bhukhamari

Starvation or cease of food
vargeekaran va baahari sansaadhan
Starved girl.jpg
A girl during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition.
aaiseedi-10 T73.0
aaiseedi-9 994.2
rog daataabes 12415
emaiesaech D013217
bhookh se peedit viytanaami vyakti, jise ki vahaaain ke viyt Congress shivir mein bhojan se vanchit rakha gaya tha.

vitaamin, poshak tatvon aur oorja antargrahan ki gambhir kami ko bhukhamari kehte hain. yeh kuposhan ka sabse charam roop hai. adhik samay tak bhukhamari ke kaaran shareer ke kuchh ang sthaayi roop se nasht ho sakte hain aur[krupaya uddharan jodein] antat: mrutyu bhi ho sakti hai. apakshaya shabd bhukhamari ke lakshanon aur prabhaav ki or sanket karta hai.

vishv svaasth sangathan ke anusaar, vishv ke sampoorn svaasth ke liye bhookh swayam mein hi ek gambhir samasya hai.[1] dablooechao (WHO) yeh bhi kehta hai ki ab tak shishu mrutyu ke kul mein se aadhe maamalon ke liye kuposhan hi uttaradaayi hai.[1] efaeo (FAO) ke anusaar, vartamaan mein 1 billion se bhi jyaada log, ya is grah par prati chh: mein se ek vyakti, bhukhamari se prabhaavit hai.[2]

anukram

aam kaaran

bhukhamari ka mool kaaran oorja vyaya aur oorja antargrahan ke beech asantulan hai. doosare shabdon mein, shareer bhojan ke roop mein grahan ki gayi oorja se adhik oorja vyaya karta hai. yeh asantulan ek ya kai chikitsakeeya kaaranon se ho sakta hai aur/ya paaristithik avasthaaon ke kaaran bhi ho sakta hai, jisme nimn sammilit ho sakte hain:

chikitsakeeya kaaran

paristhitijnya kaaran

  • atijnasankhya ya yuddh jaise kaaranon ke saath kisi kaaran se akaal pad jaana
  • upavaas, jab bina uchit chikitsakeeya dekharekh ke kiya jaaye aur ek maheene se adhik samay tak chale.
  • greebi

sanket tatha lakshan

bhukhamari se grasit vyakti mein charbi (vasa) ki maatra aur maansapeshiyon ka bhaar kaafi ghat jaata hai kyoonki shareer oorja praapt karne ke liye in ootakon ka vightan karne lagta hai. jab shareer apne atyaavashyak angon jaise tantrika tantr aur hradaya ki maansapeshiyon (maayokaardiym) ki kriyaasheelata ko banaaye rakhane ke liye apni hi maansapeshiyon aur anya ootakon ka vightan karne lagta hai to ise ketaabaulisis kehte hain. vitaamin ki kami bhukhamari ka saamaanya parinaam hai, jo praay: khoon ki kami, bereeberi, pelegra aur skarvi ka roop le leta hai. sanyukt roop se yeh beemaariyaan daayariya, tvacha par hone waali andhauri, shof aur hradaya gati rukane ka kaaran bhi ho sakti hain. iske parinaamasvaroop isse grast vyakti praay: chidchida aur aalasi rahata hai.

pet ki ksheenata bhookh ke anubhav ko kam kar deti hai, kyoonki anubhav pet ke us hisse dvaara niyantrit hota hai jo ki khaali ho. bhukhamari ke shikaar vyakti itne kamzor ho jaate hain ki unhein pyaas ka anubhav naheen ho paata aur isliye nirjaleekaran se grast ho jaate hain.

maansapeshiyon ke apakshaya aur shushk va fati tvacha, jo ki gambhir nirjaleekaran ke kaaran hoti hai, ke parinaamasvaroop sabhi kriyaaen peedaadaayak ho jaati hain. kamzor shareer ke kaaran beemaariyaan hona saadhaaran hai. udaaharan ke liye, fangas praay: bhojan nali ke andar viksit hone lagta hai, jisse ki kuchh bhi niglana bahut hi kashtadaayak ho jaata hai.

bhukhamari se hone waali oorja ki svaabhaavik kami ke kaaran thakaavat hoti hai aur oorja ki yeh kami lambe samay tak rahane par peedit vyakti ko udaaseen bana deti hai. kyoonki bhukhamari se peedit vyakti itna kamzor ho jaata hai ki vah khaane aur hilne mein bhi asamarth ho jaata hai aur fir apne chaaron aur ke vaataavaran se usaka paarasparik sambandh bhi kam hone lagta hai.

vah vyakti rogon se ladne mein bhi asamarth ho jaata hai aur mahilaaon mein maasikdharm bhi aniyamit ho jaata hai.

jeev rasaayan

jab bhojan grahan karna band ho jaata hai to, shareer dvaara sanchit glaaikojen 24 ghante mein samaapt ho jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sanchaarit insulin ka star kam ho jaata hai aur glookaagon ka star atyadhik badh jaata hai. oorja utpaadan ka pramukh saadhan lipolisis hota hai. glukojenesis glisraul ko glukoj mein badal deta hai aur kori cycle lektet ko prayog yogya guokoj mein badal deta hai. glukojenisis mein do oorja pranaaliyaan kaarya karti hai:protiyolisis, paairuvet dvaara banaayeen gayi elaanaain aur lektet deta hai, jabki esitil CoA ghulanasheel poshak tattv (keeton samooh) banta hai, jinki jaanch mootr dvaara ki ja sakti hai aur yeh mastishk dvaara oorja ke strot ke roop mein prayog kiye jaate hain.

insulin pratirodh ki shabdaavali mein, bhukhamari ki avastha mein mastishk ke liye upalabdh glukoj se adhik glukoj banane lagta hai.

prayaas

upachaar

bhukhamari se peedit rogiyon ka upachaar sambhav hai, lekin yeh atyant saavadhaaneepoorvak kiya jaana chaahiye jisse reefeeding sindrom se bacha ja sake.[3]

rokathaam

inhein bhi dekhein: khaadya suraksha

kisi vyakti ke liye, rokathaam mein svaabhaavik roop se adhik bhojan lena sammilit hai, is bhojan mein itni vividhta ho ki vah poshan ki drushti se ek sampoorn aahaar ho. ek sambhaavit bhukhamari se peedit vyakti ke saamane baithakar use bhojan karaana, un saamaajik vyavasthaaon ke prati aavaaj uthaana jiske kaaran logon ko bhojan se vanchit rakha jaata hai, aadi adhik jatil maamale hain.

khaadya asuraksha vaale kshetron mein muft aur anudaanik beej v khaad upalabdh kara kar kisaanon ki sahaayata karne se fasal badhegi aur daamon mein kami aaegi.[4]

malaavi mein safal pratikriyaaon ka udaaharan

malaavi mein, 13 million mein se lagbhag 5 million logon ko avilamb bhojan sahaayata ki jrurat hai. haalaanki sarkaar dvaara kiye gaye fasal aankalan ke anusaar, 2006 aur 2007 mein achhi varsha ke dvaara sahayog praapt gahan khaadya anudaan aur beej anudaan, jo ki khaad anudaan ki tulana mein kam tha, se kisaanon ko makke ki abhootapoorv fasal ugaane mein sahaayata mili. sarkaar ne soochit kiya ki makke ki fasal 2005 mein 1.2 million meetrik tan (mmt) se badhakar 2006 mein 2.7 mmt aur 2007 mein 3.4 mmt ho gayi. is paidaavaar se khaadya padaarthon ke daam ghat gaye aur kheton mein majadoori karne vaale kisaanon ki majadoori badh gayi, jisse gareebon ki madad hui. malaavi khaadya padaarthon ka ek pramukh niryaatak ho gaya, vah sanyukt raashtron aur vishv khaadya kaaryakram ko dakshini Africa ke anya kisi bhi desh ki tulana mein sarvaadhik makka vikraya karne laga.

