biyovulf

saaaincha:Infobox Medieval text

biyovulf (IPA: /ˈaabeɪ.ɵaawʊaalf/, puraani angreji mein ya to uchchaaran: [ˈaabeːaao̯aawʊaalf] ya uchchaaran: [ˈaabeːaaəaawʊaalf])[1], ek puraane angreji veer mahaakaavya kavita ka paaramparik naam hai, jismein 3182 anupraas lambi panktiyaan hain, jo skaindineviya mein set ki gayi hain aur jise saamaanyat: englo-sekson saahitya ka sabse mahatvapoorn kaarya maana jaata hai. ise keval ek hi paandulipi mein likha gaya hai, is paandulipi ko novel kodeks ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. iski rachana ek anaam englo-sekson kavi dvaara 8veen[2][3] aur aaranbhik 11veen sadi ke beech ki gayi thi.[4]

kavita mein, biyovulf, Gates ka naayak hai, jo teen shatruon:graindal, jo haroogar ke meed hall mein aavaasi yoddhaaon ke oopar aakraman karta rahata hai (dens ka raaja), graindal ki maaain aur ek anaam draigan (ajhdaha) ke saath yuddh karta hai. antim ladaai baad mein hoti hai, biyovulf ab Gates ka raaja ban chuka hai. antim ladaai mein, biyovulf gambhir roop se ghaayal ho jaata hai. uske dehaant ke baad uske samarthak use getalaind ke tumulas mein dafna dete hain.

anukram

aitihaasik prushthabhoomi

biyovulf mein ullekhit janajaatiyon ke keindreeya kshetr ke ek sannikt aur kon ke anumaanit sthaan. 6veen sadi ke dauraan skaindinaaviya ke khandit raajaneetik sthiti ke baare mein adhik vistrut charcha ke liye, skaindja dekhein.

kavita mein varnit ghatnaaen englo-sekson ke inglai‍aad jaakar basane ke baad, 5veen sadi ke ant aur 7veen sadi ki shuruaat se pehle ki hain, jab seksons ya to skaindineviya aur uttari Germany mein nae-nae aakar base the, ya unke yooropeeyan saathi kinsamen ke najdeeki the. kavita ko gate mool ke logon dvaara England mein sancharit kiya gaya ho sakta hai.[5] yeh kaha jaata hai ki biyovulf ki rachana sabse pehle 7veen sadi mein poorv engliya[6] ke reindalashaam mein ki gayi thi, kyonki satan hoo ke skaindineviya mein bhi najadeeki sampark the aur saath hi poorv engliyaai shaahi raajavansh, vafings, gate ke vulfings ke vanshaj bhi the.[7] doosare is kavita ko raaja elafard ki adaalat, ya raaja kainyoot ki adaalat se sambandhit maanate hain.[4]

othere ka teela
snori starlusan ke anusaar edgils ko apasala mein dafnaaya gaya tha. jab 1874 mein, edgils ke teele (baain or) ki khudaai ki gayi thi, to mili saamagriyaan biyovulf aur saaga ka samarthan kar rahi theen.

kavita mein pauraanik katha par aadhaarit hai, arthaat, iski rachana manoranjan ke uddeshya se ki gayi thi aur yeh kaalpanik ghatnaaon ko vaastavik aitihaasik ghatnaaon se pruthak naheen karta hai, jaise frisiya par raaja haaijelak dvaara kiya gaya chhaapa. 516. vidvaanon ka maanana hai ki aam taur par biyovulf ke kai vyaktitv ke skaindineviyaai sroton mein bhi upalabdh hain,[8] lekin yeh keval logon (uda. heelfden, harugar, haalga, harulf, edgils aur othere) se sambandhit naheen hai, balki gharaanon (uda. skeeldings, skeelfings aur vulfings) aur kuchh ghatnaaon (uda., aais of lek vainarn ka yuddh) se bhi sambandhit hai. skaindineviyaai srot mukhyat: yangalinga saaga, gesta dainoram, harolf kreki saaga aur khoe skjoldunga saaga ka laitin saaraansh hain. jahaaain tak sveedan ka sambandh hai, kavita ki ghatnaaon mein deting ki pushti snori starlasan ke sanket par puraataatvik khudaai aur apalaind, sveedan mein maujood othere (dinaank c.530) aur uske bete edgils (dinaank c.575) ke kabro ke roop mein sveedish parampara dvaara ki gayi hai.[9][10][11] Denmark mein, haal hi mein lejare, jahaan skaindineviyaai parampara ki skeeldings ki seat sthit hai, arthaat, heoroot, mein ki gayi puraataatvik khudaai mein pata chala ki hall ka nirmaan 6veen shataabdi ke madhya mein hua tha, theek biyovulf ki samay avadhi ke dauraan.[12] lagbhag 50 meter lambe teen hall khudaai ke dauraan mile.[12]

bahumat ka drushtikon hai ki biyovulf ke raaja harugar aur skeeldings 6veen shataabdi mein skainadinaaviya ke mool nivaasi the.[13] finsabarg fregmeint aur kai chhote jeevant kavitaaon ki tarah, biyovulf ka upayog nirantar skaindinaaviyaai vyaktitvon jaise edgils aur heejalek aur jarmainik vyaktitvon jaise enjels mahaadveep ke raaja ofa, se sambandhit jaankaari ke srot ke roop mein kiya jaata raha hai.

19 veen sadi ke puraataatvik saakshya biyovulf kahaani ki pushti kar sakte hain. snori starlsan ke anusaar, edgils ko apasala mein dafnaaya gaya tha. jab 1874 mein edgils ke teele (chitr meain baain or) par khudaai ki thi, to us dauraan mili vastuen biyovulf aur usaki kahaaniyon ka samarthan kar rahi thi. pata chala ki ek shaktishaali aadmi ko yahaan, c 575, bhaaloo ki tvacha par do kutton aur sundar kabr mein dafnaaya gaya tha. in avasheshon mein sone aur raktamani se saji frainkish talavaar aur roman haatheedaant ke pyaade wala ek taafl khel bhi shaamil tha. usane sunahare dhaage se bane frainkish kapde ka ek bahut mahanga soot pahana hua tha aur usane ek mahange bakal waali belket bhi pahani hui thi. madhya poorv ki chaar kahaaniyaan thi, jo ki sanbhavat: kaasket ka hissa the. puraane naurs sroton ke anusaar yeh ek aise dafan raaja ki kahaani hai, jo apni sampatti ke liye prasiddh tha. ongenpiyo ke smaarak (chitr mein daain or) ki khudaai naheen ki gayi hai.[9][10]

katha

mukhya naayak, biyovulf, Gates ka naayak, dens ke raaja hrothagar ki sahaayata karne ke liye aata hai, jiske mahaan hall hiyoroot ko raakshas graindal ne tahas-nahas kar diya hai. biyovulf jaadui talavaar ki sahaayata se graindal aur graindal ki maaain donon ko maarta hai.

aage chalakar apne jeevan mein, biyovulf jab Gates ka raaja ban jaata hai, tab ek dregan uske kshetr mein aantak failaane lagta hai, jiska khajaana uske dafan teele se chori ho gaya tha. vah apni sena ke saath dregan par aakraman karta hai, lekin use safalta naheen milti hai. biyovulf eyaranaanes par rdragan ka peechha uske maand mein karne ka faisala karta hai, lekin usaka saath keval yuva sveedish rishtedaar viglaaf dene ki himmat karta hai. biyovulf antat: dregan ko maar deta hai, lekin gambhir roop se ghaayal ho jaata hai. use samudra ke kinaare ek tumulas mein dafan kiya gaya hai.

biyovulf ko ek pauraanik mahaakaavya ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jiska mukhya paatr ek naayak hai, jo divya shaktiyon se paripoorn raakshason aur jaanvaron se ladne ke liye lambi dooriyon ki yaatraaen karta hai. kavita bhi midiyaas race ("maamalon ke beech mein"), ya saamaanya roop se dekhein to "madhya mein" shuroo hoti hai hai, jo praacheen mahaakaavyon ki visheshata hai. haalaanki kavita biyovulf aagaman ke saath shuroo hoti hai, lekin graindal ke hamalein kuchh samay tak jaari rahate hain. kavi jisne biyovulf ki rachana ki hai, kahaani bataate samay mein, kahaani ke bheetar utsaah aur saahas banaae rakhane ke liye ek nishchit shaili ka upayog karne par dhyaan diya hai. paatron aur unke vansh ka vistrut itihaas, saath hi ek doosare ke saath unki mulaakaaton, unke kaaryon ki saarrathakata unki veerata ke karm aadi ka varnan uttam roop mein kiya gaya hai.

yuddhon dvaara sanrachit

jen chaans (angreji ki profesar, Rice university) ne apne 1980 aalekh "the starkacharal unity of biyovulf: the problam of graindals madar" mein likha hai ki kavita do maanak vyaakhaaen karti hai: pehla paksh do-bhaag waali sanrachana (arthaat kavita do bhaagon biyovulf ka grendal ke saath yuddh aur dregan ke saath yuddh ke beech vibhaajit hai) ka sujhaav deta hai aur doosra paksh, teen-bhaagon waali sanrachana ka sujhaav deta hai (is vyaakhya ka tark hai ki biyovulf ka graindal ki maan ke saath ka yuddh, uske grendal ke saath hue yuddh se sanrachanaatmak roop se alag hai).[14] chaans ne kaha hai ki, "do-bhaag waali sanrachana ka paksh british academy 22 (1936) ki kaaryavaahi ke J.aar.aar. tolkeenBeowulf: The Monsters and the Critics mein iske sootrapaat ke baad saamaanyat: prachalit hui thi".[14] iske vipreet, ve tark deti hain ki teen-bhaag waali sanrachana "adhik lokapriya" hai.[14]

pehla yuddh: graindal

biyovulf ki shuruaat raaja harugar ki kahaani se hoti hai, jisne apne logon ke liye mahaan hall hiyoroot ka nirmaan karavaaya tha. ismein, usaki patni velhapiyo aur uske yoddha naach gaakar khushiyaan manaakar samay vyateet karte hain, jab tak ki naach gaane se naaraaj hokar samaaj se baahar ki prajaati grendal, hall par hamla karti hai aur harugar ke kai yoddhaaon ko sote samay hatya kar deti hai aur unka bhakshan kar leti hai. lekin graindal ke paas harugar ke sinhaasan ko chhoone ki himmat naheen hoti hai, kyonki use yeh bataaya gaya hai ki harugar ki suraksha k shaktishaali devata karte hain. harugar aur uske log, graindal ke hamlon ke khilaaf asahaaya hokar, hiyoroot ka parityaag karne ke baare mein sochane lagte hain.

getalaind ka yuva yoddha biyovulf, harugar ki dasha ke baare mein pata chalte hi, apne raaja ki anumati lekar apni maatrubhoomi ko chhodkar harugar ki sahaayata karne nikal padta hai.

biyovulf aur uske sainik hiyoroot mein raat bitaate hain. jab ve sone lagte hain, tab graindal hall mein pravesh karti hai aur hamla bol deti hai aur biyovulf ke ek aadmi ka bhakshan karne lagti hai. biyovulf, jiske paas koi hathiyaar naheen tha, jo ki nihatthe jaanavar par ek anuchit laabh tha, sone ka abhinay kar raha tha aur graindal chhalaang lagaakar use apne haath mein jakad leti hai. donon ghamaashaan yuddh karne lagte hain. biyovulf ke anuyaayi apne talavaar lekar hamla karte hain, lekin unke hathiyaar graindal ka baal bhi baanka naheen kar paate hain. antat:, biyovulf graindal ke shareer se usaka haath uske kandhe se tod daalata hai aur graindal aaainsoo nikal aate hain aur maranaasann avastha mein apne ghar ki or bhaag jaata hai.

doosra yuddh: graindal ki maan

agali raat, graindal ke maut ka jashn manaane ke baad, harugar aur uske log hiyorut mein sone lagte hain. graindal ki maan prakat hoti hai aur hall par hamla bol deti hai. vah harugar ke sabse vishvaasapaarthi yoddha, ashechar, ko graindal ki maut ka badla lete hue maar daalati hai.

harugar, biyovulf aur unke sainik graindal ki maan ko jheel ke andar usaki khoh mein dhoondh lete hain. biyovulf khud ko ladaai ke liye taiyaar karta hai, yoddha anafrth, use talavaar haranting deta hai. harugar ko uske maranoparaant karne ke liye kai sthitiyon ke liye prateejnyaa dilaane ke baad (jismein uske bhaaiyon ki dekhbhaal karna aur biyovulf ki sampatti anafrth ko saunpana shaamil tha), biyovulf jheel mein kood jaata hai. graindal ki maan use jald hi dekh leti hai aur usapar hamla bol deti hai. haalaanki, vah apne hathiyaar ke maadhyam se biyovulf ko nuksaan pahuncha naheen paati hai, isliye use jheel ke neechale satah tak kheench kar le jaati hai. gufa mein graindal ka shareer aur do aadamiyon ki laashein rakhi hui hain, graindal ki maan aur biyovulf ke beech bheeshan ladaai chal rahi hain.

sabse pehle, graindal ki maan prabal prateet hoti hai. biyovulf, apne haranting se apne dushman ko nuksaan naheen pahuncha pa raha haikar sakta apne dushman mein, yeh use krodhit karta hai. biyovulf fir se apne kavach ke kaaran apne dushman ke hamle se bach jaata hai, ya hai aur graindal ki maan ke haathon ko apne talavaar se aahat kar deta hai (isse pehle koi bhi yoddha, aisa paraakram naheen kar paaya tha), biyovulf usaka sir dhad se alag kar deta hai. khoh mein aage jaane par, biyovulf ko graindal ki laash milti hai, vah usaka sir kaat kar apne paas rakh leta hai. biyovulf fir satah par aur apne saathiyon ke paas "nau ghanto" ke baad (l. 1600, "nōan", lagbhag 3pm) vaapas laut aata hai.[15] vah hiyoroot jaata hai, jahaan harugar biyovulf ko apne parivaar ki viraasat naigling talavaar sahit kai upahaar deta hai.

teesara yuddh: dregan

J. aar. aar. skelatan dvaara agyaat dregan ke saath biyovulf ke yuddh ke 1908 chitran.

biyovulf ghar vaapas aa jaata hai aur baad mein apne hi logon ka raaja ban jaata hai. ek din, biyovulf ke jeevan mein kuchh samay pashchaat, ek gulaam eyaranaanes mein agyaat dregan ke maand se ek svarn cup churaata hai. jab dregan yeh dekhta hai ki cup chori ho gaya hai, to gusse mein vah apni gufa se baahar aa jaata hai aur apni drushti se sabkuchh jalaane lagta hai. biyovulf aur uske yoddha dregan se ladne jaate hain, lekin jab biyovulf dregan ke vaar se ghaayal ho jaata hai, to uske sabhi yoddha dar kar bhaag khade hote hain. keval ek yoddha, ek bahaadur yuva viglf, biyovulf ki madad karne ke liye rookata hai. donon milkar dregan ko maar giraate hain, lekin biyovulf ki uske ghaavon ke kaaran maut ho jaati hai.

daah sanskaar ke baad, biyovulf ko samudra ke paas ek chattaan mein dafna diya jaata hai, jahaan samudri naavik uske tumulas ko dekh sakte hain. draigan ke khajaane ko logon ke beech vitrit karne ke baajaaya biyovulf ki ichhaanusaar uske saath hi dafan kar diya jaata hai. vahaan us dher ke saath abhishaap juda hai.

