bismaark

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oto eduard liopold bismaark (1 April 1815 - 30 July 1898), jarman saamraajya ka pratham chaansalar tatha tatkaaleen Europe ka prabhaavi raajaneta tha. vah 'oto faun bismaark' ke naam se adhik prasiddh hai. usane anek jarmanabhaashi raajyon ka ekeekaran karke shaktishaali jarman saamraajya sthaapit kiya. vah dviteeya jarman saamraajya ka pratham chaansalar bana. vah "reealapaalitik" ki neeti ke liye prasiddh hai jiske kaaran use "lauh chaansalar" ke upanaam se jaana jaata hai.

jeevani

bismaark ka janm shoon hausen mein 1 April 1815 ko hua. gaantinjen tatha barlin mein kaanoon ka adhyayan kiya. baad mein kuchh samay ke liye naagrik tatha sainik seva mein niyukt hua. 1847 E. mein vah prasha ki vidhaan sabha ka sadasya bana. 1848-49 ki kraanti ke samay usane raaja ke "divya adhikaar" ka joron se samarthan kiya. san 1851 mein vah frainkafart ki sangheeya sabha mein prasha ka pratinidhi banaakar bheja gaya. vahaaain usane Germany mein aastriya ke aadhiptya ka kada virodh kiya aur prasha ko samaan adhikaar dene par bal diya. aath varsh freinkafart mein rahane ke baad 1859 mein vah roos mein raajadoot niyukt hua. 1862 mein va peris mein raajadoot banaaya gaya aur usi varsh sena ke vistaar ke prashn par sansadeeya sankat upasthit hone par vah pararaashtramantri tatha pradhaan mantri ke pad par niyukt kiya gaya. sena ke punargathan ki sveekruti praapt karne tatha bajat paas karaane mein jab use safalta naheen mili to usane paarlameint se bina poochhe hi kaarya karna praarambh kiya aur janta se vah tax bhi vasool karta raha. yeh "sangharsh" abhi chal hi raha tha ki shlejavig holsateen ke prabhutv ka prashn pun: uth khada hua. jarman raashtreeyata ki bhaavana se laabh uthaakar bismaark ne aastriya ke sahayog se Denmark par hamla kar diya aur donon ne milkar is kshetr ko apne raajya mein mila liya (1864).

do varsh baad bismaark ne aastriya se bhi sangharsh chhed diya. yuddh mein aastriya ki paraajaya hui aur use Germany se hat jaana pada. ab bismaark ke netrutv mein Germany ke sabhi uttarasth raajyon ko milaakar uttari jarman sangharaajya ki sthaapana hui. Germany ki is shaktivruddhi se France aantakit ho utha. Spain ki gaddi ke uttaraadhikaar ke prashn par France Germany mein tanaav ki sthiti utpann ho gayi aur ant mein 1870 mein donon ke beech yuddh than gaya. France ki haar hui aur use alasasaloren ka praant tatha bhaari harjaana dekar Germany se sandhi karni padi. 1871 mein nae jarman raajya ki ghoshana kar di gayi. is navasthaapit raajya ko susangathit aur prabal banaana hi ab bismaark ka pradhaan lakshya ban gaya. isi drushti se usane aastriya aur Italy se milkar ek triraashtr sandhi ki. Pope ki "amogh" satta ka khatra kam karne ke liye usane kaithaulikon ke shaktirodh ke liye kai kaanoon banaae aur samaajavaadi aandolan ke daman ka bhi prayatn kiya. ismein use adhik safalta naheen mili. saamraajya mein tanaav aur asantosh ki sthiti utpann ho gayi. antataagatva san 1890 mein nae jarman samraat William dviteeya se matabhed utpann ho jaane ke kaaran usane padatyaag kar diya.

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