black hol (kaala chhidr)

is anuchhed ko vikipeediya lekh Black hole ke is sanskaran se anuvaadit kiya gaya hai.

bade maiglenik baadal ke saamane mein ek black hol ka banaavati drushya. black hol schvaarjschild trijya aur prekshak doori ke beech ka anupaat 1:9 hai. aainstaain chhalla naamak gurutveeya leinsing prabhaav ullekhaneeya hai, jo baadal ke do chamakeele aur bade parantu ati vikrut pratibinbon ka nirmaan karta hai, apne koneeya aakaar ki tulana mein.

saamaanya saapekshata (jainairal railaitiviti) mein, ek black hol aisi khagoleeya vastu hoti hai jiska gurutvaakarshan kshetr itna shaktishaali hota hai ki prakaash sahit kuchh bhi iske khinchaav se bach naheen sakta hai. black hol mein ek-tarafi satah hoti hai jise ghatna kshitij kaha jaata hai, jismein vastuen gir to sakti hain parantu baahar kuchh bhi naheen aa sakta. ise "black (kaala)" isliye kaha jaata hai kyonki yeh apne oopar padne vaale saare prakaash ko avashoshit kar leta hai aur kuchh bhi riflekt (pratibinbit) naheen karta, tharmodaainaamiks (ooshmapravaigiki) mein theek ek aadarsh black-baudi ki tarah. black hol ka kvaantam vishleshan yeh darshaata hai ki unamein taapamaan aur hauking vikirn hota hai.

apne adrushya bheetari bhaag ke baavajood, ek black hol anya padaarthon ke saath ant:-kriya ke maadhyam se apni upasthiti prakat kar sakta hai. ek black hol ka pata taaron ke us samooh ki gati par najar rakh kar lagaaya ja sakta hai jo antariksh ke khaali dikhaai dene vaale ek hisse ka chakkar lagaate hain. vaikalpik roop se, ek saathi taare se aap ek apekshaakrut chhote black hol mein gas ko girte hue dekh sakte hain. yeh gas sarpil aakaar mein andar ki taraf aati hai, bahut uchch taapamaan tak garm ho kar badi maatra mein vikirn chhodti hai jiska pata pruthvi par sthit ya pruthvi ki kaksha mein ghoomti doorabeenon se lagaaya ja sakta hai. is tarah ke avalokanon ke parinaam svaroop yeh vaigyaanik sarv-sammati ubhar kar saamane I hai ki, yadi prakruti ki hamaari samajh poornataya galat saabit na ho jaaye to, hamaare brahmaand mein black hol ka astitv maujood hai.

saiddhaantik roop se, koi bhi maatra mein tattv (matter) ek black hol ban sakta hai yadi vah itni jagah ke bheetar sankuchit ho jaaya jiski trijya apni samatulya schvaarjschild trijya ke baraabar ho. iske anusaar hamaare soorya ka dravyamaan 3 ki. mi. ki trijya tatha dharati ka 9 mi.mi. ke andar hone par yeh black hol mein parivrtit ho sakte hain. haalaanki vyaavahaarik roop mein ilektraun aur nyootraun aapajaatya dabaav ke vipreet na to pruthvi aur na hi sooraj mein aavashyak dravyamaan hai aur isliye na hi aavashyak gurutvaakarshan bal hai. in dabaavon se ubarakar aur adhik sankuchit hone mein saksham hone ke liye ek taare ke liye aavashyak nyoonatam dravyamaan tolaman - oppenheimer - volkoff dvaara prastaavit had hai, jo lagbhag teen saur dravyamaan hai.

anukram

parichay aur shabdaavali

Schwarzschild black hole
black hol ke chaaron or ek prakaar ka gurutveeya lains hota hai jiske kaaran yadi koi taara mandal uske peechhe se gujrata hai to usaki chhavi vikrut ho jaati hai

ek black hol ko aksar ek aisi vastu roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai jiska palaayan veg (ऍskep vilausiti) prakaash ki gati se adhik ho. yeh tasveer gunaatmak roop se galat hai lekin black hol ki trijya ke parimaan ke kram ko samajhne ka ek tareeka pradaan karti hai.

eskep velositi vah nyoonatam gati hai jo ek vastu mein honi chaahiye taaki vah vastu rukane se pehle kisi guruttvaakarshan srot ke orbit se bachakar nikal jaaye. pruthvi par eskep velositi 11.2 kimi/second ke baraabar hai, at: vastu chaahe koi bhi ho, ek goli ya ek besabaul, ise pruthvi ki satah par vaapas girne se bachane ke liye kam se kam 11.2 kimi/second ki raftaar se chalana hoga. nyootoniyn yaantriki mein eskep velositi ki ganana hetu, maaniye ki ek bhaari vastu hai jiska dravyamaan M mool par kendrit hai. ek dravyamaan waali doosari vastu mool se ki doori par gati se shuroo hoti hai, infiniti (anantata) ki taraf bachakar nikalne ki koshish karti hai, iske paas theek utani kaainetik oorja honi chaahiye taaki vah nakaaraatmak gurutvaakarshan ki sambhaavit oorja se paar pa sake, baad mein kuchh bhi shesh na rahe:

is prakaar, yeh jaise jaise ke kareeb aati jaati hai vaise vaise iski kaainetik oorja kam hoti jaati hai, antat: yeh bina kisi gati ke anantata par pahuainch jaati hai.

yeh formula kritikl eskep velositi ko aur ke sandarbh mein darshaata hai. lekin yeh formula yeh bhi kehta hai ki aur ki pratyek velyoo ke liye, ki ek kritikl velyoo hoti hai taaki gati wala ek kan bhaagane maatr mein safal rahe:

jab veg prakaash ki gati ke baraabar ho, yeh ek kaalpanik nyootoniyn Dirk star ki trijya pradaan karta hai, ek nyootoniyn shareer jahaaain se prakaash ki gati se chalne wala koi kan bach naheen sakta hai. ek black hol ki trijya ki velyoo ke liye sarvaadhik prayukt chalan mein, ghatna kshitij ki trijya is nyootoniyn velyoo ke baraabar hoti hai.

saamaanya saapekshata mein, antariksh-samay ki vakrit prakruti aur vibhinn nirdeshaankon ke chayan ki vajah se r nirdeshaank ko paribhaashit karna saral naheen hai. is parinaam ke satya hone ke liye, r ki velyoo ko is prakaar paribhaashit karna chaahiye taaki vakrit antariksh samay mein r trijya ek sfiyr ke A satahi kshetr ko abhi bhi is formula dvaara prakat kiya ja sake r ki is paribhaasha se koi arth tabhi niklata hai jab gurutvaakarshan kshetr sferikli samamit ho, taaki vahaan ek ke oopar ek kai siyaar hon jinpar ekasamaan gurutvaakarshan kshetr ho.

kisi vastu ke gurutvaakarshan kshetr se bach nikalne ke liye jaroori velositi (vastu ki eskep velositi) uske ghanatv par nirbhar karti hai; yeh hai, uske dravyamaan aur maatra ka anupaat. ek black hol tab banta hai jab koi vastu itni ghani ho jaaye ki kisi khaas doori tak prakaash bhi usase bachakar na jaane paaye, kyonki prakaash ki gati black hol ki eskep velositi se kam hogi. nyootoniyn gurutvaakarshan ke vipreet, saamaanya saapekshata mein, black hol se door jaata hua prakaash dheema naheen padta hai aur vaapis naheen mudta hai. schvaarjaschild trijya abhi bhi vah antim doori hai jahaaain se prakaash anantata ke liye bach sakta hai, lekin schvaarjaschild trijya se shuroo hokar baahar nikalne wala prakaash vaapas naheen aata hai, vah baahar hi rahata hai. schvaarjaschild trijya andar, pratyek vastu andar ki taraf gati karti hai, kisi prakaar kendra mein kuchale jaane hetu.

saamaanya saapekshata mein, black hol ka dravyamaan kisi gurutveeya apoorvata) par kendrit rah sakta hai, yeh ek bindu, ek chhalla, ek prakaash kiran, ya ek sfiyr ho sakta hai; vartamaan mein iske vishay mein theek theek jaankaari upalabdh naheen hai. is singyulereeti ke aaspaas ek golaakaar seema hoti hai jise ghatna kshitij kaha jaata hai. yeh ghatna kshitij ko 'vaapas lautane ka sthaan' hota hai, ek seema jiske pare saare padaarth aur vikirn bheetar singyulereeti ki taraf kheenche chale aate hain. kendrasth is singyulereeti aur ghatna kshitij ke beech ki doori black hol ka aakaar hoti hai aur yeh ikaai mein dravyamaan ke dugane ke baraabar hoti hai jahaaain G aur c baraabar 1 hain.

soorya ke baraabar dravyamaan vaale black hol ki trijya lagbhag 3 kimi hoti hai. isse kai guni adhik dooriyon ke liye, black hol ki guruttvaakarshan shakti samaan dravyamaan vaale kisi bhi anya shareer ki guruttvaakarshan shakti ke theek baraabar hoti hai, bilkul soorya ke samaan. isliye yadi soorya ko samaan dravyamaan vaale ek black hol ke parivrtit kar diya jaaye, grahon ki kakshaaen aparivrtit raheingi.

kai prakaar ke black hol hain, jo unke vishisht aakaar dvaara pahachaane jaate hain. jab ve ek taara ke gurutvaakarshan patan ke kaaran bante hain, unhein taarakeeya black hol kaha jaata hai. aakaashagangaaon ke kendra mein banane vaale black holon ke dravyamaan saur dravyamaan ke kai arab guna ho sakte hain, unhein ati bheemakaaya black hol kaha jaata hai kyonki ve ati vishaal hote hain. in donon paimaanon ke beech mein kuchh madhyavarti black hol bhi hote hain jinke dravyamaan saur dravyamaan ke kai hajaar gune tak hote hain. bahut kam dravyamaan vaale black hol ka, jinke baare mein aisa maana jaata hai ki unka nirmaan brahmaand ke shuruaati itihaas mein big bang ke dauraan hua hoga, ab bhi astitv bhi ho sakte hain aur unhein primauradiyl (praacheen) black hol kaha jaata hai. vartamaan mein unka astitv abhi nishchit naheen hai.

pratyaksh taur par ek black hol ko dekh paana sambhav naheen hai. haalaaainki, aaspaas ke paryaavaran par uske guruttveeya prabhaav dvaara usaki upasthiti ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai, khaas kar maaikrokaasaar aur sakreeya gailektik naabhikon dvaara, jahaaain paas ke black hol mein girne vaale padaarth ati garam ho jaate hain aur ex-re vikirn ki badi maatra chhodte hain. yeh prekshan vidhi khagolavidon ko unke astitv ka pata lagaane mein saksham banaati hai. black hol ekamaatr aise padaarth hain jo in paimaanon par khare utarate hain aur saamaanya saapekshata ke dhaanche ke anuroop hote hain.

itihaas

ek aise bhaari shareer ki avadhaarana jisse ki prakaash bhi bachane se asamarth ho ko, bhoovijnyaaani John michel dvaara 1783 mein henari kaaveindish ko likhe gaye ek patra mein prakat kiya gaya tha aur royal society dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya tha:

If the semi-diameter of a sphere of the same density as the Sun were to exceed that of the Sun in the proportion of 500 to 1, a body falling from an infinite height towards it would have acquired at its surface greater velocity than that of light, and consequently supposing light to be attracted by the same force in proportion to its vis inertiae, with other bodies, all light emitted from such a body would be made to return towards it by its own proper gravity.
—John Michell[1]

1796 mein, ganitjnya piyerre-Simon laaplaas ne apni kitaab eksposishn doo sistem doo monde ke pehle aur doosare sanskaran mein isi vichaar ko badhaava diya tha (ise baad ke sanskaranon mein se hata diya gaya).[2][3] unneesaveen sadi mein in "Dirk stars" par dhyaan naheen diya gaya tha, kyonki tab aisa maana jaata tha ki prakaash drabyamaan rahit tarang hai at: gurutv ke prabhaav se mukt hai. aadhunik black hol avadhaarana ke vipreet, aisa maana jaata tha ki kshitij ke peechhe ki vastu ka patan naheen ho sakta hai.