shavayaatra dvaara sanrachit

yeh vyaapak roop se sveekaarya hai ki biyovulf ki teen shavayaatraaen ki gayi theen.[16] ye shavayaatraaen kavita ki kahaani ki rooparekha meain parivartan karne aur saath hi saansaarik sampatti, yuddh aur yash par darshakon ke vichaar parivrtit karne mein madad karti hain. shavayaatraaoain ko oopar varnit teen yuddhon ke saath jodkar bhi dekha jaata hai.[16] teenon shavayaatraaen pratyek antim sanskaar ke vivran ke maadhyam se vishay mein parivartan ke samaan prastaav saajha karte hain. Gale oven-kroker (englo-seksaan ke profesar, university of Manchester) ne apni pustak the for fyoonarals in biyovulf (2000) mein tark diya hai ki kavita ke le of laast sarvaaivar"(2247-66 panktiyaan) ke roop mein jaani jaati hai, jo ki ek atirikt antim sanskaar hai.[16] shavayaatraaen swayam ko sanchaya karne ki rasm: dhaarmik aur saamaajik-aarthik kaaryon donon ke saath tyaag ki vastuon ke saakshya shaamil karti hai.[17]

skeeld sefing (1-52 panktiyaan)

kavita mein pehli shavayaatra ko dens ka raaja skeeld sefing kaha gaya hai (kuchh sanskaranon mein "shield sheefasan" ke roop mein anudit).[18] pehla bhaag kavi ki madad hrothagar ke vansh ka parichay karaate hue kavita ke setings ki vyaakhya karne mein karta hai. shavayaatra naayak biyovulf aur pehle daanav graindal ke saath ke takaraav ka parichay hai. yeh ansh "kai janajaatiyon ke abhishaap, sharaab ke takht ke vidhvansak" ke roop mein skeeld ki mahima ke varnan ke saath shuroo hota hai.[18] skeeld ki mahima aur mahatva ko usaki pratishthit maut dvaara darshaaya gaya hai, jo use deins ke raaja ke roop mein seva karte hue praapt hui thi.[16] unke mahatva ko ekabaar fir logon dvaara nikaali gayi usaki bhavya shavayaatra saabit karti hai: uske antim sanskaar mein pradarshit kai hathiyaar aur khajaane uske mahaan yoddha aur mahaan neta hone ka pramaan hai.[16] kavi ne skeeld ke maadhyam se naayakik samaaj ko prastut kiya hai. aise vastuon ke mahatva ko raaja ki sampatti ke saath dafan karke varnit kiya gaya hai.[16] in saansaarik sampattiyon ke mahatva ka upayog baad mein khajaane ke sambandh mein is mrut raaja ki mahaanata sthaapit karne mein ki gayi hai.[16] skeeld ka antim sanskaar kavi ki madad nyaayik samaaj ke yuddh mein veerata aur saansaarik sampatti kaise kisi vyakti ke mahatva ko paribhaashit karti hai, yeh bataane mein karta hai. yeh antim sanskaar kavi ki madad pratipkshi, biyovulf aur mukhya daanav graindal ke beech ki saajish ke patal ko viksit karne mein karta hai.

hildebarg ke parijan (1107-24 panktiyaan)

kavita mein antim sanskaar doosra yeh hai ki parijan Hildeburg ki hai aur kavita FITT ke is doosare number par hai.[18] antim sanskaar ko hiyoroot mein graindal par biyovulf ki jeet ka jashn manaane ke liye gaaya jaata hai. yeh graindal ki maan khilaaf ladaai mein naayak ki jeet ka prateek bhi hai. yuddh mein hildebarg ke bhaai, bete aur pati ki maut ho gayi thi. ladaai mein skeeld ki bhi maut ho gaye thi aur yeh mrut ke antim sanskaar mein upayog ki gaye asaadhaaran sampatti ki gaatha bhi hai.[18] den ke raaja ki tarah, hildebarg ke rishtedaaron ko bhi unke hathiyaar aur svarn ke saath unki mahatvata ko darshaane ke liye dafnaaya gaya tha.[16] haalaanki, rishtedaaron ki shavayaatra utani bhavya naheen thi, vah keval antim sanskaar samaaroh hi tha. iske alaava, kavi ne yuddh mein marne vaalon ki bhaavanaaon ko bhi chitrit kiya hai.[18] "pighlate sir, khule gahar ghaav... aur shareer se nikalte hue rakt"[18] jaise bheeshan vivran yuddh ko veer-gaatha ke bajaay ek dardanaak aur bhayaavah durghatana ke roop mein varnit karte hain.[16] haalaanki kavi ne maut se jyaada sampatti ke vishay ko mahatvata dene ki poori koshish ki hai, fir bhi yuddh ki mahima ko shaatir yuddh ki pravruti chunauti deti hai. doosari shavayaatra pehli se bhinn avadhaarana pradarshit karti hai aur kahaani ki disha mein parivartan biyovulf ke graindal ki maan ke khilaaf ladaai ko netrutv karti hai.

le of the laast sarvaaivar (2247-66 panktiyaan)

"le of the laast sarvaaivar" taarkik roop se anya dafanaae gaye logon ke mahatva ko nirdhaarit samaanataaon ke kaaran biyovulf ke teen anya shavayaatraaon ke atirikt hai.[16] is ansh ki teen anya shavayaatraaon ke saath pehchaan karne waali samaanataaen dafanaane ki rasmon, seting aur bhoomika mein parivartan aur vishay mein parivartan ke samaan hai. shok ek shavayaatra jaisa prateet hota hai kyonki dafan prastaavon mein antim uttarajeevi ke varnan hain, jo ki skeeld sefing, hildebarg ke parijan aur biyovulf ki shavayaatraaon mein bhi milte hain.[16] antim uttarajeevi mrut logon dvaara chhode gaye kai khajaanon ke baare mein bataata hai jaise hathiyaar, astr aur svarn cup[18], jinke skeeld ke "behatareen chamakeele cup..., khun se sane hathiyaar aur kavach,"[18] hildebarg ke parijanon ke "khun se sane kavach aur sooar ke aakaar ke helamet"[18] aur biyovulf ke dregan ki khoj ke saath kaafi samaanataaen hain.[18]

is ansh ko shavayaatra ke roop amabling hauk[end] swift haurs"[18] bhi hai. yeh ek jaanavar ki peshakash hai jo ki kavita ke yug ke dauraan dafan karne ki ek rasm thi.[16] iske alaava, yeh ansh, anya shavayaatraaon ki tarah, seting aur bhoomika ke parivrtanon ko nirdisht karta hai.[16] log yeh bhi kehte hain ki kavita ke teesare bhaag mein biyovulf aur draigan ke beech hue antim yuddh ke dauraan vyateet kiye gaye samay ka varnan karta hai. kavi ne yuddh mein hui mauton ko bhayaavah bataaya hai, jo ki antim uttarajeevi ki aaainkhon ke maadhyam se kavita ke doosare bhaag ki avadhaarana ko aage badhaata hai.[16]

biyovulf ki shavayaatra (3137-82 panktiyaan)

skailunda ka smaarak, puraatatvavid birgar nerman ne biyovulf dafan teela ke roop mein pahachaana gaya smaarak.[19]

kavita mein varnit chauthi shavayaatra hi biyovulf ki asal shavayaatra hai. dregan ke khilaaf antim yuddh ke baad, biyovulf ko ghaatak ghaav lagte hain aur usaka dehaant ho jaata hai. biyovulf ke jeevan ki mahaanata ko usaki shavayaatra mein varnit kiya gaya hai, visheshakar uske logon ki kai shraddhaanjaliyon ke maadhyam se.[16] iske alaava, dregan ke vishaal khajaane ko naayak ke saath dafan kar diya gaya. kavi ne bhi biyovulf ke antim sanskaar ke varnan ko anya ki apeksha adhik mahatva diya hai.[16] unke neta ke antim sanskaar ke liye, "viyohstan ka putr (rukein) kai logon ke saamane yeh ghoshana karta hai ki (rookein) ve chita se door rahein."[18] dregan ke avasheshon ko skeeld ki kabr ke samaantar samudra mein feink diya jaata hai. biyovulf ki shavayaatra kavita ka chautha bhaag hai, jo us naayak ko shraddhaanjali hai, jo "shaaleen aur nishpaksh, logon ke dayaalu aur jeetne ke liye samvedansheel" tha.[18]

biyovulf paandulipi

udgam sthal

biyovulf paandulipi ka pehla gyaat maalik 16veen sadi ka vidvaan Lawrence nauvel hai, jiske naam par paandulipi ka naam rakha gaya hai, haalaanki iska adhikaarik pad kautan vitelius A.eksavi hai, kyonki yeh 17veen sadi ke madhya mein Robert brus kautan ki sampattiyon mein se ek tha. kevin kiyramen ka tark hai ki nauvel ko yeh 1563 mein William sesil, first beraun bargale se tab mila tha, jab nauvel sesil ke ghar unke putr, Edward de verve, 17vein arl of oksaford shikshak ke roop mein jaaya karte the.[4]