niyamon mein kiye gaye is parivartan (vishv bank dvaara banaaya gaya kaanoon) se 20 varshon poorv tak, malaavi se dhani kuchh desh joki videshi sahaayata par nirbhar the, ve mukt baajaar niyamon ke naam par baarabaar is par khaadya anudaanon ko kam karne ya samaapt karne ke liye dabaav daal rahe the. sanyukt raajya aur Europe dvaara apne kisaanon ko vyaapak anudaan diye jaane ke baavajood bhi yeh ho raha tha. haalaanki sab to naheen kintu fir bhi iske adhikaansh kisaan baajaar ke daamon par khaad le paane mein asamarth hain. kisaanon ki madad ke prastaavakon mein arthashaastri jefri saaks bhi shaamil hain, jinhonein is vichaar ki himaayat ki ki dhani raashtron ko Africa ke kisaanon ke liye khaad aur beejon par nivesh karna chaahiye. oonhone hi mileniym vilej project (MVP) ka vichaar rakha, jo yogya kisaanon ko beej, khaad aur prashikshan pradaan karega. kenya ke ek gaanv mein, is niyam ke anuprayog ke falasvaroop usaki makke ki fasal tiguni ho gayi, jabki isse pehle us gaanv mein bhukhamari ka ek chakr beet chuka tha.

sangathan

kai sangathan bhinn bhinn kshetron mein bhukhamari ko ghataane mein atyant prabhaavi rahe hain. sahaayata sansthaaen logon ko seedhe madad deti hain, jabki raajaneetik sangathan raajaneetijnyaon par vruhad stareeya niyamon ko banaane ke liye dabaav daalati hain joki akaalon ki aavrutti ko kam kar sakein aur sahaayata de sakein.

bhookh se sambandhit aankade

2007 mein 923 million log alpaposhit ke roop mein prativedit kiye gaye, yeh 1990-92 ki tulana mein 80 million ki badhat thi.[5] yeh bhi soochit kiya gaya ki vishv pehle hi itne khaadyaann ka utpaadan karta hai ki jisse vishv ki poori janasankhya ka pet bhara ja sakta hai-vishv ki kul janasankhya- 6 billion hai - jabki iske dogune logon ka pet bharne ke liye khaadyaann paida hota hai- 12 billion log.[6] haalaanki krushi ab kaafi had tak apoorya khanij idhanon aur taajepaani ke jalaayaashon ke adhikaadhik prayog par nirbhar hai; istiyuto nejionel dela nyootreejiyon, rom ke ek varishth shodhakarta aur kaurnel university ke college of life science end egreekalchar ke ek professor ne, adhiktam vaishvik janasankhya ke lagbhag 2 billion hone ka anumaan lagaaya, yadi yeh vishisht roop se maatr naveekaraneeya stroton par nirbhar kare to.[7] (dekhein vishv janasankhya aur krushi sambandhi sankat)

varsh 1970 1980 1990 2005 2007
vikaasasheel vishv mein bhookhe logon ki hissedaari[8][9] 37% 28% 20% 16% 17%

bhookh se hone waali mrutyuon ke sambandh mein aankade

  • bhookh ke kaaran ausatan pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop se prati second 1 vyakti ki mrutyu hoti hai- prati ghante 4000 vyaktiyon ki- pratidin 100 000 vyaktiyon ki- prati varsh 36 million vyaktiyon ki- aur sabhi mrutyuon mein se 58 pratishat (2001-2004 aankalan ke anusaar) isi ke kaaran hoti hain.[10][11][12]
  • bhookh ke kaaran ausatan pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop se prati 5 second mein 1 bachche ki- pratighante 700 bachchon ki-pratidin 16000 bachchon ki- prativrsh 6 million bachchon ki aur sabhi mrutyuon mein se 60 pratishat (2002-2008 ke aankalan ke anusaar) isi ke kaaran hoti hain.[13][14][15][16][17]

mrutyudand ke roop mein

Wikisource
vikisors mein The Women of the Caesars lekh se sambandhit mool saahitya hai.
the staarving livila rifyujing food.aandre kaastaagne dvaara ek draaing

itihaas ke anusaar, bhukhamari ka prayog mrutyudand ke roop mein kiya jaata tha. maanav sabhyata ki shuruaat se lekar madhya yug tak, logon ko band kar diya jaata tha ya chaar deevaaron mein kaid kar diya jaata tha aur vo bhojan ke abhaav mein mar jaate the.

