bhrashtaachaar (aacharan)

traansapairensi intaraneshanal dvaara nirmit san 2014 ka bhrashtaachaar aanshanka soochakaank

saarvajanik jeevan mein sveekrut moolyon ke viruddh aacharan ko bhrasht aacharan samjha jaata hai. aam jan jeevan mein ise aarthik aparaadhon se joda jaata hai.

anukram

vibhinn prakaar ke bhrashtaachaar

  • ghoos (rishvat)
  • chunaav mein dhaandhali
  • sex ke badle pakshapaat
  • hafta vasooli
  • jabaran chanda lena
  • apne virodhiyon ko dabaane ke liye sarkaari machinery ka durupayog
  • nyaayaadheeshon dvaara galat ya pakshapaatapoorn nirnaya
  • vividh : vanshavaad, blaikamel karna, tax chori, jhoothi gavaahi, jhootha mukadama, pareeksha mein nakal, pareekshaathi ka galat moolyaankan - sahi uttar par ank na dena aur galat/alikhit uttaron par bhi ank de dena, paise lekar sansad mein prashn poochhana, paise lekar vote dena, vote ke liye paisa aur sharaab aadi baaaintana, paise lekar report chhaapana, vibhinn puraskaaron ke liye chayanit logon mein pakshapaat karna, aadi.

parichay

aam taur par sarkaari satta aur sansaadhanon ke niji faayade ke liye kiye jaane vaale beja istemaal ko bhrashtaachaar ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai. ek doosari aur adhik vyaapak paribhaasha yeh hai ki niji ya saarvajanik jeevan ke kisi bhi sthaapit aur sveekaarya maanak ka chori-chhipe ullanghan bhrashtaachaar hai. vibhinn maanakon aur deshakaal ke hisaab se bhi ismein tabdeeliyaaain hoti rahati hain. masalan, Bhaarat mein raksha saudon mein commission khaana avaidh hai isliye ise bhrashtaachaar aur raashtra- virodhi krutya maan kar ghotaale ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai. lekin duniya ke kai viksit deshon mein yeh ek jaayaj vyaapaarik kaarravaai hai. sanskrutiyon ke beech antar ne bhi bhrashtaachaar ke prashn ko pecheeda banaaya hai. unneesaveen sadi ke dauraan Bhaarat par aupaniveshik shaasan thopane vaale angrej apni viktoriyaai naitikta ke aaine mein bhaarateeya yaun-vyavahaar ko duraacharan ke roop mein dekhte the. jabki beesaveen sadi ke uttaraardh ka Bhaarat kisi bhi yooropavaasi ki nigaah mein yaunik-shuddhataavaad ka shikaar maana ja sakta hai.

bhrashtaachaar ka mudda ek aisa raajaneetik prashn hai jiske kaaran kai baar na keval sarkaarein badal jaati hain. balki yeh bahut bade-bade aitihaasik parivrtanon ka vaahak bhi raha hai. roman kaithalik church dvaara anugrah ke badle shulk lene ki pratha ko Martin loothar dvaara bhrashtaachaar ki sanjnyaa di gayi thi. iske khilaaf kiye gaye dhaarmik sangharsh se isaai dharm- sudhaar nikle. parinaamasvaroop protesteint mat ka janm hua. is aitihaasik parivartan se sekularavaad ke sootreekaran ka aadhaar taiyaar hua.

samaaj-vaigyaanik vimarsh mein bhrashtaachaar se sambandhit samajh ke baare mein koi ekta naheen hai. pooainjeevaad virodhi najriya rakhane vaale vidvaanon ki maanyata hai ki baajaar aadhaarit vyavasthaaeain 'greed ij gud' ke usool par chalti hain, isliye unke tahat bhrashtaachaar mein badhotri honi laajmi hai. doosari taraf  khule samaaj ki vakaalat karne vaale aur maarksavaad virodhi buddhijeevi sarvahaara ki taanaashaahi waali vyavasthaaon mein communist party ke adhikaariyon dvaara bade paimaane par raajya ke sansaadhanon ke durupayog aur aam janta ke saadhaaran jeevan ki keemat par khud ke liye aaraamatalab jindagi ki guaranty karne ki taraf ishaara karte hain. bhrashtaachaar ki doosari samajh raajya ki sanstha dvaara logon ki aarthik gatividhiyon mein hastakshep ki maatra aur daayare par nirbhar karti hai. bahut adhik tax vasoolane vaale nijaam ke tahat kar-chori ko saamaajik jeevan ki ek majaboori ki tarah liya jaata hai. isse ek siddhaant yeh niklata hai ki jitne kam kaanoon aur niyantran  honge, bhrashtaachaar ki zaroorat utani hi kam hogi. is drushtikon ke paksh poorv soviyt sangh aur cheen samate samaajavaadi deshon ka udaaharan diya jaata hai jahaaain raajya ki sanstha ke sarvavyaapi hone ke baavajood bahut badi maatra mein bhrashtaachaar ki maujoodagi rahati hai.  'zyaada niyantran- zyaada bhrashtaachaar' ke sameekaran ko sahi thaharaane ke liye tees ke dashak ke America mein ki gayi sharaab-bandi ka udaaharan bhi diya jaata hai jiske kaaran sangathit aur aarthik bhrashtaachaar mein abhootapoorv uchhaal aa gaya tha.