1731 mein kautan laaibreri ke eshabarnan house mein aag lag jaane ki vajah se yeh kshatigrast ho gaya tha. tab se, paandulipi ke hisse ke kai akshar mit gaye hain. athak prayaason se, haalaanki paandulipi ke adhiktar hisson ko bacha liya gaya, fir bhi kavita ke kaafi shabd nasht ho chuke the. university of keintaki mein angreji ke professor, kevin kiyramen, ne computer dijitleekaran aur paandulipi ke sanrakshan ke liye (electronic biyovulf pariyojana[20]), kavita ke aksharon ko pun: praapt karne hetu faaibar optik baikalaaiting ka upayog kiya.

kavita apne ekal paandulipi ke liye gyaat hai, jiski anumaanit tithi 1000 E. ke kareeb hai. kiyramen ne paandulipi ka pareekshan karne ke baad tark diya ki yeh lekhak ki apni prati hai, jispar vah kaarya karta tha. usane is kaarya ko kainyoot the great ke yug ka bataaya.[4] kavita anya kaaryon ke saath aaj biyovulf paandulipi ya nauvel kodeks (british laaibreri MS kautan vitelius A.eksavi) mein upalabdh hai. fraansiss jooniys (sabse yuva) dvaara 1628 aur 1650 ke beech nauvel kodeks ke pehle parnan ka sandarbh sabse pehle diya gaya tha.[4] nauvel se pehle kodeks ka maalik kaun tha, yeh ab bhi rahasya hai.[4]

rivreint Thomas smith aur hamfre vaanale ne kautan laaibreri ki naamaavali banaane ka kaarya apne haathon mein liya, jahaan nauvel kodeks ko rakha gaya tha. smith ki naamaavali 1696 mein chhapi aur hamfre ki 1705 mein.[21] biyovulf paandulipi ko ek patra mein pehli baar 1700 mein jorj hikes, vaanale ke sahaayak aur vaanale ke naam par ullekhit kiya gaya. vaanale ko likhe ek patra mein, hikes ne vaanale dvaara banaae gaye, smith ke khilaaf spasht aarop lagaaya ki smith kautan MS. vitelius A. eksavi ki naamaavali banaate samay biyovulf script ka ullekh karne mein vifal hua hai. hikes ne vaanale ko uttar diya "mujhe biyovulf se sambandhit ab tak kuchh naheen mila". yeh kaha gaya ki smith biyovulf paandulipi ka ullekh karne mein isliye vifal raha kyonki vah pichhle naamaavali par nirbhar tha ya use yeh naheen pata tha ki iska varnan kaise kiya jaae ya use asthaayi roop se kodeks se hata diya gaya tha.[21]

do lipik

mool biyovulf paandulipi ko do lipikon dvaara pratilekhit kiya gaya: lipik A aur lipik bi, jinke patra ko pankti 1939 mein rakha gaya hai. donon lipikon ki likhaavat ka bilkul bhi naheen milte hain.[4] lipik bi ki script puraatan hai.[4] donon lipikon ne apne kaam ko sahi kiya hai aur lipik bi ne lipik A ke kaam ki bhi sahi kiya hai.[4] lipik bi ke kaam mein blikling homiliyes ke pehle lipik ke kaam jaisi saaddrushyata hai aur yahaan tak ki yeh vishvasaneeya hai ki ve samaan lipi se likhe gaye hain.[4] pratilekhan maalmesabari AB ke laaibreri mein rakhe aur srot kaaryon ke roop mein upalabdh gyaan ki pustakon se aur paath mein paae jaane waali sthaaneeya boli ke kuchh vishisht shabdon se likhi gayi prateet hoti hai.[22] haalaanki, kam se kam ek sadi ke liye, kuchh vidvaanon ka kehna tha ki biyovulf mein graindal ke paatr ka varnan blikling homiliyes ke homili 16 mein narak par seint paul ke vichaar se liya gaya tha.[4]

pratilekhan

aaisalaind ke vidvaan grimr Johnson throkaleen ne dainish sarkaar ke aitihaasik anusandhaan aayog ke antargat kaam karte hue, paandulipi ka pehla pratilekhan 1786 mein kiya aur 1815 mein use prakaashit kiya. ek ko unhonne khud pratilekhit kiya aur doosra englo-sekson naheen jaanane vaale peshevar pratilekhakon se karavaaya. us samay ke baad se, paandulipi ko kai baar toda maroda gaya, fir bhi throkaleen ka pratilekhan biyovulf vidvaanon ke liye ek bahumoolya maadhyamik srot bana hua hai. lagbhag 2000 patron ke liye in pratilekhanon ko jimmedaar thaharaaya ja sakta hai. haalaanki. unki sateekata savaalon ke ghere mein aa gayi (uda. 19veen sadi ke anuvaadon aur biyovulf ke sanskaranon par kiye gaye vyaapak sarvekshan, the traansleshan of biyovulf[23] mein chaunsi brestar dvaara) aur vaastav mein throkaleen ke samay ki paandulipi ke atyadhik pathaneeya hone ke baavajood use aspasht kaha gaya.

lekhan aur dinaank

biyovulf ko England mein likha gaya tha, lekin ise skaindinaaviya mein nirdhaarit kiya gaya hai. ise vividh roop se 8veen sadi aur aaranbhik 11veen sadi ke beech dinaankit kiya gaya hai. yeh aitihaasik pariprekshya ki ek mahaakaavya kavita hai; mahaakaavya ghatnaaon aur mahaanatam ateet ke veeron ki ek kahaani hai. haalaanki iska lekhak agyaat hai, lekin iske vishay aur vishay saamagri ke mool englon-sekson parampara mein nihit aur skoops dvaara jote gaye Europeeya veer kavitaaon se milte hain.

is par vichaar bhinn hain ki kavita ki rachana uske pratilekhan ke saath samasaamaayik hai, ya ya kavita ki rachana isse poorv kisi kaal mein ki gayi thi (sanbhavat: beer ke bete ki kahaaniyon ki tarah) aur kai saalon tak maukhik roop se sancharit hoti rahi hai. (Lord 1960:[page needed]) ne mahasoos kiya ki paandulipi pradarshan ke pratilekhan ko prastut karte hain, haalaanki sanbhavat: ek baithak se adhik par liye gaye honge. keeyaranan (1996) pailiyograafikl aur kodikolaujikl saakshyon ke aadhaar par tark diya hai ki kavita paandulipi ke saath samakaaleen hai.[24] keeyaranan ka tark atyadhik charchit kavita ke raajanaitik prasang ke bhaag se mel khaata hai: adhikaansh vidvaanon nein bhi haal hi mein kaha hai ki kavita 8veen sadi mein likhi gayi thi aur iska anumaan unhonnein is aadhaar par lagaaya hai ki kavita mein dens ke liye atyadhik sahaanubhooti dikhaai gayi hai aur iske 9veen aur 10veen sadi mein viking ke yug ke dauraan englo-sekson dvaara likhe jaane ki koi sambhaavana naheen hai.[25] keeyaranan ke tark 8veen sadi ke udgam ke khilaaf hain, kyonki iske liye bhi yeh jaruri hai ki kavita ki englo-sekson dwaar vaaiking yug mein pratilekhan ki gayi ho, pailiyograafikl aur kodikolaujikl saakshya is vishvaas ko badhaava dete hain ki biyovulf 11veen sadi ke samagr ki kavita hai aur yeh kahatha hai ki A aur lipik bi lekhak the aur lipik bi donon mein se adhik maarmik tha.[26]