praacheen greko-roman sabhyata mein, bhukhamari ka prayog kabhi kabhi oonche darje ke doshi naagrikon se chhutakaara paane ke liye bhi kiya jaata tha, khaastaur par rom ke kuleen varg ki mahilaaon ke galat aacharan ke sambandh mein. udahaaran ke liye, 31 vein varsh ke dauraan, tiberiys ki bhaanji aur bahoo livila ko saijanus ke saath vyabhichaar poorn sambandh hone aur apne pati kanishth drusaas ki hatya mein sahaparaadhita ke liye gupt roop se usaki maan dvaara bhookh se tadpa kar maar daala gaya tha.

tiberiyaas ki ek anya bahu, jiska naam egripina the eldar (jyeshth egripina) tha (agastas ki poti aur kailigyula ki maan) bhi 33 ipoo (AD) bhukhamari ke kaaran mar gayi thi. haalaanki yeh spasht naheen hai ki usane is prakaar bhookh se marne ka nirnaya swayam liya tha.

egripina ke ek bete aur beti ko bhi raajaneetik kaaranon ke chalte bhookh se maar daalne ki saja di gayi thi; usaka doosra beta drusaas seejr, 33 ipoo (AD) mein kaaraagaar mein daal diya gaya tha aur tiberiys ki aajnyaa dvaara use bhookh se tadpa kar maar daala gaya tha (vah 9 dinon tak apne bistar mein bhare saamaan ko chabaakar jeevit raha tha); egripina ki sabse chhoti beti, jooliya livila, ko apne chaacha, samraat klaudiys, dvaara 41 vein varsh mein deshanikaala dekar ek dweep par chhod diya gaya tha aur iske kuchh samay baad hi samraajnyai mesalina dvaara use bhookh se tadpa kar maar daalne ki vyavastha kar di gayi thi.

yeh bhi sambhav hai ki pavitra kunvaariyon ko brahmacharya ka sankalp todne ka doshi paae jaane par bhukhamari ki saja di jaati ho.

19veen shataabdi mein yugolino dela gheraardeska, unke bete aur parivaar ke anya sadasyon ko muda mein, jo ki peesa ka ek burj hai, mein band kar diya gaya tha aur unhein bhookh se tadpa kar maar daala gaya tha. unke samakaaleen, dente, ne apni utkrusht kruti divaain Comedy mein gheraardeska ke baare mein likha hai.

1317 mein sveeden mein, sveeden ke raaja birgar ne apne donon bhaaiyon ko ek ghaatak kaarya, jo unhonne kai varshon pehle kiya tha, ke liye kaaraavaas mein dalava diya tha. (Nyköaping Banquet) kuchh saptaah baad, vah bhookh ke kaaran mar gaye.

1671 mein kaurnaval mein, seint kolamb major ke John treheinben ko do ladkiyon ki hatya ke liye kaisal ऍn dins mein ek pinjare mein bhookh se marne ki saja dekar dandit kiya gaya tha.

ek Poland vaasi dhaarmik bhikshu, meksimiln kolbe, ne aushavij keindreekaran shivir mein ek anya kaidi, jise mrutyu ki saja di gayi thi, ko bachaane ke liye apni mrutyu ka prastaav rakha. use anya 9 kaidiyon ke saath bhookh se tadpa kar maar daala gaya. do saptaah tak bhookh se tadpane ke baad, sirf kolbe aur do anya kaidi jeevit rah gaye the aur une finaul ki sooi lagaakar praanadand diya gaya.

edagar Allen po ne Italy mein ek sabhya vyakti ko bandi banaaye jaane par ek laghu katha, the kaiskyu of amauntiledo likhi thi.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • 2007-2008 vishv khaadya moolya sankat
  • enoreksiya miraabilis
  • enoreksiya narvosa
  • nauramain bauralaug
  • kaicheksiya
  • nirjaleekaran
  • vaishvik bhookh soochakaank
  • akaal
  • akaal ke prati pratikriya
  • akaal ka star
  • upavaas
  • khaadya suraksha
  • bhookh
  • bhookh hadtaal
  • kvaashiorkor
  • akaalon ki soochi
  • bhookh se marne vaale logon ki soochi
  • kuposhan
  • maraasmas
  • musalmaan
  • adhik janasankhya
  • greebi
  • rifeeding sindrom
  • santhaara