saath aaur sattar ke dashak mein kuchh vidvaanon ne avikisit deshon ke aarthik vikaas ke liye ek seema tak bhrashtaachaar aur kaale dhan ki maujoodagi ko uchit karaar diya tha. arnold J. heedanahaaimar jaise siddhaantakaaron ka kehna tha ki paramparaabaddh aur saamaajik roop se sthir samaajon ko bhrashtaachaar ki samasya ka kam hi saamana karna padta hai. lekin tej rakrataar se hone vaale udyogeekaran aur aabaadi ki aavaajaahi ke kaaran samaaj sthaapit maanakon aur moolyon ko chhodte chale jaate hain. parinaamasvaroop bade paimaane par bhrashtaachaar ki parightana paida hoti hai. sattar ke dashak mein heedanahaaimar ki yeh siddhaant khaasa prachalit tha. bhrashtaachaar virodhi neetiyon aur kaaryakramon ki vakaalat karne ke bajaay heedanahaaimar ne nishkarsh nikaala tha ki jaise-jaise samaaj mein samruddhi badhti jaaegi, madhyavarg ki pratishtha mein vruddhi hogi aur shahari sabhyata va jeevan-shaili ka vikaas hoga, is samasya par apne aap kaaboo hota chala jaaega. lekin sattar ke dashak mein hi yurop aur America mein bade-bade raajaneetik aur aarthik ghotaalon ka pardaafaash  hua. inmein America ka vaataraget skeindal aur Britain ka paulasan efeyar pramukh tha. in ghotaalon ne madhyavargeeya naagrik gunon ke vikaas mein yakeen rakhane vaale heedanahaaimar ke is siddhaant ke atiaashaavaad ki hava nikaal di.

saath ke dashak ke dauraan hi kuchh anya vidvaanon ne bhi heedanahaaimar ki tarj par tark diya tha ki bhrashtaachaar ki samasya ki naitik vyaakhyaaeain karne se kuchh haasil hone wala naheen hai. inmein semual hantingtan pramukh the. in samaaj-vaigyaaniko ki maanyata thi ki bhrashtaachaar har paristhiti mein nukasaanadeh naheen hota. vikaasasheel deshon mein vah machine mein tel ki bhoomika nibhaata hai aur logon ke haath mein khrch karne laayak paisa aane se upabhokta kraanti ko gati milti hai. lekin afreeka mein bhrashtaachaar ke oopar vishv bank dvaara 1969 mein jaari rapat ne is dhaarana ko dhakka pahuainchaaya. is rapat ke baad bhrashtaachaar ko ek anivaarya buraai aur aarthik vikaas mein baadhak ke taur par dekha jaane laga. vishv bank bhrashtaachaar ke khilaaf muhim chalaane mein jut gaya. is vimarsh ka ek parinaam yeh bhi nikla ki samaaj-vaigyaanik apekshaakrut kam viksit deshon mein bhrashtaachaar ki samasya ke prati zyaada dilchaspi dikhaane lage. viksit deshon mein bhrashtaachaar ki samasya kaafi-kuchh najraandaaj ki jaane lagi.

yeh drushtikon bhoomandaleekaran ke daur mein aur prabal hua. udhaar dene waali antarraashtreeya vitteeya sansthaaon, un par haavi viksit deshon aur bade-bade kauraporeshanon ne yeh guaranty karne ki koshish ki ki unke dvaara di jaane waali madad ka sahi-sahi istemaal ho. iska parinaam 1993 mein traansapereinsi intaranaishanal ki sthaapana mein nikla jismein vishv bank ke kai poorv adhikaari sakriya the. iske baad sarvekshan aur aaainkadon ke jriye bhrashtaachaar ka tulanaatmak adhyayan shuroo ho gaya. lekin in prayaason ke parinaam kisi bhi tarah se santoshajanak naheen maane ja sakte. 2007 mein Daniel treejmain ne 'what haiv vi larnd abaaut the kaajij of corruption fraum ten iyars of kraus naishanal impirikl research?' likh kar nateeja nikla hai ki paripakva udaarataavaadi lokatantr aur baajaaronmukh samaaj apekshaakrut kam bhrasht hain. unke ulat tel niryaat karne vaale desh, adhik niyantranakaari kaanoon banaane vaale aur mudraasfeeti ko kaaboo mein na karne vaale desh kaheen adhik bhrasht hain.

jaahir hai ki ye nishkarsh kisi bhi kon se naye naheen hain. haal hi mein jin deshon mein aarthik ghotaalon ka pardaafaash hua hai unamein chhote-bade aur viksit-aviksit yaani har tarah ke desh (cheen, Japan, Spain, maiksiko, Bhaarat, cheen, Britain, braajeel, sooreenaam, dakshin  Korea, venejuela, Pakistan, enteega, baramooda, kroeshiya, ikvedor, check ganaraajya, vagairah)  hain. bhrashtaachaar ko suvidhaajanak aur haanikaarak maanane ke in paraspar virodhi najriyon se pare hat kar agar dekha jaae to abhi tak aarthik vruddhi ke saath uske kisi seedhe sambandh ka sootreekaran naheen ho paaya hai. udaaharanaarth, Asia ke do deshon, dakshin  Korea aur fileepeens, mein bhrashtaachaar ke soochakaank bahut ooainche hain. lekin, Korea mein aarthik vruddhi ki dar khaasi hai, jabki fileepeens mein neechi.

sandarbh

1. pranav vardhan (1997), 'corruption aind divelapameint : a review of ishooj', jaranal of ikaunaumik literature 35 .

2. M. robinsan (sampa.) (1998), corruption aind divelapameint, Frank kais, ebingdan, UK.

3. A.J. heedanahaaimar (sampa.) (1970), paulitikl corruption : reedingj in kamparetiv enaalaisis, traanjekshan, new bransavik, enaje.

4. Michael jaanstan (2005), sidraums of corruption : velth, power, aind demokraisi, kembrij yunivrsiti press, kembrij.

5. dainiyl treejmaan (2007), 'what haiv vi larnd abaaut the kaajij of corruption fraum ten iyars of kraus-naishanal impirikl research?', enual review of paulitikl science 10 .

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain