bijnaur

bijnaur
shahar
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya uttar pradesh
jila bijnaur
(kuvanr bhaaratenadoo ishain)
janasankhya
ghanatv
3683896 (2011 tak )
• 808
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
6561 ki.mee²
• 225 meter

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 29°a22′aN 78°a08′aE / 29.37°aN 78.13°aE / 29.37; 78.13

bijnaur Bhaarat ke uttar pradesh ka ek pramukh shahar evam Loksabha kshetr hai. himaalaya ki upatyaka me sthit bijnaur ko jahaaain ek or mahaaraaja dushyant, paramaprataapi samraat bharat, paramasant rishi kanv aur mahaatma vidur ki karmabhoomi hone ka gaurav praapt hai, vaheen aarya jagat ke prakaash stambh svaami shraddhaanand, antarraashtreeya khyaatipraapt vaigyaanik dau॰ aatmaaraam, Bhaarat ke pratham engineer raaja jvaalaaprasaad aadi ki janmabhoomi hone ka saubhaagya bhi praapt hai.

saahitya ke kshetr mein janapad ne kai mahattvapoorn maanadand sthaapit kiye hain. kaalidaas ka janm bhale hi kaheen aur hua ho, kintu unhonne is janapad mein bahne waali maalini nadi ko apne prasiddh naatak 'abhigyaan shaakuntalam' ka aadhaar banaaya. Akbar ke navaratnon mein abul fjal aur faiji ka paalan-poshan baasta ke paas hua. urdoo saahitya mein bhi janapad bijnaur ka gauravashaali sthaan raha hai. kaayam chaaaindapuri ko mirja gaalib ne bhi ustaad shaayaron mein shaamil kiya hai. noor bijnauri jaise vishvaprasiddh shaayar isi mitti se paida hue. mahaaraani Victoria ke ustaad navaab shaahamat Ali bhi mandaavar ke nivaasi the, jinhonne mahaaraani ko faarasi ki taaleem di. sanpaadakaachaarya pan. rudradatt sharma, bihaari satasai ki tulanaatmak sameeksha likhne vaale pan. padmasinh sharma aur hindi-gjlon ke shahanshaah dushyant Kumar bhi bijnaur ki dharati ki den hain. yuva shaayar nikhil Kumar rajput ji ki pratham gjl bhi isi bhoomi ki den hai !

anukram

itihaas

bijnaur janapad ke praacheen itihaas ko spasht karne ke liye pramaanon ka abhaav hai. buddhakaaleen Bhaarat mein bhi cheeni yaatri hvenasaang ne chhah maheene matipura (mandaavar) mein vyateet kiye. harshavardhan ke baad rajput raajaaon ne is par apna adhikaar kiya. pruthveeraaj aur jayachand ki paraajaya ke baad Bhaarat mein turk saamraajya ki sthaapana hui. us samay yeh kshetr Delhi saltanat ka ek hissa raha. tab iska naam 'katehar kshetr' tha. kaha jaata hai ki sultaan iltutamish swayam saamraajya-virodhiyon ko dandit karne ke liye yahaaain aaya tha. mandaavar mein uske dvaara banaai gayi masjid aaj tak bhi hai. aurangajeb ke shaasanakaal mein janapad par afgaanon ka adhikaar tha. ye afgaanistaan ke 'roh' kasbe se sambandhit the at: ye afgaan rohele kahalaae aur unka shaasit kshetr ruhelakhand kahalaaya. najeebuddaula prasiddh rohela shaasak tha, jisne 'pattharagadh ka kila' ko apni rajdhani banaaya. baad mein iske aaspaas ki aabaadi isi shaasak ke naam par najeebaabaad kahalaai. rohelon se yeh kshetr avadh ke navaab ke paas aaya, jise san 1801 mein East India company ne le liya. aajaadi ki pratham ladaai mein janapad ne avismaraneeya yog diya. aajaadi ki ladaai ke samay sar saiyyad Ahmad khaaain yaheen par kaaryarat the. unki prasiddh pustak 'taareek sarakashi-A-bijnaur' us samay ke itihaas par likha gaya mahattvapoorn dastaavej hai. prasiddh kraantikaariyon chandrashekhar aajaad, pan॰ raamaprasaad bismil, ashafaak ullaah khaaain, roshanasinh ne paijaniya mein sharan lekar biratish sarkaar ki aaainkhon mein dhool jhoki. chaudhari charan Singh ke saath shiksha grahan karne vaale babu laakhan Singh dhaaka ne aajaadi ki ladaai mein apni aakhiri saaains tak laga di jiske liye ve taamr patra ke liye chayan kiye gaye. unka janm maaheshvari-jat naamak ek gaanv mein hua tha. bijnaur ka paani Bhaarat ka sabse suddh paani maana jaata hai iseeliye isko jila banaaya gaya. Congress dvaara ladi gayi aajaadi ki ladaai mein bhi janapad ka mahattvapoorn yogadaan hai.