J. aar. aar. tolkeen ki rai yeh hai ki 700 E. ke aaspaas England mein isaai dharm-prachaar poora hone ke baad kuchh peedhiyon baad likhi gayi kavita mein englo-sekson butaparasti ki vaastavik smruti sammilit hai.[2] tolkeen ka drudh vishvaas ki kavita 8veen sadi mein likhi gayi thi, ko Tom shipi (2007) ka samarthan praapt hai.[27]

John Michelle kimbali (1849) dvaara diya gaya sujhaav aur jaiching (1976) ka bachaav kam se kam aaranbhik 9veen sadi ke finnasabarg prakaran ek tarmins post kvem saamane laata hai. kimbali ne aitihaasik almainik naubalamain hauching (d. ca. 788) ke putr hnobi ke saath hauk ke putr hnaif ke kirdaar ki pehchaan ki aur 800 E. ke shuruaat mein frisiya par aadhaarit poorv ank par kaam kiya.[28]

11veen sadi ki taareekh vidvaanon ke kaaran hai, jinka tark hai ki, kisi saakshar bhikshu dvaara maukhik parampara se kahaani ke pratilekhan ke bajaay, biyovulf kavi dvaara ki gayi kahaani ki mool vyaakhya ko pratibinbit karta hai.[2][29]

maukhik parampara par bahas

biyovulf usaki vartamaan paandulipi se pehle kabhi kisi maukhik parampara mein lipt raha hai ya naheen, yeh prashn sadiyon se bahas ka vishay hai aur ismein iska nirmaan kaise hua, iske alaava bhi kai aur prashn shaamil hain. balki, yeh maukhik-sootrit sanrachana aur maukhik parampara ke siddhaant ka aashay deta hai, prashn yeh hai ki kavita ko kaise samjha jaae aur kis prakaar ki vyaakhya ki aavashyakta hai.

maukhik parampara ke sandarbh mein biyovulf par vidvaanon ki charcha 1960 aur 1970 ke dashak mein atyant sakriya thi. bahas ko is prakaar dekha ja sakta hai: ek or, ham kavita ka naayak se sambandhit kai kahaaniyaan (graindal prakaran, graindal ki maaain ki kahaani aur faayardarek katha) ko ekasaath laakar anumaan laga sakte hain. in tukadon ko parampara ke kaaran kai varshon tak rakha jaaega aur aane waali peedhi ke kaviyon ki iske dvaara shikshuta pradaan ki jaaegi. kavita ko maukhik roop se bina kisi taiyaari ke likha gaya hai aur yeh ek paaramparik puraalekhan hai, jo maukhik, butaparast, jarman, veer aur aadivaasi sabhi ko aakarshit karta hai. doosari or, kuchh log maanate hain ki yeh kavita kisi saakshar lipik dvaara likhi gayi hai, jo laitin seekhate-seekhate (aur laitin sanskruti ko dekhkar, uske baare mein sochakar) saakshar hua tha, sanbhavat: koi bhikshu ya gahre drushtikon wala isaai ho sakta hai. is paksh par, butaparast ke sandarbh sajaavati puraalekhan ki koi vidhi hogi.[30][31] teesare vichaar ke anusaar oopar ullekhit donon bahas sahi hain aur yeh unhein jodne ka ek prayaas hai, isliye inhein paraspar virodhi ke roop mein vyakt naheen kiya ja sakta; iske anusaar kavita ke kaarya mein ek se adhik isaai aur ek se adhik butaparast ki bhaavana, jo ki kai sau varshon se ek doosare se alag ho chuke hain, ki jhalak maujood hai; iska kehna hai ki kavita moolat: ek saakshar isaai lekhak dvaara likhi gayi hai, jise butaparasti ka gyaan tha aur ho sakta hai ki uske poorvaj butaparast rahe hon aur usane apna dharm badal liya ho, ek aisa kavi jo maukhik aur saakshar lipik donon mein paarangat tha aur jo maukhik parampara ki kavita ka "punarnirmaan" karne mein saksham tha; is aaranbhik isaai kavi ne nyaaya ke liye apna balidaan dene ki ichha aur jaruratamandon ki sahaayata aur suraksha karne ke prayaason aur mahaanatam suraksha ko apni aankho se dekha tha; achhe butaparast vyaktiyon ko sahi raaste ka chunaav karte hue dekha tha aur isliye is kavi ne dhairya aur sammaan ke saath butaparast sanskruti ko prastut kiya tha; fir bhi is praarambhik isaai kavi ki rachana aur bahut baad mein rachiyta "fire-end-brimston", ek isaai kavi jo butaparast abhyaas ko andhere aur paap ki sanjnyaa deta hai aur jisne iske daanavon ke shaitaani pahaluon ko joda hai.

M. H. abraam aur Stefan greenablaat ne angreji saahitya ke nortan sankalan mein biyovulf ka parichay karaate hue kaha hai ki, "kavi ne veeragaatha ki bhaasha, shaili aur praacheen Europeeya maukhik kavita ki butaparast duniya ko punarjeevit kiya gaya tha [...] yeh aap vyaapak roop se maana jaata hai ki biyovulf ek ekal kavi ki rachana hai jo ek isaai tha aur usaki kavita isaai parampara ko darshaati hai.[32] haalaanki, kraaun di.ke. jaise vidvaan ka kehna hai ki kavita padhnevaale se padhnevaale tak maukhik-sootrit rachana ke siddhaant dvaara pahunchaaya gaya tha, jo bataata hai ki mahaakaavya kavitaaen unhein padhnevaalon (kuchh had tak) dvaara samay-samay par behtar ki jaati hain. apne aitihaasik kaam mein, kahaaniyon ke gaayak, albart Lord Francis pi. mogaun aur doosaron ke kaaryon ka sandarbh yeh kehte hue dete hain ki "dastaavejeekaran poorn, pralekhit aur aur sateek hai". yeh sampoorn vishleshan yeh saabit karne ke liye paryaapt hai ki biyovulf ki rachana maukhik thi.[33]

biyovulf aur anya englo-sekson kavita ki maukhik-sootrit rachana ke liye ki gayi pariksha ke mishrit parinaam hain. jabki "vishay" ("naayak ka shastreekaran"[34] jaisi ghatnaaon ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye vanshaagat katha ki up ikaaiyaan, ya vishesh roop se adhyayan ki gayi " samudra tat par naayak" vishay[35]) englo-sekson aur anya Europeeya kaaryon mein maujood hain, kuchh vidvaan, tark dete hain ki kavitaaen shabd-dar-shabd ke aadhaar aur kai sootron aur paddhatiyon ka anusaran karke rachi jaati hain.[36]

lairi bensan ne tark diya hai ki biyovulf ki vyaakhya ek sampoorn sootrit kaarya ke roop mein karne se paathak ki kshamata iska vishleshan karne mein nasht ho jaati hai ki kavita ekeekrut roop mein likhi gayi hai aur ve kavi ki rachanaatmakata par dhyaan keindrit naheen kar paate hain. iske bajaay, unhonne prastaavit kiya ki jarman saahitya ke anya anshon mein "parampara ke tatv" hain jinse biyovulf uddhrut aur vistaarit hua hai.[37][38] kuchh saal baad, enn vaats ne ek pustak prakaashit ki, jismein unhonne englo-sekson kavita ke liye paaramparik, homer, maukhik-sootrit siddhaant ko apoorn bataaya hai. unhonne yeh bhi tark diya hai ki do paranparaaon ki tulana naheen ki ja sakti aur isliye aisa naheen kiya jaana chaahiye.[38][39] Thomas gaardanar vaats se sahamat the, chaar varsh pehle prakaashit hue samaachaarapatr mein unhonne tark diya tha ki biyovulf paath vividh pravruti ka hai aur iska nirmaan poorn roop se sootron aur vishyon dvaara hai.[38][40]