1915 mein, albart aainsteen ne apne saamaanya saapekshata ke siddhaant ko viksit kiya, ve pehle hi yeh siddh kar chuke the ki gurutvaakarshan prakaash ki gati par vaastav mein prabhaav daalata hai. kuchh maheene baad, kaarl schvaarjaschild ne ek bindu drabyamaan aur ek golaakaar dravyamaan ke gurutvaakarshan kshetr ka samaadhaan diya,[4] yeh dikhaate hue ki ek black hol ka astitv siddhaantat: sambhav hai. schvaarjaschild trijya ko ab gair-chakrit black hol ke ghatna kshitij ki trijya ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, lekin is tathya ko us samay naheen samjha ja saka tha, udaaharan ke liye schvaarjaschild khud ise bhautik naheen maanate the. johaanis droste nein, heindrik loreintj ke ek chhaatr, svatantr roop se bindu dravyamaan par schvaarjaschild ke kuchh maheenon ke baad aisa hi samaadhaan diya aur iske gunon ke baare mein bade paimaane par aur adhik likha.

1930 mein, khagolavid subramanyan chandrashekhar nein saamaanya saapekshata ka upayog karte hue yeh ganana ki ki ilektraun-dijnaret padaarth vaale ek gair-chakrit shareer ka saur dravyamaan yadi 1.44 (chandrashekhar seema) se adhik hua to usaka patan ho jaayega. unke tark ka aarthar edingtan dvaara virodh kiya gaya tha, jinka vishvaas tha ki koi vastu nishchit roop se is patan ko rokegi. edingtan aanshik roop se sahi the: chandrashekhar seema se thoda adhik drabyamaan wala safed bauna sitaara patan ke baad nyootraun taare mein parivrtit ho jaayega. lekin 1939 mein, Robert oppenheimer aur unke sahayogiyon ne bhavishyavaani ki ki chandrashekhar dvaara diye gaye kaaranon ki vajah se, lagbhag teen se adhik saur drabyamaan (tolaman-oppenheimer-volkoff seema) vaale sitaara ka patan ek black hol ke roop mein ho jaayega.[5]

oppenheimer aur unke sah lekhakon ne shvaarjschaaild nirdeshaank pranaali ka (1939 mein upalabdh ekamaatr nirdeshaank) upayog kiya, jisne shvaarjschaaild trijya par ganiteeya vishishtata ko utpaadit kiya, doosare shabdon mein, is sameekaran mein istamaal kiye gaye kuchh ghatak shvaarjschaaild trijya par anant ho jaate the. iska arth yeh nikla gaya ki schvaarjaschild trijya ek "bulabule" ki seema thi jismein samay "ruk" jaata tha. yeh baahar se dekhne vaalon ke liye ek vaidh bindu hai, lekin andar girne vaalon ke liye naheen.

is visheshata ke kaaran, patan ho chuke taaron ko kuchh samay ke liye "frojen stars (jame hue taare)"[tathya vaanchhit] ke naam se jaana gaya, kyonki ek baahari paryavekshak ko taare ki satah us samay mein jami hui dikhaai dega jis pal mein taare ka patan use schvaarjaschild trijya ke andar le ja raha hoga. yeh aadhunik black holon ka ek gyaat lakshan hai, lekin is baat par bal diya jaana chaahiye ki jame hue taare ki satah ka prakaash bahut jaldi redashifted ho jaata hai aur black hol ko bahut jaldi kaale rang ka bana deta hai. kai bhautikvid is vichaar ko sveekaar naheen kar pa rahe the ki schvaarjaschild trijya ke bheetar samay ruk jaata hai aur 20 varshon tak is bishya par logon ki roochi naheen rahi thi.

1958 mein, David finkeistein ne edingtan-finkelstein nirdeshaank prastut karte hue ghatna kshitij ki avadhaarana pesh ki, jisne unhein yeh saabit karne mein saksham kiya ki schvaarjaschild satah r= 2 m ek vishishtata naheen hai balki yeh ek aadarsh ekaladisha jhilli ke roop mein kaarya karta hai: kaaranaatmak prabhaav ise ek hi disha mein paar kar sakte hain.[6] ismein aur openheemar ke parinaamon ko koi khaas virodhaabhaas naheen tha, balki isne ek andar girte hue paryavekshak ke drushtikon ko shaamil karke iska vistaar hi kiya. finkelsteen samet, abhi tak ke saare siddhaant keval gair-chakrit black holon ko kavar karte the.

1963 mein, Roy ker ne aavarti black hol ke liye ekdam sateek samaadhaan khoj liya. iski chakrit singyuleriti ek bindu naheen balki ek chhalla thi. kuchh samay baad, Roger penaros yeh saabit karne mein saksham ho gaye ki singyuleriti sabhi black holon ke andar pai jaati hain.

1967 mein, khagolavidon ne palsar ki khoj ki aur kuchh varshon ke bheetar yeh saabit karne mein saksham ho gaye ki gyaat palsar,[7][8] teji se chakrit nyootraun taare hi hain. us samay tak, nyootraun taare bhi sirf saiddhaantik utsukata tak hi simit the. isliye palsar ki khoj ne un sabhi ati ghanatv waali vastuon ke prati roochi ko jaagrut kiya jinki sanrachana gurutveeya patan se hona sambhav hua hoga.

bhautikvid John vheelar ko vyaapak roop se 1967 mein diye gaye apne saarvajanik bhaashan hamaara brahmaand: gyaat aur agyaat mein black hol shabd ko gadhne ka shreya diya jaata hai, adhik dushkar "gurutveeya roop se poornat: patan ko praapt kar chuka taara" ke ek vikalp ke roop mein. haalaanki, vheelar ne jor diya tha ki sammelan mein yeh shabd kisi aur ne gadha tha aur unhonne isko keval ek upayogi laghu-shabd ke roop mein apnaaya. yeh shabd 1964 mein aini eving dvaara AAAS ko likhe ek patra mein bhi uddhrut kiya gaya tha:

According to Einstein's general theory of relativity, as mass is added to a degenerate star a sudden collapse will take place and the intense gravitational field of the star will close in on itself. Such a star then forms a "black hole" in the universe.
—aAnn Ewing, letter to AAAS[9]

gun aur visheshataaen

no heyar prameya mein kaha gaya hai ki, ek baar sthaapit ho jaane ke baad black hol ke keval teen svatantr bhautik lakshan hote hain: dravyamaan, chaarj aur koneeya gati.[10] kinheen do black hol ki in visheshataaon ya pairaameetar ki velyoo yadi samaan ho to unke beech bhed karna kaafi dushkar ho jaata hai.

ye lakshan khaas hote hain kyonki ye black hol ke baahar se dikhaai dete hain. udaaharan ke liye, anya kisi chaarjakrut vastu ki hi tarah ek chaarjakrut black hol bhi samaan chaarj ko door dhakelata hai, is tathya ke baavajood bhi ki vidyut aur chunbakeeya balon ke liye jimmedaar kan fotauns, aatanrik kshetr se bachakar nikal naheen paate hain. iska kaaran hai gaaoos niyam, ek bade sfiyr se baahar nikalne wala kul vidyut pravaah hamesha samaan rahata hai aur sfiyr ke bheetar ke kul chaarj ko maapata hai. jab chaarj black hol mein girta hai, vidyut kshetr laainein bani rahati hain aur kshitij se baahar ki aur jhaankati rahati hain aur ye kshetr laainein girne vaale sabhi padaarthon ke kul chaarj ko sanrakshit karti hain. bijli kshetr laainein antat: black hol ki satah par samaan roop se fail jaati hain, satah par samaan kshetr line ghanatv sthaapit karti hain. is sandarbh mein black hol ek aam kandakating sfiyr ki tarah kaam karta hai jiski ek nishchit resisteeviti hoti hai.[11]

isi tarah, black hol ko samaahit kiye hue ek sfeeyar ke kul dravyamaan ko gaus niyam ke gurutveeya anuroop (enaalaug) ka upayog karke paaya ja sakta hai, black hol se bahut door baithe baithe. isi tarah, koneeya gati ko bahut door se, guruttveeya-chumbakeeya kshetr dvaara frem dreging ka upayog karke maapa ja sakta hai.

jab black hol kisi padaarth ko niglata hai, usaka kshitij gharshan yukt vistrut jhilli ki tarah dolan karta hai, ek kshanik pranaali, jab tak yeh antim avastha mein sthaapit naheen ho jaata. yeh vidyut-chunbakatv ya gej siddhaant jaise anya kshetr siddhaant se alag hai, jinmein kabhi bhi koi gharshan ya resisteeviti naheen hoti kyonki ve samay palatavaaain hote hain. kyonki black hol antat: ek antim avastha mein keval teen maapadandon ke saath sthaapit hota hai, praarambhik sthitiyon ke baare mein jaankaari ko khone se bachaane ka koi tareeka naheen hai: black hol ke gurutvaakarshan aur vidyut kshetr uske andar jaane waali cheejon ke baare mein bahut kam jaankaari pradaan kar paate hain. lupt jaankaari mein ve sabhi cheejein shaamil hain jinhein black hol kshitij se bahut doori se maapa naheen ja sakta hai, jaise ki, kul berayon number, lepaton number, tatha kan bhautiki ke lagbhag sabhi anya sanrakshit syoodo-chaarj. yahaaain se karna hai yeh vyavahaar itna ajeeb hai ki ise 'black hol jaankaari nuksaan virodhaabhaas' (black hol informeshan loss pairaadoks) kaha gaya hai.[12][13][14]

paaramparik roop se bhi black hol mein jaankaari ka lupt hona kaafi ajeeb hai, kyonki saamaanya saapekshata ek laigrengiyn siddhaant hai jo oopar oopar se time rivrsibl aur haimiltoneeyan prateet hota hai. lekin kshitij ke kaaran black hol samay palatavaaain naheen hota hai: padaarth ismein ghus sakte hain par nikal naheen sakte. ek aam black hol mein samay ke palatane ko white hol kaha gaya hai, haalaaainki entropi aur kvaantam makeniks yeh darshaate hain ki white hol black hol ke samaan hi hain.

no-heyar prameya hamaare brahmaand aur usamein shaamil padaarthon ki prakruti ke baare mein kuchh maanyataaon banaata hai, jabki anya maanyataayein alag nishkarsh pradaan karti hain. udahaaran ke liye, yadi chumbakeeya ekal-dhruvon ka astitv hai, jaisa ki kuchh siddhaanton[15] dvaara kaha gaya hai, chumbakeeya chaarj ek paaramparik black hol ka chautha maapdand hoga.

nimnalikhit maamalon ke liye no-heyar prameya ke prati-udahaaran gyaat hain:

  1. chaar se adhik antariksh-samay aayaam
  2. gair-abeliyn yaang-mils kshetr ki upasthiti mein
  3. asatat gej simetri ke liye
  4. kuchh gair-minimli adish kshetr[16]
  5. jab skelaars ko maroda ja sakta hai, jaise ki skirmions mein
  6. gurutv ke sanshodhit siddhaanton mein, aainsteen ke saamaanya saapekshata se alag

ye apavaad kabhi kabhi asthir hote hain aur kabhi kabhi black hol se door nai sanrakshit kvaantam sankhyaaon tak naheen le jaate hain.[17] hamaare chaar-aayaami aur lagbhag sapaat brahmaand[18] mein is prameya ko laagoo hona chaahiye.

vargeekaran

bhautik gunon se

saralatam black hol vah hai jiska drabyamaan hai lekin na to chaarj hai aur na hi koneeya gati. in black hol ko schvaarjaschild black hol ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, bhautikvid kaarl schvaarjaschild ke naam par jinhonne 1915 mein is samaadhaan ki khoj ki thi.[4] yeh aainsteen kshetr sameekaran ke liye khoja jaane wala pehla vishvasaneeya aur sateek samaadhaan tha aur birkhoff prameya ke anusaar yeh ekamaatr nirvaat samaadhaan hai jo sferikli simetrik hai.[19] iska matlab yeh hai ki is tarah ke ek black hol ke gurutvaakarshan kshetr aur samaan dravyamaan ki kisi bhi anya golaakaar vastu ke gurutvaakarshan kshetr beech koi drushya antar naheen hai. black hol ke liye yeh lokapriya dhaarana ki yeh apne chaaron or "pratyek vastu ko andar kheenchata rahata hai" keval iske kshitij ke paas hi satya baithati hai; doori par, iska baahari gurutvaakarshan kshetr anivaarya roop se saadhaaran bhaari pindon ki tarah ka hi hota hai.[20]

black hol ke adhik saamaanya samaadhaan 20 veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein khoje gaye the. reissner-nordastrom metrik vidyut chaarj vaale black hol ka varnan karta hai, jabki kerr metrik ek chakrit black hol pradaan karta hai. kerr -nyoomain metrik saamaanyataya adhik prachalit sthir black hol samaadhaan hai, jo chaarj aur koneeya gati donon ka varnan karta hai.

haalaanki ek black hol ka dravyamaan koi bhi pojitiv moolya le sakta hai, chaarj aur koneeya gati dravyamaan dvaara baadhya hote hain. praakrutik ikaaiyon mein, kul chaarj aur kul koneeya gati se ummeed ki jaati hai ki ve nimnalikhit ko santusht kareinge

M dravyamaan vaale ek black hol ke liye.

is asamaanata ko bharne vaale black hol ko eksatreemal kaha jaata hai. asamaanata ka ullanghan karne vaale aainsteen ke sameekaranon ke samaadhaanon ka astitv hai, lekin unamein kshitij naheen hai. in samaadhaanon mein nagn vishishtata hai aur inhein abhautik maana jaata hai, kyonki kausmik censorship parikalpana vaastavik padaarthon ke samagr gurutvaakarshan patan ki vajah se is vishishtata ko nakaar deti hai.[21] yeh sankhyaatmak anukrutiyon (simuleshan) dvaara samarthit hai.[22]

vidyut chumbakeeya bal ki apekshaakrut badi taakat ke kaaran, taaron ke patan se banane vaale black hol se apeksha ki jaati hai ki ve taaron ke nyootral chaarj ko banaaye rakheinge. chakran ko compact vastuon ka ek saamaanya gun maana gaya hai aur aisa prateet hota hai ki black hol ke pratyaashi binary X-ray source GRS 1915+105[23] ki koneeya gati apne adhiktam sambhav velyoo ke kareeb hai.

dravyamaan ke dvaara

varg drabyamaan aakaar
atyadhik dravyamaan wala black hol ~105–109 MSun ~ 0.001-10 AU
madhyavarti-dravyamaan wala black hol ~103 MSun ~103 km = REarth
taarakeeya-dravyamaan ~ 10 MSun ~ 30 kimi
sookshm black hol up to ~MMoon up to ~0.1 mm

black hol ko saamaanyat: unke dravyamaan ke anusaar vargeekrut kiya jaata hai, koneeya gati se svatantr. ghatna kshitij trijya, ya shvaarjschaaild trijya, dvaara nirdhaarit black hol ka aakaar dravyamaan ke anupaat mein hota hai,

jahaaain schvaarjaschild trijya hai aur soorya ka dravyamaan hai. is prakaar ek black hol ka aakaar aur dravyamaan saadhaaran roop se sambandhit hote hain, rotation se svatantr. is kasauti ke anusaar, black holon ko is prakaar vargeekrut kiya jaata hai:

  • atyadhik vishaalakaaya - inmein saikadon hajaaron se lekar arabon tak saur dravyamaan hota hai aur aisa maana jaata hai ki ye adhikaansh aakaashagangaaon ke kendra mein sthit hain,[24][25] hamaari aakaash ganga mein bhi.[26] aisa vichaar hai ki ye sakriya aakaasheeya naabhik ke liye jimmedaar hote hain, sambhav hai ki ye ya to chhote black hol ke sangheekaran se bante hain ya taaron aur gas ke un par ekatr hone se. sabse bada gyaat atyadhik drabyamaan wala black hol OJ 287 mein sthit hai jiska vajn 18 arab saur dravyamaan hai.[27]
  • madhyavarti - hajaaron saur dravyamaan shaamil hote hain. unhein ati chamak wala ex re sroton ke liye ek sambhav shakti srot ke roop mein prastaavit kiya gaya hai.[28] unke svat: nirmaan ka koi gyaat tareeka naheen hai, isliye unka nirmaan sambhavat: kam dravyamaan vaale black holon ki takkar se hota hai, golaakaar klastar ke ghane taarakeeya kor mein ya aakaashagangaaon mein.[tathya vaanchhit] ye nirmaan ghatanaaeain gahan gurutveeya tarangein paida karti hain jinhein jaldi hi dekha ja sakta hai. atyadhik aur maadhyamik drabyamaan vaale black hol ke beech ki seema drushtikon par nirbhar hai. unki nimnatam dravyamaan seema, seedhe taur par ek vishaalakaaya taare ke patan se banane vaale black hol ka adhiktam dravyamaan, ke baare mein vartamaan mein jyaada gyaat naheen hai lekin aisa maana jaata hai ki vah 200 saur dravyamaan se kaafi kam hogi.
  • taarakeeya-dravyamaan -- inke dravyamaan 1.4-3 saur dravyamaan (nyootraun taaron ke adhiktam dravyamaan ke liye, 1.4 chandrashekhar seema hai aur 3 tolman -oppenheimer -volkoff seema hai) ki nichli seema se lekar 15-20 saur dravyamaan tak ho sakte hain. inka nirmaan taaron ke patan, ya dviaadhaari nyootraun taaron ke sangheekaran (gurutvaakarshan vikirn ke kaaran anivaarya) dvaara hota hai. sitaare lagbhag 100 saur drabyamaan ke praarambhik drabyamaan se ban sakte hain, ya sanbhavat: isse bhi adhik, lekin ye apne vikaas ke shuruaati charanon ke dauraan apni adhikaansh bhaari baahari paraton ko tyaag dete hain, ya to laal daanav AGB aur vulf- raayet charanon ke dauraan nakshatreeya havaaon mein bah jaate hain, ya to sitaaron ke suparanova visfoton mein nishkaasit ho nyootraun taare ya black hol mein badal jaate hain. adhikaansh taarakeeya vikaas ki antim avastha ke saiddhaantik modelon dvaara jaane jaate hain, taarakeeya-drabyamaan vaale black hol ke dravyamaan ki oopari seema ke baare mein vartamaan mein kuchh nishchit naheen hai. abhi tak halke taaron ke kor safed baunon ka nirmaan karte hain.
  • sookshm (ya laghu black hol)-drabyamaan ek sitaare se bahut kam hota hai. in aakaaron mein, kvaantam yaantriki ke prabhaavi ho jaane ki ummeed hoti hai. taarakeeya vikaas ki saamaanya prakriyaaon ke maadhyam se unke nirmaan ke liye koi gyaat prakriya naheen hai, lekin kuchh sfeetikaari paridrushya brahmaand ke vikaas ke shuruaati charanon mein unke nirmaan ki bhavishyavaani kar sakte hain.[tathya vaanchhit] kvaantam gurutv ke kuchh siddhaanton ke anusaar unka nirmaan kausmik kirnon ke vaataavaran se takaraane ke kaaran utpann hone waali behad oorjaavaan prakriyaaon mein ho sakta hai aur yahaaain tak ki vishaal hedran kolaaidar jaise kan ekseeliretar mein bhi ho sakta hai.[tathya vaanchhit] hauking vikirn siddhaant ke anusaar aise black hol gaama vikirn ki chamak ke saath lupt ho jaayeinge. naasa ki farmi gaama-re space teleeskop saitailaait (poorv mein GLAST) jise 2008 mein launch kiya gaya tha, aisi kaundh ki khoj kar raha hai.[29]

ghatna kshitij

चित्र: BH-नो-एस्केप -1.svg
black hol se bahut doori par ek kan kisi bhi disha mein ja sakta hai.|is par sirf prakaash ki gati hi rok laga sakti hai.
चित्र: BH-नो-एस्केप -2.svg
black hol ke najadeek antariksh-samay vikrut hona shuroo hota hai. black hol se door jaane vaale maargon ki tulana mein usaki taraf aane vaale maargon ki sankhya jyaada hoti hai.
चित्र: BH-नो-एस्केप -3.svg
ghatna kshitij ke andar ke sabhi raaste kan ko black hol ke kendra ke kareeb laate hain. kanon ke liye ab yeh sambhav naheen rah jaata hai ki ve isse bach sakein.