bhoogol tatha jalavaayu

bijnaur ka bhaugolik kshetrafal 6561 varg ki॰mee॰ hai. uttar se dakshin iski lanbaai lagbhag 99.2 kilometer tatha poorv se pashchim chaudaai 89.6 kilometer hai. sampoorn jila 11 tahaseelon mein bainta hua hai- najeebaabaad,chaaaindapur `kirtapur, mohammad puradevamal, haldaur, jaleelapur, nehatapur, dhaamapur, afjalagadh, kotavaali, syohaara aur noorapur. ganga, ravaasan, peeli, chhoiya, maalan, gaaaingan, baan, ikada-kadoola, raamaganga, kho, paneeli, dhaara, feeka, paaaindhoi aadi nadiyaaain hain. uttar mein shivaalik pahaadiyaaain hain, jinhein chandi ki pahaadiyaaain naam se bhi abhihit kiya jaata hai. yeh pahaadi kshetr 291 varg ki॰mee॰ ab haridvaar janapad mein hai. bijnaur ko bhaugolik aadhaar par 5 bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai-

  • parvateeya bhaag : uttari bhaag pahaadi hai tatha bhoomi pathareeli hai.
  • taraai ka bhaag : parvateeya bhaag ke dakshin mein poorv se pashchim tak faila hua van- bhaag taraai ke naam se jaana jaata hai. yeh pahaad ki talahati bhi kahalaata hai.
  • khaadar ka bhaag : ganga tatha raamaganga aadi badi-badi nadiyon ka tateeya bhaag 'khaadar' kahalaata hai. yeh aardr bhaag hai.
  • baaaingar bhaag : yeh janapad ka chauras ya khula maidaani bhaag hai, ise baaaingar bhi kehte hain. ismein geinhooain, chaaval, ganna, kapaas ki achhi kheti hoti hai.
  • bhood bhaag : janapad ka dakshini bhaag reteela hai. ismein bhood aur savaai bhood do prakaar ki mitti pai jaati hai.

jalavaayu yahaaain ki jalavaayu maanasooni aur svaasthyaprad hai. varsha, sheet tatha greeshm teen ritueain hoti hain.

yaataayaat aur parivhan

ganga nadi ke sameep sthit bijnaur sadak aur relamaargon se juda hua hai.

krushi aur khanij

bijnaur mein krushi pramukh hai. yahaaain par rabi, khreef, jaayad aadi ki pramukh fsalein hoti hain, jinmein ganna, gehooain, chaaval, mooaingafali ki mukhya upaj hoti hain.

sanskruti

bijnaur janapad mein hindu, islaam, isaai, jain, bauddh, sikkh aadi dharmaavalanbi rahate hain. hinduon mein ravaan rajput, braahman, kshatriya, vaishya, shoodr anek jaati-upajaatiyaaain hain. pramukh roop se bhuiyaar (hindu julaaha), braahman, jaat, gurjar, aheer, tyaagi, chauhaan, rava rajput, baniya (vaishya), chamaar, kaayasth, khatri aadi upajaatiyaaain hain. kaarya evam vyavasaaya ke aadhaar par bhi anek upajaatiyon ka astitv sveekaar kiya gaya hai. bhuiyaar (hindu julaaha), badhi, kumhaar, luhaar, sunaar, rangarej (chheepi), teli, gadariya, dheenvar, naai, dhobi, maali, baagavaan, bhadbhooja, khumara, dhuna, singaadiya, kanjar, manihaar aadi pramukh hain. musalmaanon mein shekh, Sayyed, mugl, pathaan, Ansari, sakka, raanghad, kajjaad aadi upajaatiyaaain hain. sikkhon va jainiyon mein bhi isi prakaar ki upajaatiyaaain hain. Bhaarat-vibhaajan se anek punjabi, Pakistani aur bangaali bhi yahaaain aa base hain. sampoorn kshetr mein hindu tatha musalmaanon ka baahulya hai. yahaaain ki bhaasha hindi hai kintu bolachaal mein hindi ki anek boliyon ke shabd milte hain.

prasiddh vyakti - bijnaur janapad ka saahityik itihaas bahut sampann hai. saahitya ke kshetr mein janapad ko maanyata pradaan karne mein jin saahityakaaron ne mukhya bhoomika nibhaai hai, unamein pramukh hain sanpaadakaachaarya pan. rudradatt sharma, sameekshak evam sansmaran lekhak pan. padmasinh sharma, gjlakaar dushyant Kumar, kurrat ul ain haidar, nishtar khaanakaahi, raamagopaal vidyaalankaar, haridtt sharma, fatahachand sharma aaraadhak, patrakaar baaboosinh chauhaan, shaayar chandraprakaash jauhar, vyangyakaar raveendranaath tyaagi, kathaakaar evam 00000patrakaar dau॰ mahaaveer adhikaari, dau॰ giriraajasharan Agrawal, iske atirikt film nirmaata prakaash Mehra, raajaneetijnya charan Singh, abhineta vishaal Bhardwaj, football khilaadi harapaal Singh aur svatantrata senaani bakhtakhaan ruhela mushi Singh Dhali Aheer ka janm bhi bijnaur mein hua tha.

shiksha sansthaan - pramukh school va intar kaalej hain- modern ira pablik school,A.N.international pablik school, ke.pi.S. baalika intar college, gavarnameint intar college, bijnaur intar kaalej, raaja jvaala prasaad aarya intar college aur seint meri kaunveint. iske atirikt do snaatakottar mahaavidyaalaya vardhamaan college aur aar.bi.di. snaatakottar kanya vidyaalaya, ek engineering college veera engineering college, ek faaramesi college vivek college of tekanikl education, do kaanoon vidyaalaya vivek college of law aur Krishna college of law yahaaain ki pramukh shiksha sansthaaeain hain.

arth vyavastha

jile mein krushi udyog pramukh udyog hai. 33 pratishat janasankhya isi mein kaaryarat hai. rabi, khreef, jaayad aadi pramukh fsalein hoti hain, jinmein ganna, gehooain, chaaval, mooaingafali ki mukhya upaj hain. 25 pratishat khetihr majadoor hain. is prakaar 58 pratishat janasankhya krushi udyog se sambandhit hai. anya karmakaar 37 pratishat tatha paarivaarik udyog mein 5 pratishat hain. jile ka uttari kshetr saghan vanon se aachhaadit hone ke kaaran kaashth udyog viksit avastha mein milta hai. najeebaabaad, nahataur, maaheshvari, dhaamapur aadi sthaanon par kaashth mandiya hain. karagha udyog yahaaain ka teesara mahattvapoorn graamodyog hai. hathakaraghe se bune hue kapde nahataur ke baajaar mein bikte hain. yahaaain ke bane kapde anyatr bhi niryaat kiye jaate hain. pashuon ki adhikta ke kaaran charm udyog mein bhi bahut se log lage hue hain. chamade evam usase nirmit vastuon ke kraya-vikraya se anek vyakti jeevikopaarjan karte hain. bijnaur kshetr ki 1148 hekteyar bhoomi sthaayi charaagaah ke liye hai. isliye pashupaalan-udyog viksit avastha mein hai. iske atirikt mitti ke bartan banaane ka udyog jise kumhaarageeri ka vyavasaaya bhi kehte hain, yahaaain ek prachalit vyavasaaya hai.. lagbhag sabhi gram-nagaron mein mitti ke bartan banaanevaale rahate hain. anek log tel udyog mein lage hue hain. teli upajaati ke vyaktiyon ke atirikt bhi is udyog ko karanevaale paae jaate hain. nagaron mein eksapelar tatha graamon mein paramparaagat tel kolhoo se tel nikaalne ka kaarya kiya jaata hai. iske atirikt baagvaani jismein maali, kuainjade aur baagbaan (saani) aadi upajaatiyon ke log kaaryarat hain tatha matsyodyog arthaat machhali pakadne ka kaarya-vyavasaaya karanevaale hain jismein dheenvar turakiye aadi upajaatiyon ke log hain. inhein machhiyaara tatha maahegeer bhi kehte hain. anya pramukh laghu udyog hain- badhigeeri, luhaarageeri, sunaarageeri, raingaai-chhapaai, raajageeri, mallaahageeri, thathere ka vyavasaaya, vastr silaai ka kaam, halavaaigeeri, dukaanadaari, baaains ki lakdi se sambandhit udyog, gud-khaaaindasaari udyog, bataai, bunaai ka kaam, vanaushadhi-sangrah aadi.

darshaneeya sthal

kanv aashram bijnaur janapad mein anek aise aitihaasik aur saanskrutik sthal hain jo is janapad ki mahatta ko pratipaadit karte hain. inmein mahattvapoorn sthal hai 'kanv aashram'. arvaacheen kaal mein yeh kshetr vanon se aachhaadit tha. maalini aur ganga ke sandhisthal par raavali ke sameep kanv muni ka aashram tha, jahaaain shikaar ke liye aae raaja dushyant ne shakanutala ke saath gaandharv vivaah kiya tha. raavali ke paas ab bhi kanv aashram ke smruti-chinh shesh hain.

