bhroon

jhurreedaar medhak (raana roogosa) ke bhroon (aur ek beingachi)

bhroon (Embryo) praani ke vikaas ki praarambhik avastha ko kehte hain. maanav mein teen maas ki garbhaavastha ke pashchaat‌ bhroon ko garbh ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai.

ek nishechit andaanu jab falopion naalika (fallopian tube) se gujarata hai tab usaka khandeebhavan (segmentation) hota hein tatha yeh avastha moroola (morula) ban jaata hein. pratham teen saptaah mein hi praarambhik jananastar (primary germ layers) praarambhik janan star ke teen bhaag hote hain. baahar ka bhaag baahyatvacha (ectoderm), andar ka bhaag antastvacha (endoderm) aur donon ke beech ka bhaag madhyastar (mesoderm) kahalaata hai. inheen se vibhinn kaarya karanevaale ang viksit hote hain.

bhrun avastha ashtam saptaahash ke ant tak rahati hai. naana aashayon tatha angon ke nirmaan ke saath saath bhroon mein atyant mahatvapoorn parivartan hote hain. iske pashchaat‌ teesare maas se garbh kahaanevaali avastha prasav tak hoti hai.

bhroon atyant praarambhik avastha mein apna poshan praathamik andaanu ke dvaara laae gaye poshak dravyon se paata hai. iske pashchaat‌ blaastosist garbhaashaya ki granthiyon tatha vapan ki kriya mein hue ootakalayan ke falasvaroop ekatrit rakt se poshan leta hai. bhroonapatt (embryonic disc), ulv (amnion), dehaguha (coelom) tatha peetak (yolk) thaili mein bhare dravya se poshan leta hai. ant mein apna tatha naabhi naal ke nirmaan ke pashchaat‌ maata ke raktaparivhan ke bhroonarakt ka parivhanasanbandh sthaapit hokar, bhroon ka poshan hota hai. 270 din tak maatru garbhaashaya mein rahane ke pashchaat prasav hota hai aur shishu garbhaashaya se niklata hai.

bhroon (aniyamit roop se greek:ἔaaμaaβaaρaaυaaοaaν bahuvachanἔaaμaaβaaρaaυaaα lit. se aaya shabd hai jiska arth hota hai -"vah jo viksit hota hai", en se-"in"+bryin "foolana, bharna; iska sahi laatin roop hoga embryum) apne vikaas ke shurooaati charan mein, pratham koshika vibhaajan se lekar janm, prasav ya ankuran tak, ek bahukoshikeeya diplauyad yookraayot hota hai. insaanon mein, ise nishechan ke aath saptaah tak (matlab elaemapi ke 10vein saptaah tak) bhroon kaha jaata hai aur uske baad se bhroon ki bajaay ise garbhasth shishu (fetas) kaha jata hai.

bhroon ke vikaas ko enbriyojenesis kaha jaata hai. jeevon mein, jo yaun prajanan karte hain, ek baar shukraanu and koshika ko nishechit kar leta hai, to parinaam svaroop ek koshika janm leti hai, jise jaaigot kehte hain, jismein donon abhibhaavakon ka aadha DNA hota hai. paudhon, jaanvaron aur kuchh protist mein samavibhaajan ke dvaara ek bahukoshikeeya jeev ko paida karne ke liye jaaigot vibhaajit hona shuroo ho jaaega. is prakriya ka parinaam hi ek bhroon hai.

anukram

pashu bhroon

pashuon mein jaaigot ka vikaas ek bhroon ke roop mein blaastula, gaistrula aur orgenojenesis naamak ek vishesh abhijnyaeya charanon mein hota hai. ek taral padaarth se bhari guha ki visheshata se yukt blaastula charan, blaastokauyal, ek chakr ya koshikaaon ki ek chaadar se ghiri hoti hai, jise blaastomirej bhi kaha jaata hai. apara sanbanghi ek stanapaayi ke bhroon ko jaaigot (ek nishechit andaanu) ke pratham vibhaajan aur ek bhroon ban jaane ke beech ke jeevaadhaari ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. insaanon mein, bhroon ko vikaas ke aathavein saptaah mein garbhaashaya mein utpaad aaropan ki avadhaarana ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. ek bhroon ko vikaas ke adhik unnat star par aur janm tak ya bachche ke baahar nikalne tak feetas kaha jaata hai, haalaanki dastoor ke hisaab se kuchh jaanvaron ko sabhi tarah se bachche ke paida hone tak bhroon kaha jaata hai, jaise, shishu bhroon. insaanon mein, is tarah ki baat garbhaavastha ke aathavein saptaah se hoti hai.