John maails faule ne biyovulf bahas[41] ke sandarbh mein vishesh roop se kaha hai ki,[41] jabki tulanaatmak kaarya aavashyak aur maanya donon hai, lekin iska aayojan di gayi paranparaaon ki vishishtataaon ke saath dekhna chaahiye; faule ne maukhik paaramparik siddhaant ke vikaas ko dekhte hue tark diya ki rachana ke baare mein asatyaapit anumaan ka anumaan na lagaaen aur na hi ispar nirbhar hon aur paaranpaarikta aur paathyata ke avichhinnak ke paksh mein ki gayi rachana par maukhik/likhit maanyataaon par dhyaan keindrit na karein.[42][43][44][45]

antat:, ursula skeefar ke vichaar mein, kavita "maukhik" ya "likhit" thi, yeh savaal kuchh-kuchh red hering ki tarah ho jaata hai.[46] is model mein, kavita ki rachana ki gayi hai aur vah donon maanasik kshitij ke bheetar vyaakhya ke yogya hai. skeefar ki "maukhik" avadhaarana na to kisi samjhaute aur na hi vichaaron ke sanyog ko prastaavit karti hai jo kavita ko ek or Europeeya, butaparast aur maukhik maanate hain aur doosari or use laitin se uddhrut, isaai ya saakshar maanate hain, lekin jaisa ki Monica otar ka kehna hai: "... 'rupaye ka ek sikka', maukhik aur saakshar donon sanskrutiyon mein milte hain aur donon ke hi apne tark aur saundarya hain."[47]

boli

saaaincha:Old English topics kavita mein puraani angreji ke pashchimi sekson aur engliyn boliyaan mishrit hain, yadyapi ve pashchimi sekson ki boli adhik hai, kyonki usi samay kai anya puraani angreji ki kavitaaon ki nakal ki gayi thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

biyovulf paandulipi mein bhaashaai roop mein ek vismayakaari sarani hai. yahi vah tathya hai jo kuchh vidvaanon ko yeh vishvaas karne ke liye prerit karta hai ki biyovulf ki lambi aur jatil sancharan sabhi mukhya boli ke kshetron ke maadhyam mein kiya gaya hai.[4] kavita mein nimnalikhit boliyon ka jatil mishran hai: marsiyn, naurthambariyn, aaranbhik pashchimi sekson, keinteesh aur antim pashchimi sekson.[4] keeyaranan ka tark hai ki yeh lagbhag asambhav hai ki us samay sancharan ki koi prakriya hui hogi jiske dvaara ek boli se doosari boli tak, peedhi dar peedhi aur lipik dar lipik is jatil mishran ko banaae rakha gaya ho.[4]

prapatron ke mishran par aadhaarit aaranbhik dinaankan ke virooddh keeyaranan ka tark lamba hai aur sammilit hai, lekin usane nishkarsh nikaala ki prapatron ka mishran likhit paath ke tulanaatmak roop se seedhe itihaas ko nimn roop mein ingit kiya gaya ho sakta hai:

... ek 11veen sadi ka MS, ek 11veen sadi ka marsiyn kavi ne puraatan kaavya boli ka upayog karte hue; aur 11veen sadi ki maanak saahityik boli jo ki aaranbhik ya ant ka ho sakta hai, dvandvaatmak-boli ke roopon aur vibhinn vartani ka prayog; aur (shaayad) do 11veen sadi ke lipikon thoaae bhinn vartani tareekon se likha ho.[4]

is vichaar ke anusaar, biyovulf ko bade paimaane par puraataattvik hiton ke utpaad ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai aur yeh paathakon ko Denmark ke baare mein 11veen sadi ke englo-sekson ke bhaavon aur uske poorv-itihaas, fir bed ke yug aur 7veen ya 8veen sadi ke englo-sekson ki unke poorvajon ki maatrubhoomi ke bhaavon ke baare mein adhik bataata hai.[4]

firm aur meter

biyovulf jaisi ek puraani angreji kavita aadhunik kavita se bahut alag hoti hai. englo-sekson kavi vishisht anupraas chhand ka upayog karte the, jo ki chhand ka ek aisa roop hai jismein anupraas ka upayog kavita ki panktiyon ko ekeekrut karne ke liye mukhya sanrachanaatmak upakaran ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, anya upakaranon jaise tukabandi ke sthaan par. yeh ek aisi takaneek hai jismein pankti ke pehle bhaag (a-chhand) ko doosare bhaag (b-chhand) se samaan aaranbhik dhvani ke maadhyam se jod diya jaata hai. iske atirikt, do bhaagon ko ek yati mein vibhaajit kar diya jaata hai: " oft skeeld sefing \\ skeepina preetam"(l. 4.

kavi ke paas anupraas ko poora karne ke liye visheshan ya sootr ke kai vikalp hote hain. jab puraani angreji ki kavitaaon ko bola ya padha jaata hai, to anupraas ke uddeshya ko yaad rakhana bahut mahatvapoorn hai kyonki kai aksharon ka uchchaaran aadhunik angreji ke uchchaaran se bhinn hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, akshar "h", hamesha uchchaarit kiya jaata hai (Hroðagar: HROTH-gar) aur sanyuktaakshar "cg" ka uchchaaran "dj" ki tarah kiya jaata hai, jaise ki shabd "edge" mein. f aur s donon ke uchchaaran unke dhvanyaatmak vaataavaran par nirbhar karte hue bhinn hote hain. svar ya vyanjan ke beech, aadhunik v aur z ki tarah sunaai dene waali aavaajein hoti hain. anyatha ve chup rahati hain, jaise aadhunik "fat" mein f aur "sat" mein s. kuchh akshar jo ab aadhunik angreji mein naheen milte hain, jaise thorn, þ aur eth, ð - aadhunik angreji "th" ke donon uchchaaran "cloth" aur "clothe" mein ka pratinidhitv karte hain- ka upayog mool paandulipi aur aadhunik angreji ke sanskaranon mein vyaapak roop se kiya gaya hai. in varnon ki aavaaj f aur s ki tarah pratidhvani hain. donon svar hain (jaisa ki "clothe" mein) aur anya svar dhvaniyon ke beech mein hain: oðaaer, laþaaleas, suþaaern. anyatha ve aghosh hoti hain (jaisa ki "clothe" mein): þaunor, suð, soþaafæaast.

biyovulf mein kening bhi ek mahatvapoorn takaneek hai. ve rojamarra ke cheejon ke udbodhak kaavyaatmak varnan hain, aksar pad mein anupraas ki aavashyakataaon ko poora karne ke liye banaaya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek kavi samudra ko "svaan-road" kah sakta hai ya ya fir "vhel-road"; ek raaja ko "ring-givr" kaha ja sakta hai. biyovulf mein kai kening hain aur upakaran puraani angreji ki theth classic kavita hoti hai, jismein bahut saare sootr hote hain. kavita mein svar ka lop karne vaale roopakaalankaar ka vyaapak upayog bhi kiya jaata hai.[48]

J.aar.aar tolkeen ka tark hai ki kavita ek shokageet hai.[2]

vyaakhya aur aalochna

aitihaasik sandarbh mein, kavita ke paatr naurs butaparast rahe honge (kavita ki aitihaasik ghatnaaen skaindinaaviya ke isaaivaad ke pehle ke hain), haalaanki kavita isaai englo-sekson dvaara record ki gayi thi jisne vyaapak roop se englo-sekson butaparasti 7veen sadi mein parivrtit kiya tha - englo-sekson butaparasti aur naurs butaparasti dononyooropeeya butaparasti se uddhrut hain. biyovulf Europeeya yoddha samaaj ke mahatva ko darshaata hai, jismein kshetr ke Bhagwan aur unke anuyaayiyon ke beech ka sambandh ka mahatva sarvopari tha. M.H. abraam aur Stefan greenabaalt ne not kiya ki:

haalaanki hrothagar aur biyovulf ko naitik roop se imaandaar aur prabuddh butaparast ke roop mein chitrit kiya gaya hai, lekin ve poori tarah se Europeeya veer kavita ko sahaara dete hain aur unke maan ko aksar badhaate hain. yoddha samaaj ka chitran karne waali kavita mein, maanaveeya rishton ka sabse mahatvapoorn pahaloo yoddha - then - aur uske svaami ke beech maujood tha, ek rishta jo ek aadmi ke doosare aadmi ki ichha ki adheenata par aadhaarit na hokar aapasi vishvaas aur sammaan par aadhaarit tha. jab ek yoddha apne svaami ke prati vafaadaari ki kasam khaata hai, to vah uske naukar ki bajaay ek svaichhik saathi ban jaata hai, jise apne svaami ka bachaav karne aur yuddh mein uske ke liye ladne mein garv mahasoos hota hai. iske badle mein, svaami ka apne then kvvki dekhbhaal karna aur unhein unki veerata ke liye puraskaar dena apekshit tha.[49]

is samaaj ko parijnake sandarbh mein drudhta se paribhaashit kiya gaya tha; agar kisi ki hatya kar di jaati thi, to yeh uske bache hue parijan ka kartavya tha ki ya to vah apni jaan dekar bhi usaka badla lega ya veregild ke maadhyam se, praayashchit karega.[49]

stenali bi greenafeeld (angreji ke professor, university of oregan) ne sujhaav diya hai ki sampoorn biyovulf mein maanav shareer ke sandarbh theins ke unke svaami ke saath rishtedaar ki sthiti par jor deta hai. unhonne tark diya hai ki shabd "kandhe ke saathi" shaaririk hathiyaar aur then (eshachar) donon ka sandarbh deta hai, jo ki apne svaami (hroothagar) ke liye atyadhik moolyavaan tha. eshachar ki rmaut ke saath, hroothagar ko biyovulf ke roop mein ek naya "hathiyaar" mila.[50] iske alaava, greenafeeld ka tark hai, vipreet prabhaav ke liye prayog kiye gaye pair, kavita mein keval chaar baar prakat hote hain. iska anafarth (biyovulf ne jise kamjor, dagaabaaj aur kaayar kaha tha) ke saath sanyojan mein prayog kiya jaata hai. greenafeeld ne dhyaan diya ki anafarth ko "raaja ke pair"(pankti 499) ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai. anafarth paidal sainik dal ka hissa bhi tha, jo, poori kahaani mein, kuchh naheen karta hai aur "aamtaur par veer gaathaaon ke beech kaale daag jaisa hai."[51]

usi samay, richrd North (angreji ke professor, university college London) ka tark hai ki biyovulf kavi ne isaai roop mein dainish mithkon ki vyaakhya ki hai (taaki kavita isaai darshakon ka manoranjan kar sake). aur kaha hai ki: "ham ab bhi iska pata laga paane mein asamarth hain ki kyon biyovulf ke pehle darshak niyamit roop se vargeekrut shaapit logon ki kahaaniyaan sunana pasand karte the. yeh savaal mahatvapoorn hai, ki [...] englo-sekson ne deins ko videshiyon ke bajaay 'butaparast' ke roop mein kyon dekha.[52] graindal ki maaain aur graindal ko kain ke vanshaj ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai, ek aisa tathya jise kuchh vidvaan kain parampara se jodte hain.[53]

elan kaibaanis ka tark hai ki biyovulf aur baaibal ke beech kai samaanataaen hain. pehle usane biyovulf aur yeeshu ke beech samaanataaon ke liye tark diya ki: donon apne pratidvandi daanavon ke par kaaboo paane mein bahaadur aur nisvaarthi hain aur donon hi aise raaja the, jinhonne apne logon ko bachaane ke liye apni jaan ki kurbaani de di.[54] doosra, unhonne the book of riveleshan ke bhaag (aag aur gandhak se bhare jheel mein unke bhaag hone chaahiye: jo ki doosari maut hai." rahasyodghaatan 21:08) aur graindal aur graindal ki maaain ke ghar ke beech samaanaataaon ke liye tark diya hai.[55] teesara, unhonne gaispal of Luke (jab unhonne sooli par chadhaane logon ko kshama kar diya tha) mein yeeshu ke shabdon ki tulana kavita ke us bhaag (khatarnaak jheel mein koodane se pehle) jab biyovulf apne dushman anafarth ko maaf kar deta hai, se ki hai.[55]

haalaanki, vidvaan kavita ke arth aur pravruti se asahamat hain: kya yeh ek isaai kaarya tha jo Europeeya butaparast sandarbh mein kiya gaya tha? prashn sujhaav deta hai ki Europeeya butaparast vishvaason ke roopaantaran se isaai logon dvaara kiya gaya kaarya bahut dheema aur kai sadiyon tak chalne waali nir6tar prakriya thi aur kavita likhe jaate samay dhaarmik vishvaas ke sandarbh mein kavita ke sandesh ki pravruti param aspasht bani hui hai. Robert ef. yeegar (saahitya ke professor, university of north kairolina eight eshevile) tathyon ko not kiya, jo in prashnon ke aadhaar hain:

kautan vitelius A.eksavi ke lipik ni:sandeh isaai the; aur yeh bhi sandeh se pare hai ki biyovulf ki rachana England mein hui thi, kyonki roopaantaran chhathi aur saataveen sadi mein kiya gaya tha. abhi tak biyovulf mein old taistamaint hi keval baaibil se sandarbhit hai aur maseeh ne iska kabhi ullekh naheen kiya hai. kavita butaparast ke yug mein rachi gayi thi aur koi bhi varn pramaanya roop se isaai naheen tha. vaastav mein, jab hamein bataaya jaata hai kavita mein kya maanana hai, to ham maanate hain ki ve butaparast the. biyovulf ke apne vishvaason ko spasht roop se vyakt naheen kiya gaya hai. vah apne aap ko ""sarvashaktimaan" ya "sabhi ka rakshak" ke roop mein sambodhit karte hue, uchch shaktiyon ke liye bhaavapoorn praarthana kiya karta tha. kya ve butaparaston ki praathanaaen thi jinhonne nirantar jo baad mein viniyojit isaai vaakyaanshon ka upayog kiya hai? ya, kavita ke lekhak ne biyovulf ko isaai naayak ke roop mein chitrit kiya hai, jo prateekaatmak roop se isaai sadgunon ko ujvalit karta hai?[56]

is par bhi dhyaan diya jaana chaahiye ki J.aar.aar. tolkeens 1936 aalochnaBeowulf: The Monsters and the Critics dvaara yeh sujhaavit karne se pehle tak ki kavita ko saahityik maana jaana chaahiye, kavita ko saahityik roop mein naheen dekha gaya tha.

anuvaad aur shabdasoochiyaan

1805 mein sheraun turner ne kuchh chayanit sanskaranon ka anuvaad kiya hai.[57] iska anusaran 1814 mein John josis koneebeyar ne kiya, jinhonne angreji sankshipt vyaakhya mein ek sanskaran aur laitin sanskaran mein anuvaad prakaashit kiya.[57] 1815 mein, grimur Johnson throkalin ne pehla sampoorn laitin anuvaad prakaashit kiya.[57] 1815 mein nikolaj fredarik severin grundavig is sanskaran ki sameeksha ki aur 1820 mein pehla sampoorn denish anuvaad prastut kiya.[57] 1837 mein, J.M. kimbali ne ek mahatvapoorn shaabdik anuvaad angreji mein prastut kiya.[57] 1895 mein, William mauris aur eje vaayat ne iska 9vaan anuvaad prakaashit kiya.[57]

aaranbhik 20 sadi ke dauraan, fredarik klebar ki biyovulf end the faait of finsabarg (jismein kavita mein puraani angreji, vistrut puraani angreji shabd aur saamaanya prushthabhoomi jaankaari shaamil thi) snaatak ke chhaatron ke liye kavita adhyayan saamagri aur vidvaanon env shikshakon ke liye unke anuvaad ka aadhaar ka keindreeya srot ban gayi."[58] 1999 mein, Nobel puraskaar vijeta seemas heeni ke biyovulf ke sanskaran ko faibar end faibar dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya aur jismein "uttari aayarish uchchaaran aur vaakyaansh ke badlaav" shaamil the. 2000 mein, dablyoo. dablyoo. nortan ne ise angreji saahityake nortan sankalan mein joda.[57]

kalaatmak angeekaran

sandarbhagranth soochi

shabdakosh

  • Cameroon, engas, eight al. dikshanari of old english (maaikrofich) Toronto: madhyakaaleen adhyayan ke liye toraanto ke dikshanari of old english project center vishvavidyaalaya ke liye pontifikl instityoot of mediyval stdeej, 1986/1994 prakaashit.