sandarbh

  1. a aa kuposhan bhukhamara
  2. efaeo ke aankade bataate hai ki bhukhamari ke 1 arab log hain.
  3. Mehanna HM, Moledina J, Travis J (June 2008). "Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it". BMJ 336 (7659): 1495–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.a301. PMC 2440847. PMID 18583681. http://bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18583681.
  4. visheshagyon ko anadekha karke, akaal samaapt
  5. khaadya aur krushi sangathan ke aarthik aur saamaajik vikaas vibhaag. "the state of food inasekyuriti in the world, 2008 : haai food praaises end food sekyuriti - threts end auporchuniteej". sanyukt raashtra ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan, 2008 prushth 2. "efaeo ke sabse haal hi mein anumaan ke tahat million 2007 mein 923 logon ko bhookh ki sankhya mein daala, 1990-92 ke baad se 80 lakh ki vruddhi se adhik avadhi ke aadhaar par badhi.".
  6. jeen jeglar. "sabhi maanav adhikaar ke sanvardhan aur sanrakshan ke adhikaar, civil pauleetikl, raajaneetik, aarthik, saamaajik aur saanskrutik adhikaar, the raait too develapameint sahit: raait too food par special report par raiporchaar, jeen jeglar". sanyukt raashtra ke maanav adhikaar parishad, 10 January 2008. "sanyukt raajya ke sangathan food end egreekalchar aurgaanaaijeshan ke hisaab se, duniya pehle se hi itna khaadya pradaan karti hai ki har bachche aurat aur aadmi ko khila sake aur 12 billion logon ko ya varttamaan ke janasankhya ke double ko."
  7. [http://dieoff.org/page69.htm majaboot takaraav: janasankhya, oorja ka upayog aur krushi ke paaristhitikeeya]
  8. khaadya aur krushi sangathan krushi aur vikaas ke arthashaastr vibhaag. "the state of food inasekyuriti in the world, 2006 : eraideeketing world hantar - teking stock ten iyars aaftar the world food summit". sanyukt raashtra ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan, 2006, prushth. 8. "vikaasasheel deshon mein badhti janasankhya ke kaaran bhookhe logon ki sankhya mein atyant nyoon giraavat aati hai par iske baavajood bhi vah giraavat alpaposhit vyaktiyon ke anupaat mein kami ke roop mein parilkshit hoti hai aur yeh giraavat teen pratishat ankon ki rahi- 1990-92 mein 20 pratishat se ghatkar yeh 2001-03 mein 17 pratishat rah gayi. (...) 1969-71 aur 1079-81 ke beech alpaposhan ki sthiti mein 9 pratishat ki giraavat I aur iske aage 1979-81 aur 1990-92 mein ismein 8 pratishat ankon ki giraavat (20 pratishat se) I."
  9. khaadya aur krushi sangathan ke aarthik aur saamaajik vikaas vibhaag. "the state of food inasekyuriti in the world, 2008 : haai food praaises end food sekyuriti - threts end auporchuniteej". sanyukt raashtra ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan 2008, prushth 6. "vikaasasheel deshon ne bhookhe logon ke anupaat ko kam karne mein achhi pragati praapt ki hai- 1990-92 ke 20 pratishat se ghatkar 1995-97 mein yeh pratishat 18 rah gaya aur 2003-05 mein yeh 16 pratishat se kuchh hi oopar rah gaya. aankade yeh pradarshit karte hain ki khaadya padaarthon ke badhaate hue moolya ne is pragati ko peechhe kheencha hai, jisse ki vishv star par alpaposhit vyaktiyon ka pratishat pun: 17 par pahunch raha hai."
  10. jeen jeglar. "the raait too food: raait too food par special report par raiporchaar, mistar. jeen jeglar, hyuman raait rejolyooshan par preshit anusaar aayog 2000/10". sanyukt raashtra, 7 fravari 2001, prushth. 5. ausatan, prati varsh 62 million vyaktiyon ki mrutyu hoti hai, jisme se 36 million (58 pratishat) ki mrutyu pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop se poshak tatvon ke abhaav, sankraman, mahaamaari aur aisi beemaariyon ke kaaran hoti hai jo us samay shareer par aakraman karti hai jab alpaposhan aur bhookh ke kaaran usaki pratirodh aur pratirksha kshamataaen atyant ksheen ho chuki hoti hain."