black hol ki vishishtata hai ghatna kshitij ka prakat hona; antariksh-samay ki ek seema jiske pare ghatanaaeain ek baahari paryavekshak ko prabhaavit naheen kar sakti hain. jaisa ki saamaanya saapekshata ne bhavishyavaani ki thi, dravyamaan ki upasthiti antariksh-samay ko is prakaar vikrut kar deti hai ki kanon ke maarg unhein us dravyamaan ki taraf le jaate hain. black hol ke ghatna kshitij par yeh vikruti itni shaktishaali ho jaati hai ki baahar jaane ka koi maarg bachata hi naheen hai.[30] ek baar koi kan ghatna kshitij ke andar aa jaaye, usaka black hol ke bheetar jaana avashyambhaavi ho jaata hai.

door khade ek darshak ke liye, black hol ke nikat ki ghadiyaaain jyaada dheere chalti prateet hongi.[31] is prabhaav ke kaaran (gurutvaakarshan samay failaav ke roop mein gyaat), door khada darshak yeh dekhega ki black hol mein girne waali koi vastu uske ghatna kshitij ke nikat aane par dheemi ho jaati hai, us tak pahuainchane ke liye anant samay leti hui prateet hoti hai.[32] usi samay is vastu ki sabhi kriyaaeain dheemi ho jaati hain jiske parinaam svaroop nikalne wala prakaash adhik laal aur maddham prateet hota hai, is prabhaav ko greviteshanal red shift kaha jaata hai.[33] ant mein, girne waali vastu itni maddham ho jaati hai ki dikhaai dena band ho jaati hai, ek bindu par ghatna kshitij par pahuainchane se theek pehle.

gair-chakrit (sthir) black hol ke liye schvaarjaschild trijya sferikl ghatna kshitij ko seema-mukt karti hai. ek vastu ki schvaarjaschild trijya dravyamaan ke anupaat mein hoti hai.[34] chakrit black hol mein vikrut, nonsferikl ghatna kshitij hota hai. choonki ghatna kshitij ek bhautik satah naheen hai balki keval ek ganiteeya paribhaashit seema hai, padaarth ya vikirn ko black hol mein pravesh karne se rokane wala kuchh bhi naheen hai, keval baahar nikalne se inko roka jaata hai. black hol ke liye saamaanya saapekshata dvaara diya gaya varnan ek sanniktan hai aur aisi apeksha ki jaati hai ki kvaantam gurutv prabhaav ghatna kshitij ke nikat se mahatvapoorn ho jaate hain.[35] yeh, black hol ke ghatna kshitij ke nikat padaarth ke prekshan ko, saamaanya saapekshata aur uske prastaavit vistaaron ke adhyayan ko sambhav banaata hai.

haalaaainki black hol swayam urja vikirit naheen karte hain, ghatna kshitij ke theek baahar se, hauking vikirn ke maadhyam se, vidyut-chumbakeeya vikirn aur padaarth kan vikeern ho sakte hain.[36]

vishishtata (singyuleriti)

singyuleriti black hol ke kendra mein hoti hai, jahaaain padaarth mein dabane ke kaaran anant ghanatv ho jaata hai, gurutvaakarshan khinchaav anant shaktishaali hota hai aur antariksh-samay mein anant vikruti hoti hai.[37] iska matlab ek black hol ka dravyamaan shoonya volyoom vaale ek kshetr mein purnat: sankuchit ho jaata hai.[38] black hol ke kendra mein is shoonya-aayatan, anant roop se saghan kshetr ko gurutveeya singyuleriti kaha jaata hai.

ek gair-chakrit black hol ki singyuleriti ki lambaai, chaudaai aur ooainchaai shoonya hoti hai; ek chakrit black hol ki singyuleriti chhalle ke aakaar ki hoti hai aur rotation ke plane mein sthit hoti hai.[39] chhalle mein koi motaai naheen hoti isliye koi aayatan naheen hota.

saamaanya saapekshata mein singyuleriti ki upasthiti ko saamaanyat: siddhaant ke laagoo na hone ka sanket maana jaata hai.[40] haalaaainki yeh apekshit hai; yeh aisi paristhiti mein ghatit hota hai jahaaain kvaantam yaantrik prabhaavon ko inka varnan karna chaahiye tha, ati uchch ghanatv aur kan sahabhaagitaaon ke kaaran. ab tak kvaantam aur gurutv ke prabhaav ka ek hi siddhaant mein sanyojan karna sambhav naheen ho saka hai. aam taur par ummeed ki jaati hai ki kvaantam gurutv ke siddhaant mein singyuleriti rahit black hol honge.[41][42]

foton sfeeyar

foton sfeeyar shoonya motaai waali ek sferikl seema hai jahaaain sfeeyar ki sparsharekha mein chalte hue foton ek gol kaksha mein fans jaayeinge. anaavarti black hol ke liye, foton sfeeyar ki trijya schvaarjaschild trijya ki 1.5 guna hoti hai. ye kakshaaen gatisheel roop se asthir hain, isliye koi bhi chhoti si gadbadi (shaayad kisi girte hue padaarth ke dvaara) bhi samay ke saath badi hoti jaayegi aur ya to use black hol ke pare feink degi ya ghatna kshitij ke bheetar dhakel degi.

haalaaainki prakaash abhi bhi foton sfeeyar ke andar se bach sakta hai, koi prakaash jo andar ki aur jaati prakshepan path se foton kshetr ko paar karti hai us par black hol ka kabja ho jaayega. isliye koi bhi prakaash jo foton sfeeyar ke andar se baahar khade ek darshak tak pahuainchata hai, nishchit roop se foton sfeeyar ke adanr parantu ghatna kshitij ke baahar ki kisi vastu dvaara utsarjit hua hoga.

nyootraun taaron jaisi anya compact vastuon mein bhi foton sfeeyar ho sakte hain.[43] yeh tathya is baat par aadhaarit hai ki ek vastu ka gurutv kshetr uske vaastavik aakaar par nirbhar naheen karta, isliye koi vastu jo schvaarjaschild trijya ke 1.5 guna se adhik chhoti ho us, vastu ke drabyamaan se sambandhit ek foton sfeeyar vaastav mein hoga.

ergosfiyr

ek chakrit black hol ka arg kshetr: yeh argakshetr ek sapaat upagol kshetr hai jo ghatna kshitij ke baahar hota hai jahaaain koi bhi vastu sthir naheen rah sakti hai.

chakrit black hol chaaron taraf se ergosfiyr namak ek antariksh-samay kshetr se ghira hota hai jismein sthir khada hona asambhav hai. yeh frem-dreging naamak ek prakriya ka parinaam hai; saamaanya saapekshata ki bhavishyavaani hai ki koi bhi chakrit drabyamaan, svanyam ko ghere hue antariksh samay ko thoda kheenchne ki cheshta karega. chakrit drabyamaan ke paas ki koi bhi vastu chakr ki disha mein ghoomana shuroo kar degi. ek chakrit black hol ke liye ghatna kshitij ke paas iska prabhaav itna majaboot ho jaata hai ki kisi vastu ko sthir khade rahane maatr ke liye iske vipreet disha mein prakaash ki gati se bhi tej chalana hoga.

ek black hol ka ergosfiyr nimnalikhit se ghira hota hai:

  • baahar ki taraf ek sapaat sferoid hai jo dhruvon par ghatna kshitij ke saath sthit hota hai aur "bhoomadhya rekha" ke aaspaas ullekhaneeya taur par chauda hota hai. is seema ko kabhi kabhi "arg satah" bhi kaha jaata hai, lekin yeh sirf ek seema hai aur ismein ghatna kshitij se adhik thosata naheen hoti haish theek ergosfiyr ke binduon par, "antariksh-samay prakaash ki gati se kheencha jaata hai|"
  • bheetar ki taraf, (baahya) ghatna kshitij hota hai.

ergosfiyr ke bheetar, antariksh-samay prakaash se adhik gati se kheencha jaata hai-- saamaanya saapekshata mein bhautik vastuon ka prakaash se tej gati se chalana varjit hai (vishesh saapekshata bhi aisa hi karta hai), lekin antariksh-samay kshetron ko anumati deta hai ki ve anya antariksh-samay kshetron ki tulana mein prakaash se tej chal sakein.

vastuen aur vikirn (prakaash sahit), kendra mein gire bina ergosfiyr ke bheetar kaksha mein rah sakti hain. lekin ve mandara naheen sakte (sthir rahana, jaisa ki ek baahari darshak dvaara dekha jaayega), kyonki iske liye unhein swayam ke antariksh-samay kshetr ki tulana mein peechhe ki or prakaash se bhi tej chalne ki aavashyakta hogi, jo ek baahari darshak ki tulana mein prakaash se tej chal rahe hain.

vastuen aur vikirn bhi ergosfiyr se bach kar nikal sakte hain. asal mein penaroj prakriya bhavishyavaani karti hai ki vastuen kabhi kabhi egosfiyr ud kar baahar chali jaaeaingi, iske liye urja ve black hol ki kuchh oorja ko "chura" kar praapt kareingi. agar vastuon ke kul drabyamaan ka bada bhaag is tarah bach niklata hai, black hol ki ghoomane ki gati aur dheemi pad jaayegi aur antat: shaayad ghoomana band bhi ho jaaye |

sanrachana aur vikaas

black hol ki aakarshak chhavi ke kaaran yeh savaal uthana laajimi hai ki kya vaastav mein is prakaar ki vichitr vastuon ka astitv hai, ya ye aainsteen sameekaranon ke kaalpanik samaadhaan maatr hai. aainstaain ki swayam kr yeh galat dhaarana thi ki black holon ka nirmaan sambhav naheen hai, kyonki unka vishvaas tha ki patan ki or agrasar kanon ki koneeya gati unki chaal ko sthirta pradaan karegi.[44] iski vajah se saamaanya saapekshata samudaaya kai varshon tak iske virodhi parinaamon ko khaarij karta raha.

lekin unamein se kuchh is vishvaas par kaayam rahe ki black hol ka astitv vaastav mein hai,[45] aur 1960 ke dashak ke ant tak ve adhikaansh shodhakartaaon ko yeh vishvaas dilaane mein safal rahe ki ghatna kshitij ka nirmaan vaakai mein sambhav hai.

ek baar ek ghatna Roger penaroj ne yeh siddh kar diya ki uske bheetar kaheen na kaheen singyuleriti ka nirmaan avashya hoga. iske kuchh hi samay pashchaat, steefen hauking ne yeh darshaaya ki big bang ke kai brahmaandeeya samaadhaanon mein singyuleriti ka astitv hai, skelar kshetron aur anya videshi padaarthon ki anupasthiti mein (dekhein: penaroj-hauking singyuleriti prameya). kerr samaadhaan, no-heyar prameya aur black hol ooshmapravaigiki ke niyamon ne darshaaya ki black hol ke bhautik lakshan saral hain aur aasaani se samajhe ja sakte hain, inhein shodh ke sammaanit vishyon ka darja mil gaya.[46] aisa maana jaata hai ki black holon ke nirmaan ki praathamik prakriya taaron jaisi bhaari vastuon ka guruttveeya patan rahi hogi, lekin kai anya prakriyaaen bhi hain jo black hol ke nirmaan ki taraf le ja sakti hain.