tekst

Hypertext sanskaran:

aadhunik angreji anuvaad:

  • alekjeindar, Michael. biyovulf: ek pad anuvaad. penguin klaasiks;. rev Ed. London: New York, 2003.
  • Anderson, saara M., elan sulevaan aur Timothy marfi. biyovulf laungamain saanskrutik sanskaran;. new yaurk: peeyarasan/laungamain, 2004.
  • krosali-haule‍aad, kevin; Michelle, brus. biyovulf: ek naya anuvaad. London: maikamiln, 1968
  • donaaldasan, E. tailabot aur nikolas hov. biyovulf: ek gadya anuvaad: prushthabhoomi aur sandarbh, aalochna. nortan ka gambhir sanskaran. doosra sanskaran. new yaurk: nortan, 2002.
  • gaarmonsve, George norman, eight al. ' biyovulf aur uske enaalaug. (sanshodhit 1980). sanskaran. London: dent, 1980.
  • gyoomar, fraansis. 'biyovulf' seint peetarsabarg, florida: red end blaalaik pabalishrs, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791813-1-3.
  • heeni, seemas. biyovulf: ek nai pad anuvaad . new yaurk: dablyoo.dablyoo nortan, 2001. ISBN 0-07-135026-8.
  • hadasan, mark. biyovulf Martin gairet ka parichay aur unke nots. wear: vardsavarth klaasiks, 2007.
  • lehaman, ruth. biyovulf: ek anukaranasheel anuvaad. pehla sanskaran. ostin: university of Texas press, 1988.
  • liuja, aar. M. biyovulf: ek nai pad anuvaad. orchard park, new: braudavyoo press, 2000.
  • osaborn, mairijen. [3] tippani ki gayi biyovulf anuvaad ki soochi .
  • rafel, bartan. biyovulf new yaurk: signet classic, 1999.
  • ringlar, dik. biyovulf: maukhik vitran ke liye ek naya anuvaad. haiket pabalishing company, ink., 2007. ISBN 978-0-87220-893-3.
  • svaintan, Michael (sanskaran). biyovulf (Manchester madhyakaaleen adhyayan). Manchester: university, 1996.
  • sjobaudi, Michael L. aur Justin jeraard (vyaakhyaata) biyovulf, pustak 1: graindal the gaistali . greenavile, SC: portalaind studio, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9797183-0-4
  • right, David. biyovulf painthar books, 1970. ISBN 0-07-135026-8.

puraani angreji aur aadhunik angreji:

  • I. chikring, hauvel di. biyovulf: ek dvibhaasheeya sanskaran .new yaurk: enkar books sanskaran, 1977,1989 ISBN 0-385-06213-3
  • heeni, seemas. biyovulf: ek nai pad anuvaad . new yaurk: dablyoo. dablyoo. nortan, 2001. ISBN 0-393-32097-9

shabdaavali ke saath puraani angreji:

  • alekjeindar, Michael. biyovulf: A glosd tekst. doosra sanskaran. penguin: London, 2000.
  • Jack, George. biyovulf: chhaatr sanskaran. Oxford university press: New York, 1997.
  • klaibar, fredarik, sanskaran biyovulf end the faait eight finsabarg . teesara sanskaran. Boston: heeth, 1950.
  • Michelle, brus, eight al. biyovulf: praasangik chhote granthon ka ek sanskaran . Oxford, Britain: maildan ma., 1998.
  • porter, John. biyovulf: paath aur anuvaad. englo-seksan pustakein, 1991.
  • rebsaamen, fredarik aar biyovulf: ek pad anuvaad. pehla sanskaran New York, enavaai: chinh sanskaran, 1991.
  • ren, si.L., sanskaran biyovulf vid the finsabarg fregmeint. teesara sanskaran London: hairaap, 1973.

audio

chhaatravrutti

  • M. H. abraam aur Stefan greenablaat. angreji saahitya ke nortan sankalan: the middle ejej (vaulyoom 1) biyovulf. new yaurk: dablyoo. dablyoo nortan, 2000. 29-32.
  • aalfaano, kristeen. "the ishu of feminin monstrositi: A ri-ivaulyueshan of greindals madar". kaumitetas 23 (1992): 1-16.
  • Anderson, saara. Ed. parichay aur aitihaasik/saanskrutik sandarbh. laungamain saanskrutik sanskaran, 2004. ISBN 0-321-10720-9
  • bataagliya, Frank. "the jarmainik arth goddes in biyovulf." 31.4 traimaasik maanav jaati (greeshmakaaleen 1991): 415-46.
  • chaidvik, nora ke. "daanav aur biyovulf. " englo-seksans: unke itihaas ke kuchh pahaluon ke adhyayan. Ed. Peter Ed klemoes. London: boves end boves, 1959. 171-203.
  • chaans, jen. "biyovulf ki sanrachanaatmak ekta: the problam of grendals madarasya." puraani angreji saahitya mein mahilaaon par nae adhyayan sanskaran helen demiko aur elekjedra henesi olasen. bloomi‍agtan: indiyaana university press, 1990. 248-61.
  • kreed, raabart pi. biyovulf ki laya ka punargathan.
  • demiko, helen. biyovulf velthiyo end the vaalkri parampara. maidisn, vis: yoonivrvisiti of vinskonsin press, 1984.
  • draut, Michael. biyovulf aur aalochak.
  • gillaim, doreen M. "biyovulf ki panktiyon 893 aur 2592 "ejmeinlaika" shabd ka prayog. " studiya jarmainika gai‍aadensiya 3 (1961: 145-69.
  • the hiroik ej, ank 5. " biyovulf ke maanavashaastreeya aur saanskrutik drushtikon . " greeshm/sharad 2001.
  • hornar, shairi. sanlagnak ke pravachan:puraani angreji saahitya mein mahilaaon ki prastutikran . New York: sani press, 2001.
  • nikolsan, luis E. (sanskaran). biyovulf aalochna ka ek sankalan. (1963), notre dem: university of notre dem press. ISBN 0-268-00006-9
  • uttar, richrd. biyovulf ke mool: varjil se viglaaf tak. Oxford: Oxford university press, 35.
  • orchard, Andy. biyovulf ka ek gambhir saathi. Cambridge: di. S. brevar, 2003.
  • ---. garv aur vilkshan: biyovulf-paandulipi ke daanavon ka adhyayan. Toronto: university of Toronto press, 2006.
  • Owen-Crocker, Gale (2000). The Four Funerals in Beowulf: And the Structure of the Poem. New York: Manchester University Press.
  • stenali, E. ji."did biyovulf kamit 'feeksafeing' ageinst graindals madar. " nots aur prashn 23 (1976): 339-40.
  • tolkein, J. aar. aar. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics (1983). London: George elan aur anavin. ISBN 0-04-809019-0
  • traask, richrd M. "kavita karne ki prashasti: biyovulf aur judith: mahaakaavya ke saathi. " biyovulf end judith: tooheeroj. lainham mohammad: university press of America, 1998. 11-14.

sandarbh

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baahari links

Wikisource
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oopar hypertext sanskaran dekhein.

saaaincha:Beowulf saaaincha:Old English poetry saaaincha:Anglo-SaxonPaganism