‍aathaapit hai jahaan buddh ko gyaan nirvaan (gyaan) praap‍aat hua tha. mandir ke chaaron or pat‍aathar ki nak‍aakaasheedaar reling bani hui hai. ye reling hi bodhagaya mein praap‍aat sabse puraana avashesh hai. is mandir parisar ke dakshin-poorv disha mein praa‍aakrutik drush‍aayon se samruddh ek park hai jahaan bauddh bhikshu dh‍aayaan saadhana karte hain. aam log is park mein mandir prashaasan ki anumati lekar hi pravesh kar sakte hain.

is mandir parisar mein un saat s‍aathaanon ko bhi chinhit kiya gaya hai jahaan buddh ne gyaan praap‍ait ke baad saat sap‍aataah v‍aayateet kiya tha. jaatak kathaaon mein ul‍aalekhit bodhi vruksh bhi yahaan hai. yeh ek vishaal peepal ka vruksh hai jo mukh‍aaya mandir ke peechhe sthit hai. kaha jaata buddh ko isi vruksh ke neeche gyaan praap‍aat hua tha. vartamaan mein jo bodhi vruksh vah us bodhi vruksh ki paanchaveen peedhi hai. mandir samooh mein subah ke samay ghan‍aaton ki aavaaj man ko ek ajeeb si shaanti pradaan karti hai.

mukh‍aaya mandir ke peechhe buddh ki laal balue pat‍aathar ki 7 feet oonchi ek moortti hai. yeh moortti vijraasan mudra mein hai. is moortti ke chaaron or vibhin‍aan rangon ke pataake lage hue hain jo is moortti ko ek vishish‍aat aakarshan pradaan karte hain. kaha jaata hai ki teesari shataab‍aadi isa poorv mein isi s‍aathaan par samraat ashok ne heeron se bana raajasihaansan lagavaaya tha aur ise pruth‍aavi ka naabhi kendra kaha tha. is moortti ki aage bhoore balue pat‍aathar par buddh ke vishaal padachin‍aah bane hue hain. buddh ke in padachin‍aahon ko dharmachakr prarvatan ka prateek maana jaata hai.

buddh ne gyaan praap‍ait ke baad doosra sap‍aataah isi bodhi vruksh ke aage khada avas‍aatha mein bitaaya tha. yahaan par buddh ki is avas‍aatha mein ek moortti bani hui hai. is moortti ko animesh lochan kaha jaata hai. mukh‍aaya mandir ke uttar poorv mein animesh lochan chait‍aaya bana hua hai.

mukh‍aaya mandir ka uttari bhaag chankaamaana naam se jaana jaata hai. isi s‍aathaan par buddh ne gyaan praap‍ait ke baad teesara sap‍aataah v‍aayateet kiya tha. ab yahaan par kaale pat‍aathar ka kamal ka fool bana hua hai jo buddh ka prateek maana jaata hai.

mahaabodhi mandir ke uttar pash‍aichm bhaag mein ek chhataviheen bhag‍aanaavashesh hai jo rat‍aanaaghaara ke naam se jaana jaata hai. isi s‍aathaan par buddh ne gyaan praap‍ait ke baad chautha sap‍aataah v‍aayateet kiya tha. dan‍aatakathaaon ke anusaar buddh yahaan gahan dh‍aayaan mein leen the ki unke shareer se prakaash ki ek kiran nikli. prakaash ki in‍aaheen rangon ka upayog vibhin‍aan deshon dvaara yahaan lage apne pataake mein kiya hai.

maana jaata hai ki buddh ne mukh‍aaya mandir ke uttari darvaaje se thodi door par sthit ajapaala-nigrodha vruksh ke neeche gyaan praap‍ait ke baad paanchava sap‍aataah v‍aaya‍aateet kiya tha. buddh ne chhatha sap‍aataah mahaabodhi mandir ke daayeen or sthit moochaalinda ksheel ke najadeek v‍aayateet kiya tha. yeh ksheel chaaron taraf se vrukshon se ghira hua hai. is ksheel ke madh‍aaya mein buddh ki moortti s‍aathaapit hai. is moortti mein ek vishaal saanp buddh ki raksha kar raha hai. is moortti ke sambandh mein ek dantakatha prachalit hai. is katha ke anusaar buddh praarthana mein itne tal‍aaleen the ki un‍aahein aandhi aane ka dh‍aayaan naheen raha. buddh jab moosalaadhaar baarish mein fans gaye to saanpon ka raaja moochaalinda apne nivaas se baahar aaya aur buddh ki raksha ki.

