bihaari (saahityakaar)

bihaareelaal ya bihaari hindi ke reeti kaal ke prasiddh kavi the.

anukram

jeevan parichay

mahaakavi bihaareelaal ka janm 1595 ke aaspaas gvaaliyr mein hua. ve jaati ke maathur chaube the. unke pita ka naam keshavaraaya tha. jab bihaari 8 varsh ke the tab inke pita inhe orachha le aaye tatha unka bachapan bundel khand mein kata inke guru keshavadaas the aur yuvaavastha sasuraal Mathura mein vyateet hui, jaise ki nimn dohe se prakat hai -

janm gvaaliyr jaaniye khand bundele baal.
tarunaai I sughar Mathura basi sasuraal.

Jaipur-naresh mirja raaja jayasinh apni nayi raani ke prem mein itne doobe rahate the ki ve mahal se baahar bhi naheen nikalte the aur raaj-kaaj ki or koi dhyaan naheen dete the. mantri aadi log isse bade chintit the, kintu raaja se kuchh kehne ko shakti kisi mein na thi. bihaari ne yeh kaarya apne oopar liya. unhonne nimnalikhit doha kisi prakaar raaja ke paas pahunchaaya -

nahin Parag nahin madhur madhu, nahin vikaas yahi kaal.
Ali kali hi sa bindhyon, aage kaun havaal.

is dohe ne raaja par mantra jaisa kaarya kiya. ve raani ke prem-paash se mukt hokar pun: apna raaj-kaaj sambhaalne lage. ve bihaari ki kaavya kushalata se itne prabhaavit hue ki unhonne bihaari se aur bhi dohe rachane ke liye kaha aur prati dohe par ek asharfi dene ka vachan diya. bihaari Jaipur naresh ke darbaar mein rahakar kaavya-rachana karne lage, vahaan unhein paryaapt dhan aur yash mila. 1664 mein unki mrutyu ho gayi.

krutiyaaain

bihaari ki ekamaatr rachana satasai (saptashati) hai. yeh muktak kaavya hai. ismein 719 dohe sankalit hain. katipya dohe sandigdh bhi maane jaate hain. yon sabhi dohe sundar aur saraahaneeya hain tathaapi tanik vichaarapoorvak baareeki se dekhne par lagbhag 200 dohe ati utkrusht thaharate hain. 'satasai' mein brajabhaasha ka prayog hua hai. brajabhaasha hi us samay uttar Bhaarat ki ek sarvamaanya tatha sarv-kavi-sammaanit graahya kaavyabhaasha ke roop mein pratishthit thi. iska prachaar aur prasaar itna ho chuka tha ki ismein anekaroopata ka aa jaana sahaj sambhav tha. bihaari ne ise ekaroopata ke saath rakhane ka stutya safal prayaas kiya aur ise nishchit saahityik roop mein rakh diya. isse brajabhaasha mainjakar nikhr uthi.

satasai ko teen mukhya bhaagon mein vibhkt kar sakte hain- neeti vishyak, bhakti aur adhyaatm bhaavaparak, tatha shrugaanrapaparak. inmein se shrungaaraatmak bhaag adhik hai. kalaachamatkaar sarvatr chaaturya ke saath praapt hota hai.

shrungaaraatmak bhaag mein roopaang saundarya, saundaryopakaran, naayak-naayikaabhed tatha haav, bhaav, vilaas ka kathan kiya gaya hai. naayak-naayikaaniroopapan bhi mukht: teen roopon mein milta hai- pratham roop mein naayak Krishna aur naayika raadha hai. inka chitran karte hue dhaarmik aur daarshanik vichaar ko dhyaan mein rakha gaya hai. isliye ismein goodhaarth vyanjana pradhaan hai, aur aadhyaatmik rahasya tatha dharmamarm nihit hai; dviteeya roop mein raadha aur Krishna ka spasht ullekh naheen kiya gaya kintu unke aabhaas ki pradeepti di gayi hai aur kalpanaadarsh roop rauchirya rachakar aadarsh chitr vichitr vyanjana ke saath prastut kiye gaye hain. isse ismein laukik vaasana ka vilaas naheen milta. truteeya roop mein lokasanbhav naayak naayika ka spasht chitr hai. ismein bhi kalpana kala kaushal aur kavi paramparaagat aadarshon ka put poorn roop mein praapt hota hai. nitaant laukik roop bahut hi nyoon aur bahut hi kam hai.