gurutveeya patan

gurutveeya patan tab hota hai jab ek vastu ka aantarik dabaav uske apne gurutvaakarshan ka virodh karne ke liye aparyaapt ho. taaron mein yeh aamtaur par isliye hota hai kyonki ya to taaron mein apne taapamaan ko banaae rakhane ke liye "indhan" aparyaapt hai, ya ek taara jo sthir tha use dher saare atirikt padaarth mile parantu uske krod ka taapamaan naheen badha. donon sthitiyon mein, taare ka taapamaan swayam ke vajan tale apne patan ko rok paane ke liye aparyaapt saabit hoga (aadarsh gas niyam, dabaav, taapamaan aur volyoom ke beech sambandh ko sthapit karta hai).

is patan ko taare ke ghatakon ke aapajaatya dabaav dvaara roka ja sakta hai, padaarth ek aakarshak ghani avastha mein sanghanit ho jaata hai. iska parinaam, ek prakaar ka compact taara. kis kism ka compact taara banega yeh avashesh ke drabyamaan par nirbhar karega - patan ke kaaran hue parivrtanon ke baad bache hue padaarthon nein (udahaaran: suparanova ya kampan dvaara utpann graheeya nebyula) baahari satahon ko nestanaabood kar diya hai. not karein ki yeh mool taare se kaafi kam hoga- 5 se adhik saur drabyamaan vaale avasheshon ka utpaadan aise taaron se hota hai jinka dravyamaan patan se pehle 20 se adhik raha hoga.

yadi avashesh ka dravyamaan ~ 3-4 saur drabyamaan (tolaman-oppenheimer-volkoff seema) se adhik ho-- kyonki mool taara ya to bahut bhaari tha ya avashesh ne atirikt drabyamaan ekatr kar liya hai)- nyootraun ka apajaatya dabaav bhi patan ko rokane ke liye aparyaapt hai. iske baad aisi koi gyaat prakriya (shaayad sivaaya kvaark aapajaatya dabaav ke, dekhein kvaark taara) naheen hai jo is patan ko rok sake aur vastu patit ho kar black hol mein tabdeel ho jaayegi.

bhaari taaron ke is gurutveeya patan ko hi adhikaansh (yadi sabhi naheen) taarakeeya drabyamaan vaale black holon ke gathan ke liye jimmedaar maana jaata hai.

big bang mein praacheen black hol

gurutveeya patan ke liye bahut adhik ghanatv ki aavashyakta hoti hai. brahmaand ke vartamaan yug mein yeh uchch ghanatv keval taaron mein hi milti hai, lekin praarambhik brahmaand mein big bang ke sheegra baad ghanatv kaafi adhik hua karte the, ho sakta hai isi ne black hol ke nirmaan ko sambhav banaaya ho. uchch ghanatv akele ek black hol ke nirmaan ke liye paryaapt naheen hai kyonki drabyamaan ka samaan vitran, drabyamaan ko ikattha hone ki anumati naheen dega. is ghane maadhyam mein praacheen black holon ke gathan hetu, praarambhik ghanatveeya gadbadiyon ka hona aavashyak hai jo baad mein swayam ke guruttv ke prabhaav mein badh sakein. praarambhik brahmaand ke vibhinn modelon mein in gadbadiyon ke aakaar ke baare mein vyaapak matabhed hai. vibhinn modelon ne black hol ke nirmaan ka poorvaanumaan lagaaya tha, plaink dravyamaan se lekar saikadon hajaaron saur drabyaamaanon tak ke.[47] at: aadim black hol kisi bhi prakaar ke black hol ke nirmaan ka kaaran ho sakte hain.is liye pruthavi par black hol ke nirmaan ke liye kiye gaye shodh kaafi had tak bekaaboo ho sakte hai.

uchch oorja waali takkarein

CMS ditektar mein ek simyuleted ghatna, ek takkar jismein ek sookshm black hol paida ho sakta hai.

gurutveeya patan hi ekamaatr prakriya naheen hai jo black hol ka nirmaan kar sakti hai. siddhaant roop mein, black hol ka nirmaan uchch oorja takkaron mein bhi sambhav hai jo paryaapt ghanatv paida karti hain. haalaaainki, abhi tak, aisi kisi bhi aisi koi ghatna ko pratyaksh ya paroksh roop mein, kan tvarak prayogon mein drabyamaan santulan ki kami ke roop mein naheen paaya gaya hai.[48] iska arth yeh niklata hai ki black hol ke dravyamaan ke liye ek nichli seema honi chaahiye. siddhaantat:, is seema ko plaink dravyamaan (~1019 GeV/c2 = ~2 × 10−8 kg) ke aaspaas hona chaahiye, jahaaain aisi apeksha ki jaati hai ki kvaantam prabhaav saamaanya saapekshata ke siddhaant ko galat saabit kar deinge.[tathya vaanchhit] is kaaran pruthvi ya uske aas paas black hol ke nirmaan ki sambhaavana ko bilkul nakaara ja sakta hai. haalaaainki, kvaantam gurutv ke kuchh vikaas aisa darshaate hain ki is bandh ki seema kaafi neeche ho sakti hai. udahaaran ke liye, kuchh brenavarld paridrushya plaink dravyamaan ko kaafi neeche rakhate hain, shaayad 1 TeV/c2 itna neeche tak.[49] yeh, sookshm black hol ke nirmaan ko uchch urja takkaron ya CERN ke vishaal haidran kolaaidar mein sambhav kar sakta hai. haalaaainki ye saare siddhaant kaafi kaalpanik hain aur kai vaijnyaaaniko ka mat hai ki in prakriyaaon mein black hol ka nirmaan sambhav naheen hai.

vikaas

ek baar banane ke baad black hol, atirikt padaarthon ke avashoshan dvaara viksit hona jaari rakhata hai. saare black hol antarataarakeeya dhool aur sarvavyaapi vikirn ko lagaataar avashoshit karte raheinge, lekin inmein se kisi bhi prakriya ka ek taarakeeya black hol ke dravyamaan par koi khaas prabhaav naheen padta hai. adhik mahatvapoorn yogadaan tab hote hain jab ek black hol ka nirmaan ek dviaadhaari taara pranaali mein hoti hai. nirmaan ke baad black hol apne saathi se kaafi maatra mein padaarth avashoshit kar sakta hai.

atyadhik bade yogadaan tab praapt hote hain jab ek black hol ka anya taaron ya compact vastuon se vilay hota hai. adhikaansh aakaashagangaaon ke kendra mein sthit ati vishaalakaaya black holon ka nirmaan sanbhavat: kai chhoti vastuon ke vilay ke dvaara hua hoga. isi prakriya ko kuchh madhyavarti drabyamaan vaale black holon ke nirmaan ke liye bhi prastaavit kiya gaya hai.

jaise jaise ek vastu ghatna kshitij ki taraf badhati hai, kshitij foolana aarambh kar deta hai aur lapak kar usako nigl leta hai. iske sheegra baad trijya ka vistaar (atirikt dravyamaan ke kaaran) poore hol mein samaan roop se vitrit ho jaata hai.

vaashpeekaran

1974 mein, Stefan hauking ne dikhaaya ki black hol poori tarah se kaale naheen hain, balki ye thodi maatra mein taapeeya vikirn bhi nikaalate hain.[50] unhein yeh parinaam mila ek sthir black hol prushthabhoomi mein pramaatra kshetr siddhaant (kvaantam field theory) ka prayog karke. unke sameekaranon ka parinaam yeh hai ki ek black hol ko kanon ko ek aadarsh black baudi spectrum mein chhodna chaahiye. yeh prabhaav hauking vikirn ke roop mein jaana gaya. hauking parinaam ke baad se, kaiyon nein vibhinn tareekon ke maadhyam se is prabhaav ko satyaapit kiya hai.[51] yadi black hol vikirn ka yeh siddhaant sahi hai, to aisi apeksha ki jaati hai ki black hol vikirn ke taapeeya kirnapunj ko nikaaleinge aur isse drabyamaan ka kshaya hoga, kyonki saapekshata siddhaant ke anusaar drabyamaan uchch sanghanit oorja maatr hai (E = Mc 2).[50] samay ke saath black hol sikud kar hava mein ud jaayeinge. is kirnapunj ka taapamaan (hauking taapamaan) black hol ke satahi gurutvaakarshanake aanupaatik rahata hai, jo badle mein dravyamaan ke liye vipreet roop mein anupaatik rahata hai. isliye bade black hol chhote black hol se kam vikirn chhodte hain.

5 saur drabyamaan vaale ek taarakeeya black hol ka hauking taapamaan kareeb 12 naanokelvins hota hai. yeh antariksheeya sookshm-tarang prushthabhoomi dvaara utpaadit 2.7K se kaafi kam hai. taarakeeya dravyamaan vaale black hol hauking vikirn ke maadhyam se jitna drabyamaan chhodte hain usase adhik dravyamaan ve kausmik maaikrovev prushthabhoomi se praapt kar lete hain, at: ve sikudne ki bajaay failate jaate hain. 2.7 K se adhik hauking taapamaan praapt karne ke liye (taaki ve vaashpit ho sakein), ek black hol ko chandrama se bhi halka hona padega (isliye unka vyaas ek mileemeetar ke dasvein hisse se bhi kam ka hoga).

doosari taraf yadi ek black hol bahut chhota hai, ummeed ki jaati hai ki usaka vikirn ka prabhaav bahut shaktishaali ho jaayega. ek black hol jo manushyon ki tulana mein bhi bhaari hai, kshan mein lupt ho jaayega. ek car ke vajan wala black hol (~ 10 −24 mi) ko vaashpit hone ke liye maatr ek nainosaikand ka samay hi lagega, is dauraan kuchh kshanon ke liye iski chamak soorya se 200 guna se bhi adhik ho jaayegi. halke black hol se ummeed ki jaati hai ki ve aur bhi teji se vaashpit ho jaayeinge, udaaharan ke liye 1 TeV/c 2 drabyamaan wala ek black hol poori tarah lupt hone mein 10−88 second se bhi kam samay lagaaega. beshak, itne chhote black hol ke liye kvaantam gurutv prabhaav se ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaane ki ummeed ki jaati hai aur yahaaain tak ki – haalaaainki kvaantam gurutv mein hue haal ke vikaas is or koi sanket naheen karte hain – parikaalpanik taur par aise chhote black hol sthir honge.