is mandir parisar ke dakshin-poorv mein raajayaatana vru‍aaksh hai. buddh ne gyaan praap‍ait ke baad apna saantava sap‍aataah isi vruksh ke neeche v‍aayateet kiya tha. yaheen buddh do barmi (barma ka nivaasi) v‍aayaa‍aapaariyon se mile the. in v‍aayaapaariyon ne buddh se aashray ki praarthana ki. in praarthana ke rup mein buddhaman sharanam gach‍aachhaami (main apne ko Bhagwan buddh ko saunpata hoo) ka uch‍aachaaran kiya. isi ke baad se yeh praarthana prasiddh ho gayi.

tib‍aabatiyn math

(mahaabodhi mandir ke pash‍aichm mein paanch minute ki paidal doori par sthit) joki bodhagaya ka sabse bada aur puraana math hai 1934 i॰ mein banaaya gaya tha. barmi vihaar (gaya-bodhagaya road par niranjana nadi ke tat par sthit) 1936 i॰ mein bana tha. is vihaar mein do praarthana kaksh hai. iske alaava ismein buddh ki ek vishaal pratima bhi hai. isse sata hua hi thai math hai (mahaabodhi mandir parisar se 1kilomeetar pash‍aichm mein sthit). is math ke chhat ki sone se kalai ki gayi hai. is kaaran ise gol‍aaden math kaha jaata hai. is math ki s‍aathaapana Thailand ke raajaparivaar ne bauddh ki s‍aathaapana ke 2500 varsh poora hone ke upalaksh‍aaya mein kiya tha. indosan-nip‍aapan-Japani mandir (mahaabodhi mandir parisar se 11.5 kilometer dakshin-pash‍aichm mein sthit) ka nirmaan 1972-73 mein hua tha. is mandir ka nirmaan lakdi ke bane praacheen Japani mandiron ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai. is mandir mein buddh ke jeevan mein ghati mahat‍aavapoorn ghatnaaon ko chitr ke maadh‍aayam se darshaaya gaya hai. cheeni mandir (mahaabodhi mandir parisar ke pash‍aichm mein paanch minute ki paidal doori par sthit) ka nirmaan 1945 i॰ mein hua tha. is mandir mein sone ki bani buddh ki ek pratima s‍aathaapit hai. is mandir ka punarnirmaan 1997 i॰ kiya gaya tha. Japani mandir ke uttar mein bhootaani math sthit hai. is math ki deevaaron par nak‍aakaashi ka behatareen kaam kiya gaya hai. yahaan sabse naya bana mandir viytanaami mandir hai. yeh mandir mahaabodhi mandir ke uttar mein 5 minute ki paidal doori par sthit hai. is mandir ka nirmaan 2002 i॰ mein kiya gaya hai. is mandir mein buddh ke shaanti ke avataar avalokitesh‍aavar ki moortti s‍aathaapit hai.

in mathon aur mandiron ke alaava ke kuchh aur s‍aamaarak bhi yahaan dekhne laayak hai. in‍aaheen mein se ek hai Bhaarat ki sabse ooncheen buddh moortti jo ki 6 feet oonche kamal ke fool par s‍aathaapit hai. yeh poori pratima ek 10 feet oonche aadhaar par bani hui hai. s‍aathaaneeya log is moortti ko 80 feet ooncha maanate hain.

aaspaas ke darshaneeya s‍aathal

raajageer

bodhagaya aane vaalon ko raajageer bhi jarur ghoomana chaahiye. yahaan ka vish‍aav shaanti s‍aatoop dekhne mein kaafi aakarshak hai. yeh s‍aatoop greedharakoot pahaadi par bana hua hai. is par jaane ke liye ropave bana hua. iska shul‍aak 25 Ru. hai. ise aap subah 8 baje se dopahar 12.50 baje tak dekh sakte hain. iske baad ise dopahar 2 baje se shaam 5 baje tak dekha ja sakta hai.