gastruleshan ke dauraan baastula ki koshikaaen koshika vibhaajan, aakraman aur/ya do (diploblaastik) ya teen (triploblaastik) uttak paraton ke nirmaan ke liye pravasan ki samanvit prakiya se gujarati hain. triploblaastik jeevon mein, teen rogaanu parat endodarm, ektodarm aur mesodarm kahe jaate hain. haalaanki, utpaadit bhroon ke prakaar par nirbhar karte hue sthiti aur rogaanu paraton ki vyavastha unnat roop se prajaati-vishesh hoti hai. reedhdhaariyon mein, tantrika shikha naamak bhrooneeya koshikaaon ki ek vishesh janasankhya "chaturth rogaanu parat" ke roop mein prastaavit ki gayi hai aur ise mastak ki sanrachana ke vikaas mein mahatvapoorn vilkshanata ke roop mein maana jaata raha hai.

orgenojinesis ke dauraan koshikaaon ke vikaas ki kshamata se yukt ya pratikriya ke liye paryaapt rogaanu paraton ke beech aanavik aur selular antarkriya, ang-vishesh koshika prakaaron ke baad ke vibhedan ke liye hoti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] udaaharan ke liye, nyurojenesis mein, ektodarm koshikaaon ke ek upajanasankhya ko dimaag, spaainal kaurd aur paridheeya tantrikaaon ke banane ke liye bachaakar rakha jaata hai. aadhunik unnatisheel jeev vigyaan, enjiyojenesis (pehle se maujood ke dvaara nai rakt nalika ka gathan), kondrojinesis (upaasthi), maayojenesis (maansapeshi), ostiyojenesis (asthi) aur kai anya ko shaamil karte hue pratyek prakaar ke orgenojenesis ke liye aanavik aadhaar ki vyaapak jaanch kar rahi hai.

aam taur par, agar ek sanrachana vikaasavaadi tarmj mein doosari sanrachana ke poorv-taareekh ki hoti hai to vah bhroon mein maujood doosari sanrachana se pehle hi prakat ho jaati hai; is saamaanya avlokan ko kabhi-kabhi ek vaakyaansh " antojeni rikaipichyulets filojeni" dvaara sankshepit kiya jaata hai.[1] udaaharan ke liye, reedh sabhi reedhdhaariyon jaise ki machhali, sareesrup aur stanapaayi mein saamaanya hai aur sabhi reedhdhaari bhroonon mein reedh sabse pehle prakat hone waali sanrachana hai. maanavon mein pramastishk, jo mastishk ka sabse goodh bhaag hai, sabse ant mein viksit hota hai. yeh niyam nirpeksh naheen hai, lekin yeh maanav bhroon ke vikaas ke liye aanshik roop se upayogi hone ke roop mein chinhit kiya jaata hai.

maanav bhroon

chitr:maanav bhroon.JPG
chh: saaptaahik bhrooneeya aayu ya aath saaptaahik garbhakaaleen aayu wala ek maanav bhroon
ek asthaanik garbhaavastha ka ek 10 mimi bhroon, jo abhi bhi dinbavaahini mein hi hai. is bhroon ki aayu lagbhag paanch saptaah (ya garbhaavastha ke saatavein saptaah mein) hai.
inhein bhi dekhein: maanav ke embrayojenesis evam janmapoorv aavishkaar
1-3 saptaah
5-7 dinon ke nishechan ke baad, blaastula garbhaashaya ki deevaar (garbhakala) se jud jaata hai. jab yeh garbhakala ke sampark mein aata hai, yeh aaropan karta hai. naabhi rajju ke saath hi maata aur bhroon ke beech aaropan sampark banane shuroo ho jaate hain. bhroon ka vikaas ek dhuri par kendrit hota hai, jo reedh aur reedh ki haddi ban jaata hai. dimaag, reedh ki haddi, hrudaya aur jatharaantr sambandhi maarg banane shuroo ho jaate hain.[2]
4-5 saptaah
bhroon ke dvaara utpaadit rasaayan auraton ke maasik chakr ko rok deta hai.} lagbhag 6thavein saptaah mein mastishk ki gatividhi darshaate hue, nyurojenesis chal raha hota hai.[3] "dil ka dhadkana isi samay shuroo hota hai. ang ankurit hote hain, jahaan baad mein haath aur pair viksit honge. orgenojenesis shuroo hota hai. sir bhroon ki aksheeya lanbaai ke aadhe bhaag aur uske maas ke aadhe se adhik bhaag ka pratinidhitv karta hai. mastishk paanch kshetron mein viksit hota hai. ootak ka gathan hota hai jo reedh ki jod aur kuchh anya haddiyon ko viksit karta hai. dil dhadkana aur rakt pravaahit hona shuroo ho jaata hai.[2]
6-8 saptaah
maayojenesis aur nyurojenesis aisa vikaas karte hain jahaan bhroon gati karne mein saksham ho aur aaainkhein gathit honi shuroo hoti hain. orgenojenesis aur vikaas jaari rahata hai. sabhi aavashyak angon ke nirmaan ke saath baal banane shuroo hote hain. chehare ke lakshan viksit hone shuroo ho jaate hain. 8vein saptaah ke ant mein, enbriyonik avastha samaapt ho jaati hai aur bhroon charan shuroo hota hai.[2]

garbhapaat

inhein bhi dekhein: garbhapaat
garbhaadhaan se lagbhag 6 saptaah, arthaat elaemapi se 8 saptaah, par ek sampoorn svat:pravartit garbhapaat

kuchh bhroon fetal avastha, jo nishechan ke lagbhag do maheene (10 saptaah elaemapi) baad shuroo hoti hai, tak jeevit naheen rahate hain. bhroon ka garbhapaat ho sakta hai ya jaanaboojh kar gira diya jaata hai.

bahut samvedansheel shurooaati garbhaavastha pareekshan adhyayan mein paaya gaya hai ki 25% bhroonon ka garbhapaat chhathavein saptaah elaemapi (aurat ke laast meinschural piriyd tak) mein ho jaata hai, bhale hi aurat ko iska pata na chale.[4][5] garbhadhaaran ke chhathe saptaah elaemapi ke baad 8% garbhapaat ghatit hota hai.[4] 8.5 saptaah elaemapi ke baad garbhapaat ki dar do pratishat hone ke saath, garbhapaat ka jokhim "vastut: enbriyonik avadhi ki samaapti tak poora" ho jaata hai.[6]

ek bhroon ke garbhapaat ka sabse aam kaaran gunasootr ki vishmata hai,[7] jo garbhaavastha ke shuruaati 50% nuksaan ke liye jimmevaar hota hai.[8] maata ki umr ka badhna aur pichhle garbhapaaton ka rogi ka itihaas do pramukh jokhim kaarak hain.[8]

prerit garbhapaat

inhein bhi dekhein: prerit garbhapaat
baayeen taraf nishechan ke baad 4 saptaah (arthaat elaemapi se chh: saptaah) ka ek bhroon hai. daayeen taraf 4 saptaah baad ka ek bhroon hai.

is tarah ke garbhapaat adhiktar bhroon ki avadhi ke dauraan hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, vels aur England mein 2006 ke dauraan, prerit garbhapaat ka 68% enbriyonik avadhi ke ant mein hua.[9]

ek bhroon ka prerit (yaani uddeshyapoorn) garbhapaat shalyakriya aur gairasarjikl donon takaneekon ko shaamil karte hue vibhinn vidhiyon dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. sakshan-esapireshan bhroon ke garbhapaat ki sabse aam shalyakriya vidhi hai.[10]

jaanaboojh kar ek bhroon ke garbhapaat ke aam kaaranon mein, der ya prasav ke ant ki ek ichha, shiksha ya kaarya mein rookaavat ki chinta, sambandh aur vitteeya sthirta ke mudde, kathit aparipkvata evam svaasthya ki chinta shaamil hain. garbhapaat ke udaaharan vahaan bhi milte hain jahaan balaatkaar ya sanbandhiyon se daihik sambandh ke kaaran garbhaadhaan hota hai.

eaarati aur nidaan mein istemaal

bhroonon ka prayog sahaayata ki gayi prajanak pradyaugiki ki vibhinn takaneekon mein kiya jaata hai, jaise vitro nishechan evam bhroon daan. ve baad mein upayog ke liye enbriyo kraayoprijrveshan ke vishay ho sakte hain yadi aaiveeef prakriya ke parinaamasvaroop vartamaan ki jaroorat se jyaada enbriyo ho jaate hai. kuchh pahalu, jaise chuninda kami, garbhaavastha vivaad ke shuruaati mudde hain.

prasav poorv nidaan ya poorvaaaropan nidaan mein bimaariyon ya sthitiyon ke liye bhroon pareekshan shaamil hain.