nireekshan

abhivruddhi disk aur gas jet

ek atirikt-gaangeya dhaara ki sanrachana ek black hol ke abhivruddhi disk se

adhikaansh abhivruddhi disk tatha gas jet ki maujoodagi taarakeeya drabyamaan vaale black hol ki upasthiti ka spasht saboot naheen hai, kyonki nyootraaain taare aur safed baunon jaisi anya adhik drabyamaan waali aur ati ghani vastuen abhivruddhi diskon aur gas dhaaraaon ke nirmaan ka kaaran ho sakti hain aur unka vyavahaar vaisa hi hota hai jaisa black hol ke irdagird hota hai. lekin ve aksar khagolavidon ki yeh batalaakar madad kar sakti hain ki kis jagah black hol ki talaash faladaayi siddh ho sakti hai.

magar doosari taraf, ati vishaal abhivruddhi disk aur gas dhaaraaen atyadhik drabyamaan vaale black hol ki upasthiti ka achha saboot ho sakti hain, kyonki jahaaain tak ham jaante hain keval ek black hol hi in ghatnaaon ki utpatti ka kaaran ho sakta hai.

shaktishaali vikirn utsarjan

sthir ex-re aur gaama kiran utsarjan bhi kisi black hol ki maujoodagi saabit naheen karte hain, lekin khagolavidon ko yeh bata sakte hain ki kahaaain khoj karna faladaayi hoga- aur inki ye khoobi hoti hai ki ve kaafi aasaani se naabyulaai aur gas ke baadalon se nikal paate hain.

lekin shaktishaali, aniyamit ex-re, gaama kirnein aur anya vidyut-chumbakeeya vikirn yeh saabit karne mein madad kar sakte hain ki vah vishaal, ati ghani vastu ek black hol naheen hai, taaki "black hol aakhetak" kisi anya vastu ki taraf dhyaan kendrit kar sakein. nyootraun taaron aur anya ati saghan taaron par satahein hoti hain aur padaarthon ka prakaash ki gati ke ek uchch pratishat par satah ke saath takaraav, aniyamit antaraalon par vikirn ki gahan lapaton ka utsarjan karta hai. black hol mein koi thos satah naheen hoti hai, isliye kisi atyadhik drabyamaan waali ati saghan vastu ke irdagird aniyamit antaraal par vikirn ki gahan lapaton ka abhaav, yeh darshaata hai ki vahaaain ek black hol ke milne ki achhi sambhaavana ho sakti hai.

gahan parantu ek hi baar gaama kiran ka niklana (gaama re barsts- GRBs) kisi "nae" black hol ke janm ka sanket ho sakta hai, kyonki khagol-bhautikvidon ka vichaar hai ki GRBs ka kaaran ya to kisi vishaal taare ka gurutveeya patan hai[52] athva nyootraun taaron ke beech takaraav,[53] aur in donon ghatnaaon mein black hol ka srujan karne hetu paryaapt drabyamaan aur dabaav shaamil hota hai. lekin aisa prateet hota hai ki ek nyootraun taare aur ek black hol ke beech ka takaraav bhi ek GRB paida kar sakta hai,[54] isliye ek GRB saboot naheen hai ki ek "nae" black hol ka gathan hua hai. sabhi gyaat GRB hamaari apni aakaashaganga ke baahar se aate hain aur adhikaansh arabon prakaash varshon ki door se aate hain[55] isliye inse jude black hol vaastav mein arabon varsh puraane hain.

kuchh antariksh-bhautikvidon ka vishvaas hai ki kuchh ati chamakeele ex-re srot madhyavarti-drabyamaan vaale black hol ke abhivruddhi disk ho sakte hain.[56]

aisa maana jaata hai ki kaasaar atyadhik drabyamaan vaale black hol ki abhivruddhi disk hain, kyonki ab tak gyaat koi bhi vastu itni shaktishaali naheen hai jo itna shaktishaali utsarjn kar sake. ksaar poore vidyut-chumbakeeya spectrum mein shaktishaali utsarjan utpann karte hain, jismein shaamil hain yoovi, ex-re aur gaama-kiran aur apni uchch chamak ke kaaran ye kaafi doori se bhi dikhaai dete hain. 5 se 25 pratishat ke beech kaasaar "radio laaud" hote hain, yeh sanjnyaa inke shaktishaali radio utsarjan ke kaaran hai.[57]

gurootvaakarshan leinsing

ek gurutveeya leins ka nirmaan tab hota hai jab kisi bahut door sthit ujjval srot (jaise ek kaasaar) se aati hui prakaash ki kirnein kisi vishaalakaaya vastu (jaise ek black hol) ke aaspaas "mud" jaati hain, darshak aur srot vastu ke beech. is prakriya ko gurutveeya leinsing ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur yeh saamaanya saapekshata siddhaant ki bhavishyavaaniyon mein se ek hai. is siddhaant ke anusaar, drabyamaan gurutvaakarshan kshetron ko banaane ke liye antariksh-samay ko "samete" rahata hai aur isliye parinaamasvaroop prakaash ko mod deta hai.

leins ke peechhe ke srot ki chhavi ek paryavekshak ko kai chhaviyon ke roop mein dikhaai pad sakti hai. yadi srot, bhaari leinsing vastu aur paryavekshak ek seedhi rekha mein hon, srot bhaari vastu ke peechhe ek chhalle ke roop mein dikhaai dega.

gurutveeya leinsing black hol ke alaava anya vastuon ke kaaran bhi ho sakta hai, kyonki koi bhi ati shaktishaali gurutvaakarshan kshetr prakaash kirnon ko modne ki kshamata rakhata hai. in bahu chhaviyon vaale prabhaavon mein se kuchh, sanbhavat: sudoor sthit aakaashagangaaon ke kaaran nirmit hote hain.

chakkar lagaane waali vastuen

inhein bhi dekhein: Kepler problem in general relativity

black hol ki parikrama karti vastuen, keindreeya vastu ke aaspaas ke gurutvaakarshan kshetr ka anveshan karti rahati hain. 1970 ke dashak mein khoja gaya, ek puraana udaaharan hai, ek prasiddh eksare srot signas X-1 ke liye jimmedaar kalpit black hol ke ird-gird parikrama karti abhivruddhi disk. haalaaainki swayam padaarth ko to seedhe taur par naheen dekha ja sakta, eksare ki timtimaahat mili sekandon mein jaari rahati hai, jaisa ki lagbhag das saur drabyamaan vaale ek black hol ke chaaron or parikrama karne vaale kisi garm pind roopi padaarth se abhivruddhi se theek pehle ummeed ki jaati hai. eksare spectrum us vishisht aakaar ko darshaata hai jiski apeksha us disk se ki jaati hai jismein aurbiting rileteevistik padaarth hon, ek lauh rekha ke saath aur jise ~6.4 KeV par utsarjit kiya gaya ho, tatha laal (disk ke peechhe ki taraf) aur neele (saamane ki taraf) ki taraf chauda kiya gaya ho.

ek anya udaaharan hai S2 taara jise aakaashagangeeya kendra ki parikrama karte dekha jaata hai. yeh taara ~ 3.5 × 106 saur drabyamaan vaale black hol se kai prakaash ghanton ki doori par hai, isliye iski parikraman gati ko ankit kiya ja sakta hai. paryavekshit kaksha (jo swayam black hol ki sthiti hoti hai) ke kendra mein kuchh bhi dikhaai naheen deta hai, jaisa ki ek kaali vastu se ummeed ki jaati hai.

black hol ke dravyamaan ka nirdhaaran

ardh-aavadhik dolan ka istamaal black hol ke dravyamaan ka nirdhaaran karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.[58] yeh takaneek black hol aur uske aaspaas ki diskon ke bheetari bhaag ke beech ke sambandh ka upayog karti hai, jahaan gas ghatna kshitij tak pahuainchane se pehle bheetar ki or ghumaavadaar roop mein aati rahati hai. jaise hi gas ka patan bheetar ki or hota hai, yeh eksare vikirn prasaarit karta hai jiski teevrata ek nishchit kram se kam-jyaada hoti rahati hai aur jo ek niyamit antaraal par khud ko doharaata rahata hai. yeh sanketak ardh-aavadhik dolan ya QPO kahalaata hai. ek QPO ki aavrutti black hol ke dravyamaan par nirbhar karti hai; chhote black hol mein ghatna kshitij nikat hi sthit hota hai, isliye QPO ki aavrutti uchch hoti hai. adhik dravyamaan vaale black hol ke liye, ghatna kshitij kaafi aage baahar ki or hota hai, isliye QPO aavrutti kam hoti hai.

black hol ke pratyaashi

ati vishaalakaaya

is chitr mein M87 ke kendra se shuroo hone waali dhaara, sakriya gaangeya naabhik se aati hai jismein shaayad ek atyadhik drabyamaan wala black hol ho sakta hai saujanya se: habbal antariksheeya doorabeen/NASA/ESA

ab yeh vyaapak roop se sveekaar kiya jaata hai ki pratyek aakaashaganga ke, ya lagbhag pratyek, kendra mein ek ati vishaalakaaya black hol hota hai.[59][60] is black hol ke dravyamaan aur mejabaan aakaashaganga ke ubhaar ke beech jo najadeeki sahasanbandh (em-sigma sambandh) hai, vah yeh darshaata hai ki aakaashaganga aur black hol ke nirmaan ke beech kaafi gahra sambandh hai.[59]

dashakon tak, khagolavidon ne "sakriya aakaashaganga" shabd ka istemaal aisi aakaashagangaaon ka varnan karne ke liye kiya jinmein asaamaanya visheshataaen hoti thi, jaise ki asaamaanya varnakrameeya rekha utsarjan aur ati shaktishaali radio utsarjan.[61][62] haalaanki, saiddhaantik aur paryavekshaneeya adhyayan dikhaate hain ki in aakaashagangaaon ke sakriya gaangeya naabhik (AGN) mein ati vishaalakaaya black hol ho sakte hain.[61][62] in AGN ke modelon mein ek keindreeya black hol hota hai jo ki sooraj se laakhon ya arabon guna adhik bhaari ho sakta hai; ek gas aur dhool ki disk jise abhivruddhi disk kehte hain; aur do dhaaraaen jo abhivruddhi disk ke lanbavat hoti hain.[62]

haalaaainki, ummeed ki jaati hai ki ati vishaalakaaya black hol lagbhag sabhi AGN mein paae jaayeinge, sirf kuchh hi aakaashagangaaon ke naabhikon ka dhyaan poorvak adhyayan kiya gaya hai is prayaas mein ki keindrasth ati vishaalakaaya black hol ummeedavaaron ki pehchaan aur vaastavik dravyamaan ki maap, donon ki ja sake. aisi kuchh ullekhaneeya aakaashagangaaon ke udaaharan hain, endromeda aakaashaganga, M32, M87, NGC 3115, NGC 3377, NGC 4258, aur sombrero aakaashaganga.[63]

khagolavidon ka vishvaas hai ki hamaari apni aakaashaganga ke kendra mein ek ati vishaalakaaya black hol sthit hai, sejiteriys A*[64] naamak kshetr mein, kyonki:

  • S2 naamak ek taara ek andaakaar kaksha mein parikrama ko 15.2 prakaash varsh ki avadhi mein poora karta hai aur keindreeya vastu se 17 prakaash ghante ki doori par ek pereeseintar (niktatam) hai.[65]
  • praarambhik anumaan yeh ingit karte hain ki keindreeya vastu mein 26 lakh saur dravyamaan shaamil hain aur iski trijya 17 prakaash ghante se kuchh kam hai. keval ek black hol hi mein itni chhoti aayatan mein itna vishaal drabyamaan ho sakta hai.
  • aage ke avlokan[66] black hol ki sanbhaavan ko aur pusht karte hain, yeh dikhaate hue ki kendreeya vastu ka dravyamaan kareeb 37 lakh saur dravyamaan hai aur iski trijya 6.25 prakaash ghanton se jyaada naheen hai.

madhyavarti-dravyamaan

2002 mein, habbal antariksheeya doorabeen ne jo avlokan prastut kiya ve sanket karte hain ki M15 aur G1 naamak golaakaar samoohon mein madhyavarti-dravyamaan vaale black hol ke hone ki sambhaavana hai.[67][68] yeh vyaakhya golaakaar samoohon mein taaron ke kaksha ke aakaar aur avadhi par aadhaarit hai. lekin habbal saboot nirnaayak naheen hai, kyonki nyootraun taaron ka ek samooh is tarah ke avalokanon ka kaaran ho sakta hai. haal ki khojon tak, kai khagolavid sochate the ki golaakaar samoohon mein jatil gurutvaakarshan ant:-kriyaayein nae bane black holon ko nishkaasit kar deingi.