shaanti s‍aatoop ke nikat hi venu van hai. kaha jaata hai ki buddh ek baar yahaan aae the.

raajageer mein hi prasaddhi sap‍aataparni gufa hai jahaan buddh ke nirvaan ke baad pehla bauddh sam‍aamelan ka aayojan kiya gaya tha. yeh gufa raajageer bas padaav se dakshin mein garm jal ke kund se 1000 seedhiyon ki chadhaai par hai. bas padaav se yahaan tak jaane ka ek maatr saadhan ghodaagaadi hai jise yahaan tamatam kaha jaata hai. tamatam se aadhe din ghoomane ka shul‍aak 100 Ru. se lekar 300 Ru. tak hai. in sabke alaava raajageer me jaraasandh ka akhaada, s‍aavarnabhandaar (donon s‍aathal mahaabhaarat kaal se sambandhit hai) tatha viraayatan bhi ghoomane laayak jagah hai. ghoomane ka sabse ach‍aachha samay: thandhe ke mausam mein

naalan‍aada yeh s‍aathaan raajageer se 13 kilometer ki doori par sthit hai. praacheen kaal mein yahaan vish‍aav prasiddh naalan‍aada vish‍aavavidyaalaya s‍aathaapit tha. ab is vish‍aavavidyaalaya ke avashesh hi dikhaai dete hain. lekin haal mein hi Bihar sarkaar dvaara yahaan antararaash‍aatreeya vish‍aav vidyaalaya s‍aathaapit karne ki ghoshana ki gayi hai jiska kaam pragati par hai. yahaan ek sangrahaalaya bhi hai. isi sangrahaalaya mein yahaan se khudaai mein praap‍aat vas‍aatuon ko rakha gaya hai.

naalan‍aada se 5 kilometer ki doori par prasiddh jain teerthas‍aathal paavaapuri sthit hai. yeh s‍aathal Bhagwan mahaaveer se sambandhit hai. yahaan mahaaveer ek bhav‍aaya mandir hai. naalan‍aada-raajageer aane par ise jarur ghoomana chaahiye.

naalan‍aada se hi sata shahar Bihar shareef hai. madh‍aayakaal mein iska naam odan‍aatapuri tha. vartamaan mein yeh s‍aathaan muslim teerthas‍aathal ke rup mein prasiddh hai. yahaan muslimon ka ek bhav‍aaya masjid badi dargaah hai. badi dargaah ke najadeek lagne wala roshani mela muslim jagat mein kaafi prasiddh hai. Bihar shareef ghoomane aane vaale ko maneeraam ka akhaada bhi avash‍aaya ghoomana chaahiye. s‍aathaaneeya logon ka maanana hai agar yahaan sach‍aache dil se koi man‍aanat maangi jaae to vah jarur poori hoti hai.

aavaagaman

gaya, raajageer, naalan‍aada, paavaapuri tatha Bihar shareef jaane ke liye sabse ach‍aachha saadhan train hai. in s‍aathaanon ko ghoomaane ke liye bhaarateeya railway dvaara ek vishesh train bauddh parikrama chalaai jaati hai. is train ke alaave kai an‍aaya train jaise shramajeevi ek‍aasapres, Patna raajageer intaraseeti ek‍aasapres tatha Patna raajageer paseinjar train bhi in s‍aathaanon ka jaati hai. iske alaave sadak maarg dvaara bhi yahaan jaaya ja sakta hai.

havaai maarg

najadeeki havaai adda gaya (07 kilometer/ 20 minute). Indian, gaya se Calcutta aur bainkaak ke saap‍aataahik udaan sanchaalit karti hai. taik‍aasi shul‍aak: 200 se 250 Ru. ke lagbhag.

rel maarg

najadeeki railway s‍aateshan gaya jank‍aashan. gaya jank‍aashan se bodh gaya jaane ke liye taik‍aasi (shul‍aak 200 se 300 Ru.) tatha auto rik‍aasha (shul‍aak 100 se 150 Ru.) mil jaata hai.

sadak maarg

gaya, Patna, naalan‍aada, raajageer, Varanasi tatha Calcutta se bodh gaya ke liye basein chalti hai.