vyaavahaarikta

ek maanav bhroon, jeevanaksham naheen maana jaata kyonki yeh garbhaashaya ke baahar naheen bach sakta. vartamaan chikitsa praudyogiki enbriyo ko ek aurat se doosari aurat ke garbhaashaya mein pratiropit karne ki ijaajat deti hai. 0/}

anusandhaan

maanav bhroonon ka rogon ke ilaaj ke liye anusandhaan kiya ja raha hai. stem koshika anusandhaan, prajanan kloning aur jarmalaain engineering sabhi par vartamaan mein shodh-kaarya chal raha hai. aise shodh ki naitikta par vivaad bhi hai kyonki is muhim mein ek bhroon ka saamaanyat: balidaan kar diya jaata hai.[11][12][13]

paadap bhroon

jinkago beej ke andar, ek bhroon dikh raha hai.
  • paudhe : vanaspati vigyaan mein, ek beej vanaspati bhroon, patti, tana (dekhiye haaipokoti) aur jad (dekhiye raideekle) ke saath hi ek ya adhik kotiledauns ke liye poorvavarti uttakon se bana, beej ka bhaag hota hai. ek baar bhroon ankurit hona shuroo karta hai-beej se baahar aata hai- to ise ankuran kaha jaata hai. jo paudhe beej utpaadit naheen karte hain, lekin bhroon paida karte hi hain, unamein braayofaaits evam farn shaamil hain. in paudhon mein, bhroon ek yuva paudha hota hai jiska vikaas maata-pita sambandhi gaimetofaait se juda hota hai.

jeevaashmeeya bhroon

jeevaashmeeya bhroon ko poorvakainbriyn se jaana jaata hai aur ye kainbriyn yug mein bhaari sankhya mein paae jaate hain.

futanots

  1. gold, Stefan. ontojeni end filojeni, prushth. 206 (1977): "saar-kathan ko 'khaarij' naheen kiya gaya; aisa naheen kiya ja sakta tha kyonki kai susthaapit maamale iski ummeedon par khare utarate hain."
  2. a aa i enaaaiech (NIH) medical inasaaiklopeediya http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002398.htm
  3. Mike S. gajniga, the ethikl bren "5vein saptaah ke ant tak naheen aur 6thavein saptaah mein (aam taur par 40 se 43 dinon ke aaspaas) pehli vidyuteeya mastishk gatividhi shuroo hoti hai."
  4. a aa Wang X, Chen C, Wang L, Chen D, Guang W, French J (2003). "Conception, early pregnancy loss, and time to clinical pregnancy: a population-based prospective study.". Fertil Steril 79 (3): 577–84. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(02)04694-0. PMID 12620443.
  5. Wilcox AJ, Baird DD, Weinberg CR (1999). "Time of implantation of the conceptus and loss of pregnancy.". New England Journal of Medicine 340 (23): 1796–1799. doi:10.1056/NEJM199906103402304. PMID 10362823.
  6. Charles rodek, Martin vhitl. fetal medisin: besik science end klinikl practice (elsaviyr helth saainses 1999), prushth 835.
  7. Stöappler, Melissa Conrad; William C. Shiel, Jr., ed.. "Miscarriage (Spontaneous Abortion)". MedicineNet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/miscarriage/page1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-07.
  8. a aa Jauniaux, E.; P. Kaminopetros and H. El-Rafaey (1999). "Early pregnancy loss". In Martin J. Whittle and C. H. Rodeck. Fetal medicine: basic science and clinical practice. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. pa॰ 837. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-443-05357-X. OCLC 42792567.
  9. Department of Health (2007). "Abortion statistics, England and Wales: 2006". http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/DH_075697. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-12. "68% were at under 10 weeks"
  10. Healthwise (2004). "Manual and vacuum aspiration for abortion". WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/hw/womens_conditions/tw1078.asp#tw1112. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-05.
  11. jeri freedamain. "America dibets stem sel research." New York, enavaai: the rojen pablishing group, 2008.
  12. Michael J. seindel. "the case ageinst protection." Michael J. seindel, 2007.
  13. painaayiyotis jaivos. "riprodaktiv kloning is moral." Ed. James vudavard. the ethiks of hyooman kloning: ait ishyoo. faarmingtan hills, emaaai: greenahaiven 2005. 14-24.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • bhroon daan
  • bhroon sthaan upaniveshan
  • embraayojenesis
  • bhroonavijnyaaan
  • embraayomiks
  • The Human Embryo: Aristotle and the Arabic and European Traditions (pustak)
  • krutrim pariveshi nishechan
  • plant embraayojenesis
  • garbhaavastha
  • proembraayo

baahari links