November 2004 mein, khagolavidon ki ek team ne hamaari aakaashaganga ke pratham aur poornat: satyaapit madhyavarti-dravyamaan vaale black hol ki khoj ki soochana di, jo sejiterias A* se 3 prakaash varsh door parikrama kar raha hai. 1300 saur dravyamaan wala yeh black hol saat taaron ke ek samooh ke beech mein hai, sanbhavat: yeh ek vishaal taara samooh ka avashesh hai jo aakaash ganga ke kendra se chhitk gaya hai.[69][70] yeh avlokan is baat ki pushti karta hai ki ati vishaalakaaya black hol aaspaas ke chhote black holon aur taaron ke avashoshan dvaara apni vruddhi karte hai.

January 2007 mein, United Kingdom ke saauthemptan vishvavidyaalaya mein shodhakartaaon ne ek black hol ki khoj ki soochana di, yeh sanbhavat: 10 saur dravyamaanon vaal tha aur NGC 4472 naamak ek aakaashaganga mein sthit tha, lagbhag 5.5 karod prakaash vashon ki doori par.[71][72]

taarakeeya-dravyamaan

kalaakaar dvaara taiyaar kiya hua ek dviaadhaari pranaali jismein ek black hol aur ek mukhya anukram sitaara hai. black hol mukhya anukram taare se padaarthon ko khinch raha hai abhivruddhi disk ke maadhyam se aur ismein se kuchh padaarth ek gas dhaara ka nirmaan kar raha hai.

hamaari aakaashaganga mein kai sambhaavit taarakeeya-dravyamaan vaale black hol shaamil hain, jo saigiterias A* kshetr ke ati vishaalakaaya black hol ki tulana mein hamse adhik najadeek hain. ye sabhi ummeedavaar ex-re dviaadhaari pranaaliyon ke sadasya hain jismein adhik ghani vastu apne saathi se ek abhivruddhi disk ke maadhyam se padaarthon ko apni or kheenchati hai. in jodon mein black hol teen se lekar ek darjn se jyaada saur dravyamaanon ke ho sakte hain.[73][74] ab tak avalokit taarakeeya dravyamaan vaale black holon mein dooratam, mesiye 33 aakaashaganga mein sthit dviaadhaari pranaali ka sadasya hai.[75]

sookshm

siddhaantat: ek black hol ke liye koi nyoonatam aakaar tay naheen hai. ek baar inki rachana ho jaane par, inmein black hol ke gun aa jaate hain. Stefan hauking ne pratipaadit kiya ki atipraaraambhik black hol vaashpit ho kar aur bhi sookshm ho sakte hain, arthaat sookshm black hol. vaashpit hote atipraraambhik black hol ki khoj hetu farmi gaama-re space teleeskop ko prastaavit kiya ja raha hai, jiska prakshepan 11 June 2008 ko kiya gaya tha. haalaaainki, agar sookshm black hol ka nirmaan doosare tareekon se ho sakta hai, jaise ki antariksheeya kiran ke prabhaav se ya kolaaidars mein, iska matlab yeh naheen hai ki unhein nishchit roop se vaashpit ho jaana chaahiye.

dharati par kan tvarakon mein black hol ke anuroopon ka nirmaan hone ki soochana hai. ye black hol anuroop gurutveeya black hol ke samaan naheen hote hain, lekin gurutv pramaatra (kvaantam) siddhaanton ki jaanch ke liye ye mahatvapoorn hain.[76]

ve majaboot naabhikeeya shakti ke siddhaant ke anuroop hone ki vajah se black hol ki tarah vyavahaar karte hain, jinka gurutvaakarshan aur gurutvaakarshan ke pramaatra siddhaant se koi lena dena naheen hai. ve samaan hain kyonki donon string (pankti) siddhaant dvaara varnit kiye jaate hain. at: kvaark gluon plaajma mein aag ke gole ke gathan aur vightan ki vyaakhya black hol ki bhaasha mein ki ja sakti hai. riletivistik heavy aayan kolaaidar (RHIC) mein aag ka gola (faayarabaul) parightana black hol ke kaafi nikat ka anuroop hai aur is anuroop ka upayog karke iske kai bhautik gunon ki bhavishyavaani sahi dhang ki ja sakti hai. aag ka gola (faayarabaul), haalaaainki, ek gurutveeya vastu naheen hai. vartamaan mein yeh gyaat naheen hai ki kya aur adhik oorjaavaan laarj haidran kolaaidar (LHC) aasha ke anuroop bade atirikt aayaam vaale sookshm black hol ke utpaadan mein saksham hoga, jaisa ki kai shodhakartaaon dvaara sujhaaya gaya hai. adhik gaharaai se charcha ke liye dekhein: laarj haidran kolaaidar mein kan takaraav ki suraksha.

unnat vishay

krumi (varm) vivr

ek schvaarjschild vormahaule ka chitr.

saamaanya saapekshata mein aise vinyaas ki sambhaavana ka varnan kiya gaya hai jismein do black hol ek doosare se jude hue hain. is tarah ke vinyaas ko aamtaur par ek varmahol kaha jaata hai. varmaholon ne kalpit vigyaan kathaaon ke lekhakon ko prerit kiya hai kyonki ve ati lambi doori ki yaatraaon ko sheeghrata se tay karne ka saadhan pradaan karte hain, time treval bhi. vyavahaar mein, khagol bhautiki mein aise vinyaas lagbhag asambhav si baat hain, kyonki koi bhi gyaat prakriya in vastuon ke nirmaan ki anumati deti prateet naheen hoti hai.

entropi aur hauking vikirn

1971 mein, Stefan hauking ne dikhaaya ki paaramparik black hol ke kisi bhi sangrah ke ghatna kshitij ke kul kshetr ko kam naheen kiya ja sakta hai, bhale hi ve aapas mein takara kar ek doosare ko nigl lein, arthaat vilay ho jaae.[77] yeh ullekhaneeya roop se ooshmapravaigiki ke dviteeya niyam ke samaan hai, jahaaain kshetr entropi ki bhoomika ada karta hai. aisa maana jaata tha ki shoonya taapamaan hone ki vajah se black hol ki entropi shoonya hogi. yadi aisa hota to entropi-krut padaarth ke black hol mein pravesh se ooshmapravaigiki ke doosare niyam ka ullanghan hota tha, parinaamasvaroop brahmaand ki kul entropi mein kami aani chaahiye thi. isliye, jekab bekeinstein ne prastaav rakha ki ek black hol ki ek entropi chaahiye aur ise ghatna kshitij ka anupaatik hona chaahiye. choonki black hol paaramparik roop se vikirn naheen chhodte hai, ooshmapravaigiki drushtikon ek anuroop maatr prateet hota hai, kyonki shoonya taapamaan ka arth hai ooshma ke kisi bhi yog se entropi mein anant parivrtanon ka hona, jiska arth hai anant entropi. haalaaainki, 1974 mein, hauking ne ghatna kshitij ke paas pramaatra kshetr siddhaant ko vakrit antariksh-samay par laagoo kiya aur paaya ki black hol hauking vikirn chhodte hain, jo ek tarah ka taapeeya vikirn hai aur unaroo prabhaav se sambaddh hai, jiska arth yeh nikla ki unamein ek saakaaraatmak (pojitiv) taapamaan nihit hai. isne black hol gatisheelata aur ooshmapravaigiki ke beech ke anuroopan ko bal pradaan kiya: black hol yaantriki ke pehle niyam ka upayog karte hue, yeh nishkarsh nikla ja sakta hai ki ek gair-chakrit black hol ki entropi uske ghatna kshitij ke kshetr ki ek chauthaai hogi. yeh ek saarvabhaumik parinaam hai aur ise sampoorn brahmaandeeya kshitij par laagoo kiya ja sakta hai, jaise ki di sittar antariksh kshetr mein. baad mein yeh sujhaav aaya ki ek black hol adhiktam entropi waali vastu hai, arthaat antariksh ke kisi ek kshetr ki adhiktam sambhav entropi us kshetr mein sama sakane vaale sabse bade black hol ki entropi hogi. iski vajah se holograafik siddhaant ki utpatti hui.

hauking vikirn black hol ke vishisht taapamaan ko darshaata hai, jiski ganana usaki entropi se ki ja sakti hai. taapamaan jitna girega, black hol utana hi vishaal hota jaayega: jitni adhik urja avashoshit karega, utana hi adhik adhik thanda hota jaayega. budh grah ke lagbhag dravyamaan vaale black hol mein aakaasheeya sookshm-tarang vikirn ke santulan mein taapamaan hota hai (lagbhag 2.73 K). isse adhik bhaari hone par, ek black hol prushthabhoomi vikirn se adhik thanda ho jaaega aur yeh hauking vikirn ke maadhyam se utsarjit urja ki tulana mein, prushthabhoomi se jyaada teji se urja praapt karega, isse bhi adhik thanda ho jaayega. haalaaainki, ek kam bhaari black hol mein yeh prabhaav yeh darshaayega ki black hol ka dravyamaan samay ke saath dheere dheere vaashpit ho kar ud jaayega, jabki black hol aisa karte hue aur adhik garam hota jaayega. haalaaainki ye prabhaav un black hol ke liye naganya hain jo antariksheeya roop se gathit hone ke liye paryaapt roop se bhaari hain, ve kaalpanik chhote black hol ke liye badi teji se mahatvapoorn ho jaayeinge, jahaaain pramaatra-yaantrik prabhaav haavi hon. vaastav mein, chhote black hol sanbhavat: drut gati se vaashpit honge aur antat: vikirn ke ek visfot ke saath lupt ho jaayeinge.