'satasai' ke muktak dohon ko kramabaddh karne ke prayaas kiye gaye hain. 25 prakaar ke kram kahe jaate hain jinmein se 14 prakaar ke kram dekhe gaye hain, shesh 11 prakaar ke kram jin teekaaon mein hain, ve praapt naheen. kintu koi nishchit kram naheen diya ja saka. vastut: baat yeh jaan padti hai ki ye dohe samay-samay par muktak roop mein hi rache gaye, fir chun chunakar ekatrit kar sankalit kar diye gaye. keval mangalaacharanaatmak dohon ke vishay mein bhi isi se vichaar vaichitya hai. yadi 'meri bhav baadha harau' is dohe ko pratham mangalaacharanaatmak arthaat keval raadhopaasak hone ka vichaar spasht hota hai aur yadi 'mor mukut kati kaachhini'-is dohe ko lein, to keval ek vishesh baanakavaali krushnamoorti hi bihaari ki abheeshtopaasya moorti mukhya thaharati hain - bihaari vastut: krushnopaasak the, yeh spasht hai.

satasai ke dekhne se spasht hota hai ki bihaari ke liye kaavya mein ras aur alankaar chaaturya chamatkaar tatha kathan kaushal donon hi anivaarya aur aavashyak hain. unke dohon ko do vargon mein is prakaar bhi rakh sakte hain, ek varg mein ve dohe aaeaingein jinmein ras rauchirya ka praabalya hai aur rasaatmakata ka hi vishesh dhyaan rakha gaya hai. alankaar chamatkaar inmein bhi hai kintu vishesh pradhaan naheen, varan ras pariposhakata aur bhaavotkarshakata ke liye hi sahaayak roop mein yeh hai.

doosare varg mein ve dohe hain jinmein rasaatmakata ko visheshata naheen di gayi varan alankaar chamatkaar aur vachanachaaturi athva kathan-kalaakaushal ko hi pradhaanata di gayi hai. kisi vishesh alankaar ko uktivaichitrya ke saath safalta se nibaaha gaya hai. is prakaar dekhte hue bhi yeh maanana padta hai ki alankaar chamatkaar ko kaheen nitaant bhulaaya bhi naheen gaya. ras ko utkarsh dete hue bhi alankaar kaushal ka apakarsh bhi naheen hone diya gaya. is prakaar kehna chaahiye ki bihaari rasaalankaarasiddh kavi the; rasasiddh hi naheen.

neeti vishyak dohon mein vastut: sarasata rakhana kathin hota hai, unamein uktiauchitya aur vachanavakrata ke saath chaaru chaaturya chamatkaar hi prabhaavotpaadak aur dhyaanaakarshan mein sahaayak hota hai. yeh baat neetiprak dohon mein spasht roop se milti hai. fir bhi bihaari ne inmein sarasata ka saraahaneeya prayaas kiya hai.

aisi hi baat daarshanik siddhaanton aur dhaarmik bhaav marmon ke bhi prastut karne mein aati hai kyonki unamein apni virsata svabhaavat: rahati hai. fir bhi bihaari ne unhein sarasata ke saath prastut karne mein safalta pai hai.

bhakti ke haardik bhaav bahut hi kam dohon mein dikhaai padte hain. samayaavastha vishesh mein bihaari ke bhaavuk hrudaya mein bhaktibhaavana ka udaya hua aur usaki abhivyakti bhi hui. bihaari mein dainya bhaav ka praadhaanya naheen, ve prabhu praarthana karte hain, kintu ati heen hokar naheen. prabhu ki ichha ko hi mukhya maankar vinaya karte hain.

bihaari ne apne poorvavarti siddh kavivron ki muktak rachanaaon, jaise aaryaasaptashati, gaathaasaptashati, amarukashatak aadi se moolabhaav liye hain- kaheen un bhaavon ko kaat chhaaaintakar sundar roop diya hai, kaheen kuchh unnat kiya hai aur kaheen jyon ka tyon hi sa rakha hai. saundarya yeh hai ki deergh bhaavon ko sankshipt roop mein ramyata ke saath apni chhaap chhodte hue rakhane ka safal prayaas kiya gaya hai.