  11. maanav adhikaar par aayog. "the raait too food: commission on hyuman raaits rejolyooshan 2002/25". sanyukt raajya, maanavaadhikaar uchchaayukt kaaryaalaya, 22 April 2002, pej 2, "ek aise vishv mein joki pehle hi itne khaadyaann ka utpaadan karta hai ki jisse paryaapt roop se samast vaishvik janasankhya ka pet bhara ja sake, prativrsh 36 million vyaktiyon ki mrutyu hoti hai, jo pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop se bhookh aur alp poshan ke falasvaroop marate hain, jisme se ki adhiktar, vikaasheel deshon ki mahilaaen aur bachche hote hain."
  12. sanyukt raashtra soochana seva. "indeepeindeint eksapart on effects of strakcharal aidajastameint, special raiporchaar on raait too food prejeint reports: commission kanteenyooj jenaral deebet on ikaunomik, soshiyl end kalcharal raaits". sanyukt raashtra, 29 March 2004, prushth 6. "lagbhag 36 lakh log bhookh se seedhe ya apratyaksh roop se har saal mare hain.".
  13. khaadya aur krushi sangathan staaf. "the state of food inasekyuriti in the world, 2002: food inasekyuriti : vhen peepal leev vith hangar end fiyr staarveshan". sanyukt raashtra ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan, 2002, prushth 6 "6 mileeyan bachche jo paanch saal ki kam umr se hain, ve bhookh ke parinaam har saal mar jaate hain."
  14. United nations economic end soshiyl depts ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan. "the state of food inasekyuriti in the world, 2004: monitoring progres tuvards the world food sumit end mileniym develapameint gols". sanyukt raajya ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan, 2004, prushth 8. "aavashyak vitaamin aur khanij padaarthon ki kami aur alpaposhan ke kaaran prativrsh 5 million bachchon ko apna jeevan khona padta hai".
  15. Jack diauf. "the state of food inasekyuriti in the world, 2004: monitoring progres tuvards the world food sumit end mileniym develapameint gols". sanyukt raashtra ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan, 2004, prushth 4. "bhookh aur kuposhan ke prabhaav se har paanch sekend mein ek bachcha marata hai"
  16. khaadya aur krushi sangathan, vibhaag ke aarthik aur saamaajik "the state of food sekyoriti in the world 2005: iraadeeketing world hangar - keeya too acheeving the mileniym develapameint gols". sanyukt raajya ke khaadya aur krushi sangathan, 2005, prushth 18. bachchon ki hone waali kul mauton mein se aadhe ke peechhe bhookh aur kuposhan ka hi kaaran hota hai, jisse prativrsh 6 million bachchon ki mrutyu ho jaati hai- yeh sankhya Japan mein school jaane vaale chhote bachchon ki sankhya ke baraabar hai. apekshaakrut iname se kuchh hi bachche bhookh ke kaaran marate hain. iname se adhikaanshat: prasavapoorv vikaar aur kuchh upachaar ke yogya sankraamak beemaariyon jisme daayariya, nimoniya, maleriya aur khasara sammilit hain, ke kaaran mar jaate hain. iname se adhikaansh ki mrutyu naheen hogi yadi unka shareer aur pratirksha tantr bhookh aur kuposhan ke kaaran ksheen na ho to, shareer ke vajn ke kuchh ya gambhir roop se kam hone par mrutyu ka khatra 5 se 8 guna tak badh jaata hai.".
  17. maanavaadhikaar parishad. "sankalp 7/14. bhojan ka adhikaar". sanyukt raashtra, 27 March 2008, prushth 3. "6 lakh bachche abhi bhi har saal bhookh ke kaaran mar jaate hain-apne paanchavein janmadin se pehle hi mar jaate hain.

baahari links