haalaanki saamaanya saapekshata ka upayog kisi black hol ki entropi ki ganana hetu kiya ja sakta hai, yeh sthiti siddhaantat: santushti dene wala naheen hai. saankhyikeeya yaantriki mein, entropi ka arth ek pranaali ki sookshm vinyaas ki sankhya ki ganana ke roop mein samjha jaata hai jinmein samaan sookshm gun ho (jaise drabyamaan, aavesh, dabaav, aadi). lekin ek pramaatra gurutv ke santoshajanak siddhaant ke bina, black hol ke liye is prakaar ki ganana karna sambhav naheen hai. haalaaainki, string siddhaant dvaara thodi aasha jagaai gayi hai, jiske anusaar black hol ki svatantrata ki sookshm maatra D-brens hai. pradaan kiye gaye chaarj aur oorja dvaara di-braans ki avasthaaon ki ganana karke, kuchh khaas ati samamit black hol ke utkram maap ko praapt kiya ja sakta hai. in gananaaon ki vaidhata ke kshetr ko vistrut karna, anusandhaanon ke liye ek jaari kaarya kshetr hai.

black hol kendreekaran

tathaakathit jaankaari lop virodhaabhaas, ya black hol kendreekaran virodhaabhaas, maulik bhautiki mein ek khula prashn hai. paaramparik roop se, bhautik vigyaan ke niyam samaan hi raheinge, aage ki taraf badhein ya peechhe jaaeain (ti-samamit). arthaat, yadi brahmaand ke pratyek kan ki sthiti aur veg ki maap ki jaaye, to ham (avyavastha ko darakinaar karte hue) ichhaanusaar ateet ke brahmaand ke itihaas ki khoj ke liye peechhe ki taraf kaam kar sakte hain. loovil prameya fej space volyoom ke sanrakshan ka varnan karta hai, jise "jaankaari ke sanrakshan" ke roop mein samjha ja sakta hai, isliye sthaapit (gair-kvaantam saamaanya saapekshata) bhautiki mein bhi kuchh samasya avashya hai. kvaantam yaantriki mein, yeh kendreekaran naamak ek mahatvapoorn gun ke saath mel khaati hai, jiska sambandh praayikta ke sanrakshan ke saath hai (ise ghanatv maitriks dvaara vyakt kvaantam fej space volyoom ke sanrakshan ke taur par bhi socha ja sakta hai).[78]

haalaaainki, black hol is niyam ka ullanghan kar sakte hain. sthaapit saamaanya saapekshata ke antargat yeh sthiti sookshm kintu spasht hai: sthaapit no-heyar prameya ke kaaran, yeh kabhi nirdhaarit naheen kiya ja sakta ki black hol ke andar kya gaya? haalaaainki, baahar se dekhne par, jaankaari vaastav mein kabhi nasht naheen hoti hai, kyonki black hol mein girte hue padaarth ko ghatna kshitij tak pahuainchane mein anant samay lagta hai.

is baat par jor dena aavashyak hai ki saamaanya saapekshata ke sameekaran asal mein ti-samaroopata ka paalan karte hain aur yeh tathya ki uparokt tark saamaanya saapekshata ke epleekeshan se hi aata hai, hamein thoda satark ho jaana chaahiye. yeh is tathya ki vajah se hai ki time-simetrik siddhaant (loshmit virodhaabhaas) dvaara time-rivrsal-esimetrik nishkarsh tak pahuainchaana sambhav naheen hai, jo is maamale mein saamaanya saapekshata hai. rindlar nirdeshaank, jo ek baahari darshak ke liye ghatna kshitij ke nikat laagoo hote hain, ti-samamit hain at: "aparivrtaneeya" prakriya jaisi kisi cheej ke astitv ko nakaara ja sakta hai. yeh sambhav hai ki "virodhaabhaas" time-samamit siddhaant par time-asamamit seema ko laagoo karne ka parinaam hai, yeh isko loshmit virodhaabhaas ka ek prakaar banta hai.

doosari or, pramaatra gurutv ke baare mein vichaar, yeh sujhaav dete hain ki vahaan keval ek seemit parimit utkram maap ho sakti hai (soochana ki adhiktam parimit maatra) jo kshitij ke paas ke antariksh se sambandhit hogi: lekin kshitij ke utkram maap mein parivartan aur hauking vikirn ka utkram maap sarvatha paryaapt hota hai un padaarth aur oorja ke sabhi utkram maapon ko apne mein samaahit karne ke liye jo black hol mein gir rahein hon.

haalaaainki kai bhautikeevidon ki yeh chinta hai ki yeh abhi bhi theek prakaar se samjha naheen ja saka hai. khaas kar, ek pramaatra star par, hauking vikirn ki pramaatra avastha nirdhaarit hoti hai keval is baat se ki black hol mein poorv mein kya gir chuka hai; aur itihaas ki black hol mein kya gira tha ekamaatr nirdhaarit hoti hai black hol aur vikirn ke pramaatra avastha dvaara. yahi niytatvavaad aur kendreekaran ki aavashyakta hogi.

lambe samay tak Stefan hauking ne is vichaar ka birodh kiya, apni mool 1975 ki sthiti par ve ade rahe ki hauking vikirn poori tarah se taapeeya hai isliye poornataya avyavasthit hai, black hol dvaara poorv mein nigle gaye padaarthon ki koi bhi jaankaari maujood naheen rahati hai; unhonein tark diya ki is jaankaari ka lop ho chuka hai. haalaaainki, 21 July 2004 mein, unhonne naya tark prastut kiya, apne pichhle tark ke vipreet.[79] is nai ganana mein, black hol se sambandhit utkram maap (aur isliye jaankaari bhi) nikalkar hauking vikirn mein hi jaata hai. haalaaainki, ise siddhaant mein samajh paana bhi mushkil hai, jab tak black hol apna vaashpeekaran poora na kar le. tab tak hauking vikirn ki jaankaari aur vyavastha ki praarambhik avastha mein 1:1 tareeke se sambaddh sthaapit karna asambhav hai. ek baar jab black hol poori tarah vaashpit ho jaaye, unki pehchaan ki ja sakti hai aur unamein hua kendreekaran sanrakshit rahata hai.

jis samay hauking ne apni ganana poori ki, yeh AdS/ CFT sambandh ke dvaara kaafi spasht ho chuka tha ki black hol ka kshaya ekaatmak tareeke se hota hai. kyonki gej siddhaanton mein aag ke gole, jo hauking vikirn ke anuroop hain, nishchit roop se ekaatmak hain. hauking ki nai ganana ka visheshagya vaigyaanik samudaaya dvaara moolyaankan naheen kiya gaya hai, kyonki unke upayog kiye tareeke anajaane aur sandigdh anuroopata vaale hain. lekin khud hauking ne ispar paryaapt vishvaas jataate hue 1997 mein kailatek bhautikvid John preskill ke saath lagaai gayi shart ke liye bhugataan kiya, jismein media ko kaafi ruchi rahi thi.

holograafik vishv

leonaard saskind aur Nobel puraskaar vijeta jeraard ti hooft ne yeh sujhaav diya hai ki black hol ke chaaron aur ke triaayaami antariksh ko ghatna kshitij ke ek dviaayaami vyavahaar dvaara poorn roop se varnit kiya ja sakta hai.[80] ve ispar vishvaas karte hain kyonki yeh black hol jaankaari-lop virodhaabhaas ka samaadhaan kar sakta hai. is vichaar ko string siddhaant ke arntagat saamaayik kiya gaya hai, tatha holograafik siddhaant ke taur par jaana jaata hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

  • black hol informeshan peraadoks
  • black string
  • fujbaul (string siddhaant)
  • gurutveeya vishishtata
  • kugelblitj (khagol bhautiki)
  • nyootraun taara
  • antariksh samay
  • atyadhik dravyamaan wala black hol
  • saskind -haaking yudgh
  • black hol bhautiki ki samayarekha
  • white hol
  • blek hol ki soochi

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atirikt pathan

lokapriya pathan

  • Ferguson, Kitty (1991), Black Holes in Space-Time, Watts Franklin, ISBN 0-531-12524-6 .
  • Hawking, Stephen (1988), A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books, Inc, ISBN 0-553-38016-8 .
  • Hawking, Stephen; Penrose, Roger (1996), The Nature of Space and Time, Princeton University Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-691-03791-2, http://books.google.nl/books?id=LstaQTXP65cC .
  • Melia, Fulvio (2003), The Black Hole at the Center of Our Galaxy, Princeton U Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09505-9 .
  • Melia, Fulvio (2003), The Edge of Infinity. Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe, Cambridge U Press, ISBN 978-0-521-81405-8 .
  • Pickover, Clifford (1998), Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide, Wiley, John & Sons, Inc, ISBN 0-471-19704-1 .
  • Thorne, Kip S. (1994), Black Holes and Time Warps, Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc, ISBN 0-393-31276-3 .
  • Stern, B. (2008), Blackhole, http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Blackhole_%28Stern%29 , kavita.

vishvavidyaalaya ki paathyapustakein aur monograaf

  • Carroll, Sean M. (2004), Spacetime and Geometry, Addison Wesley, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-8053-8732-3 jis pustak par lekchar nots aadhaarit the ve scene Carol ki website par muft upalabdh hain.
  • Carter, B. (1973), "Black hole equilibrium states", in DeWitt, B.S.; DeWitt, C., Black Holes .
  • Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1999), Mathematical Theory of Black Holes, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-850370-9 .
  • Frolov, V.P.; Novikov, I.D. (1998), Black hole physics .
  • Hawking, S.W.; Ellis, G.F.R. (1973), Large Scale Structure of space time, Cambridge University Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521099064, http://books.google.nl/books?id=QagG_KI7Ll8C .
  • Melia, Fulvio (2007), The Galactic Supermassive Black Hole, Princeton U Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13129-0 .
  • Taylor, Edwin F.; Wheeler, John Archibald (2000), Exploring Black Holes, Addison Wesley Longman, ISBN 0-201-38423-X .
  • Thorne, Kip S.; Misner, Charles; Wheeler, John (1973), Gravitation, W. H. Freeman and Company, ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 .
  • Wald, Robert M. (1992), Space, Time, and Gravity: The Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-87029-4 .

shodh patra

  • Hawking, S. (2005). "Information loss in black holes". Physical Review D 72: 084013. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.084013. arXiv:hep-th/0507171v2. Stefan havking's paraporated solyooshan too di blek hol yuneetereeti peraadoks, fast riported it A konfreins in July 2004.
  • Ghez, A. M. (2005). "Stellar Orbits around the Galactic Center Black Hole". The Astrophysical Journal 620: 744. doi:10.1086/427175. arXiv:astro-ph/0306130v2. mor ekyooret maas end pojeeshan for di blek hol eight di center of di milki ve.
  • saaaincha:Cite arXiv lekchar nots fraum 2005 esaelaesi samar insteechyoot

baahya links