teekaaeain

'satasai' par anek kaviyon aur lekhakon ne teekaaeain likheen. kul 54 teekaaeain mukhya roop se praapt hui hain. ratnaakar ji ki teeka ek prakaar se antim teeka hai, yeh sarvaang sundar hai. satasai ke anuvaad bhi sanskrut, urdoo (faarasi) aadi mein hue hain aur katipya kaviyon ne satasai ke dohon ko spasht karte hue kundaliya aadi chhandon ke dvaara vishishteekrut kiya hai. anya poorvaaparavarti kaviyon ke saath bhaavasaamya bhi prakat kiya gaya hai. kuchh teekaaeain faarasi aur sanskrut mein likhi gain hain. teekaakaaron ne satasai mein dohon ke kram bhi apne apne vichaar se rakhe hain. saath hi dohon ki sankhya bhi nyoonaadhik di hai. yeh nitaant nishchit naheen ki kul kitne dohe rache gaye the. sambhav hai, jo satasai mein aae ve chunakar aae kul dohe 700 se kaheen adhik rache gaye honge. saare jeevan mein bihaari ne itne hi dohe rache hon, yeh sarvatha maanya naheen thaharata.

'satasai' par katipya aalochakon ne apni aalochanaaeain likhi hain. reeti kaavya se hi iski aalochna chalti aa rahi hai. pratham kaviyon ne satasai ki maarmik visheshata ko saanketik roop se soochit karte hue dohe aur chhand likhe. urdoo ke shaayaron ne bhi isi prakaar kiya. yatha :

satasaiya ke dohare, jyon naavak ke teer.
dekhat main chhote lagain, ghaav karain gambhir.
bihaari ki balaagat aur brajabhaasha ki sheereeni,
hamein taareef karne ke liye majaboor karti hai.

is prakaar ki kitni hi uktiyaaain prachalit hain. vistrut roop mein satasai par aalochanaatmak pustakein bhi idhar kai likhi gayi hain. saath hi aadhunik kaal mein iski kai teekaaeain bhi prakaashit hui hain. inki tulana vishesh roop se kavivr Dave se ki gayi aur ek or Dave ko, doosari or bihaari ko badhkar siddh karne ka prayatn kiya gaya. do pustakein, 'Dave aur bihaari' pan. krushnavihaari mishr likhit tatha 'bihaari aur Dave' laala bhagavaanadeen likhit ullekhaneeya hain. ratnaakar ji ke dvaara sanpaadit 'bihaari ratnaakar' naamak teeka aur 'kavivr bihaari' naamak aalochanaatmak vivechan vishesh roop mein avalokaneeya aur praamaanik hain.

kaavyagat visheshataaen

varnya vishay

bihaari ki kavita ka mukhya vishay shrrungaar hai. unhonne shrrungaar ke sanyog aur viyog donon hi pakshon ka varnan kiya hai. sanyog paksh mein bihaari ne haavabhaav aur anubhavon ka bada hi sookshm chitran kiya hain. usamein badi maarmikta hai. sanyog ka ek udaaharan dekhiye -

bataras laalach laal ki murali dhari lukaaya.
soh kare, bhaunhanu hanse dain kahe, nati jaaya.

bihaari ka viyog, varnan bada atishyokti poorn hai. yahi kaaran hai ki usamein svaabhaavikta naheen hai, virh mein vyaakul naayika ki durbalata ka chitran karte hue use ghadi ke peindulam jaisa bana diya gaya hai -

iti aavat chali jaat ut, chali, chhasaatak haath.
chadhi hindore si rahe, lagi usaasanu saath.

soofi kaviyon ki ahaatmak paddhati ka bhi bihaari par paryaapt prabhaav pada hai. viyog ki aag se naayika ka shareer itna garm hai ki us par daala gaya gulaab jal beech mein hi sookh jaata hai -

aundhaai CC sulakhi, birh vitha vilsaat.
beechahin sookhi gulaab go, chheeton chhuyo na gaat.

bhakti-bhaavana

bihaari moolat: shrrungaari kavi hain. unki bhakti-bhaavana raadha-Krishna ke prati hai aur vah jahaan tahaan hi prakat hui hai. satasai ke aarambh mein mangala-charan ka yeh doha raadha ke prati unke bhakti-bhaav ka hi parichaayak hai -

meri bhav baadha haro, raadha naagari soya.
ja tan ki jhaai pare, syaam harit duti hoya.

bihaari ne neeti aur gyaan ke bhi dohe likhe hain, kintu unki sankhya bahut thodi hai. dhan-sangrah ke sambandh mein ek doha dekhiye -

mati na neeti galeet yeh, jo dhan dhariye jor.
khaaye kharche jo bache to joriye karor.

prakruti-chitran

prakruti-chitran mein bihaari kisi se peechhe naheen rahe hain. shat riatuon ka unhonne bada hi sundar varnan kiya hai. greeshm riatu ka chitr dekhiye -

kahalaane ekat basat ahi mayoor mrug baagh.
jagat tapotan se kiyo, darigh daagh nidaagh.