vidurakuti mahaabhaarat kaal ka ek prasiddh sthal hai 'vidurakuti'. aisi maanyata hai ki Bhagwan Krishna jab hastinaapur mein kauravon ko samajhaane-bujhaane mein asafal rahe the to ve kauravon ke chhappan bhogon ko thukaraakar ganga paar karke mahaatma vidur ke aashram mein aae the aur unhonne yahaaain bathue ka saag khaaya tha. aaj bhi mandir ke sameep bathue ka saag har ritu mein upalabdh ho jaata hai.

daaraanagar mahaabhaarat ka yuddh aarambh honevaala tha, tabhi kaurav aur paandavon ke senaapatiyon ne mahaatma vidur se praarthana ki ki ve unki patniyon aur bachchon ko apne aashram mein sharan pradaan karein. apne aashram mein sthaan ke abhaav ke kaaran vidur ji ne apne aashram ke nikat un sabke liye aavaas ki vyavastha ki. aaj yeh sthal 'daaraanagar' ke naam se jaana jaata hai. sambhavat: mahilaaon ki basti hone ke kaaran iska naam daaraanagar pad gaya.

seindavaar chaaaindapur ke nikat sthit gaaainv 'seindavaar' ka sambandh bhi mahaabhaaratakaal se joda jaata hai, jiska arth hai sena ka dwaar. janashruti hai ki mahaabhaarat ke samay paandavon ne apni chhaavani yahi banaai thi. gaaainv mein is samay bhi dronaachaarya ka mandir vidyamaan hai.

paarasanaath ka kila badhaapur se lagbhag chaar kilometer poorv mein lagbhag pachchees ekad kshetr mein 'paarasanaath ka kila' ke khandahar vidyamaan hain. teelon par uge vrukshon aur jhaadon ke beech aaj bhi sundar nakkaasheedaar shilaaeain upalabdh hoti hain. is sthaan ko dekhne se aisa prateet hota hai ki iske chaaron or dwaar rahe honge. chaaro or bani hui khaai kuchh sthaanon par ab bhi dikhaai deti hai.

aajamapur ki paathashaala chaaaindapur ke paas baasta se lagbhag chaar kilometer door aajamapur gaaainv mein Akbar ke navaratnon mein se do abul fjal aur faiji ka janm hua tha. unhonne isi gaaainv ki paathashaala mein shiksha praapt ki thi. abul fjal aur faiji ki buddhimtta ke kaaran log aaj bhi paathashaala ke bhavan ki mitti ko apne saath le jaate hain. aisa vishvaas hai ki is school ki mitti chaatane se mandabuddhi baalak bhi buddhimaan ho jaate hain.

mayoor dhvaj durg cheeni yaatri hvenasaang ke anusaar janapad mein bauddh dharm ka bhi prabhaav tha. iska pramaan 'mayoor dhvaj durg' ki khudaai se mila hai. ye durg Bhagwan Krishna ke samakaaleen samraat mayoor dhvaj ne najeebaabaad tahaseel ke antargat jaafara gaaainv ke paas banavaaya tha. gadhvaal vishvavidyaalaya ke puraatattv vibhaag ne bhi is durg ki khudaai ki thi.

sandarbh

sandarbh granth

  1. bijnaur gajetiyr, pru. 179, vardhamaan patrika 1995-96 mein prakaashit dau॰ shivsevak avasthi ka lekh.
  2. bijnaur janapad-aitihaasik vivran-dau॰ chandrapaal sharma 'madhu' ka lekh.
  3. Agra vishvavidyaalaya, shodh-patra July 1972, dau॰ beena tyaagi.
  4. shodh-patra January 1973, dau॰ beena tyaagi
  5. bijnaur gajetiyr, pru. 183
  6. dau॰ dheereindr varma, madhyadesh, pru. 16 pratham sanskaran
  7. vardhamaan patrika, sampaadak da giriraajasharan Agrawal, 1975-76, pru. 37
  8. bijnaur janapad-aitihaasik vivran, dau॰ chandrapaal sharma 'madhu' ka lekh
  9. Bhaarat ka bhaasha sarvekshan bhaag-9, sar George Abraham giraryasan, pru. 145
  10. dau॰ dheereindr varma, hindi bhaasha ka itihaas, 1949, pru. 60
  11. dau॰ anbaaprasaad 'suman', hindi bhaasha : ateet aur vartamaan, pru. 1
  12. dau॰ anbaaprasaad 'suman', hindi bhaasha, pru. 2
  13. hindi bhaasha ka udbhav aur vikaas, pru. 179
  14. vahi, pru. 28
  15. naagari prachaarini patrika, bhaag 18, san 1944, pru. 283
  16. dau॰ dheeranedr varma, hindi bhaasha ka itihaas 1949, pru. 60
  17. hindi shabdaanushaasan (san. 2014, vi.), pru. 15
  18. graameen hindi boliyaaain (san 1966), pru. 40-41
  19. chhote-chhote savaal, shri dushyant Kumar, pru. 15

baahari kadiyaaain