bihri gaav vaalo ki arasikt ka upahaas karte hue kehte hain-

kar fulel ko aachaman mitho kahat sarahi.
re gandh matiheen itr dikhvat kaahi.

bahujnyaata

bihaari ko jyotish, vaidyak, ganit, vigyaan aadi vividh vishyon ka bada gyaan tha. at: unhonne apne dohon mein usaka khoob upayog kiya hai. ganit sambandhi tathya se paripoorn yeh doha dekhiye -

kahat savai vedeen diye aangu das guno hotu.
tiya lilaar beindi diyain agintu badhat udotu.

bhaasha

bihaari ki bhaasha saahityik brajabhaasha hai. ismein soor ki chalti braj bhaasha ka viksit roop milta hai. poorvi hindi, bundelakhandi, urdoo, faarasai aadi ke shabd bhi usamein aae hain, kintu ve latakate naheen hain. bihaari ka shabd chayan bada sundar aur saarthak hai. shabdon ka prayog bhaavon ke anukool hi hua hai aur unamein ek bhi shabd bhaarati ka prateet naheen hota. bihaari ne apni bhaasha mein kaheen-kaheen muhaavaron ka bhi sundar prayog kiya hai. jaise -

mood chadhaaaioo rahai farayau peethi kach-bhaaru.
rahai girain pari, raakhibau taoo hiyain par haaru.

shaili

vishay ke anusaar bihaari ki shaili teen prakaar ki hai -

  • 1 - maadhurya poorn vyanjana pradhaanashaili - shrrungaar ke dohon mein.
  • 2 - prasaadagun se yukt saras shaili - bhakti tatha neeti ke dohon mein.
  • 3 - chamatkaar poorn shaili - darshan, jyotish, ganit aadi vishyak dohon mein.

ras

yadyapi bihaari ke kaavya mein shaant, haasya, karun aadi rason ke bhi udaaharan mil jaate hain, kintu mukhya ras shrrungaar hi hai.

chhand

bihaari ne keval do hi chhand apanaae hain, doha aur soratha. doha chhand ki pradhaanata hai. bihaari ke dohe samaas-shaili ke utkrusht namoone hain. dohe jaise chhote chhand mein kai-kai bhaav bhar dena bihaari jaise kavi ka hi kaam tha.

alankaar

alankaaron ki kaareegari dikhaane mein bihaari bade patu hain. unke pratyek dohe mein koi na koi alankaar avashya aa gaya hai. kisi-kisi dohe mein to ek saath kai-kai alankaaron ko sthaan mila hai. atishyokti, anyokti aur saangaroopak bihaari ke vishesh priya alankaar hain anyokti alankaar ka ek udaaharan dekhiye -

svaarath sukrut na shram vrutha dekhu vihang vichaari.
baaj paraaye paani par too pachheenu na maari..
evam
meri bhav baadha haro, raadha naagari soi .
ja tan ki jhaai paare, shyaamu-harit-duti hoi .

saahitya mein sthaan

kisi kavi ka yash uske dvaara rachit granthon ke parimaan par naheen, gun par nirbhar hota hai. bihaari ke saath bhi yahi baat hai. akele satasai granth ne unhein hindi saahitya mein amar kar diya. shrrungaar ras ke granthon mein bihaari satasai ke samaan khyaati kisi ko naheen mili. is granth ki anek teekaaen huin aur anek kaviyon ne iske dohon ko aadhaar bana kar kavitt, chhappaya, savaiya aadi chhandon ki rachana ki. bihaari satasai aaj bhi rasik janon ka kaavya-haar bani hui hai.

kalpana ki samaahaar shakti aur bhaasha ki samaas shakti ke kaaran satasai ke dohe gaagar mein saagar bhare jaane ki ukti charitaarth karte hain. unke vishay mein theek hi kaha gaya hai -

satasaiya ke dohare jyon naavak ke teer.
dekhan mein chhote lagain, ghaav karain gambhir.

apne kaavya gunon ke kaaran hi bihaari mahaakaavya ki rachana na karne par bhi mahaakaviyon ki shreni mein gine jaate hain. unke sambandh mein svargeeya raadhaakrushnadaas ji ki yeh sampatti badi saarthak hai -

yadi soor soor hain, tulasi shashi aur udagan keshavadaas hain to bihaari us peeyoosh varshi megh ke samaan hain jiske udaya hote hi sabka prakaash aachhann ho jaata hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain