bhoovijnyaaan

pruthvi ke bhoovaijnyaanik kshetr

bhoovijnyaaan ya bhaumiki (Geology) vah vigyaan hai jismein thos pruthvi[1]pruthvi ka nirmaan karne waali shailon tatha un prakriyaaon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai jinse shailon, bhooparpati aur sthalaroopon ka vikaas hota hai. iske antargat pruthvi sambandhi anekaanek vishay aa jaate hain jaise, khanij shaastr, talachhat vigyaan, bhoomaapan aur khanan injeeniyri ityaadi.

iske adhyayan bishyon mein se ek mukhya prakaran un kriyaaon ki vivechana hain jo chirantan kaal se bhoogarbh mein hoti chali aa rahi hain evam jinke falasvaroop bhooprushth ka roop nirantar parivrtit hota rahata hai, yadyapi usaki gati saadhaaranataya bahut hi mand hoti hai. anya prakaranon mein pruthvi ki aayu, bhoogarbh, jvaalaamukhi kriya, bhoosanchalan, bhookamp aur parvatanirmaan, mahaadesheeya visthaapan, bhaumikeeya kaal mein jalavaayu parivartan tatha him yug vishesh ullekhaneeya hain.

bhoovijnyaaan mein pruthvi ki utpatti, sanrachana tatha uske sanghatan evam shailon dvaara vyakt uske itihaas ki vivechana ki jaati hai. yeh vigyaan un prakramon par bhi prakaash daalata hai jinse shailon mein parivartan aate rahate hain. ismein Abhinav jeevon ke saath praagaitihaasik jeevon ka sambandh tatha unki utpatti aur unke vikaas ka adhyayan bhi sammilit hai. iske antargat pruthvi ke sanghatak padaarthon, un par kriyaasheel shaktiyon tatha unase utpann sanrachanaaon, bhoopatal ki shailon ke vitran, pruthvi ke itihaas (bhoovaijnyaaanik kaalon) aadi ke adhyayan ko sammilit kiya jaata hai.

anukram

mahatva

bhoovijnyaaan, pruthvi ke itihaas ke baare mein antardrushti pradaan karta hai. khanijon tatha haaidrokaarbanon ki khoj ke falasvaroop vartamaan yug mein iska vaanijyik mahatva bahut adhik badh gaya hai.

isi prakaar jaleeya sansaadhanon ke moolyaankan mein bhi iska mahatva hai. praakrutik vipdaaon ko samajhne evam unki bhavishyavaani karne ke kaaran yeh aam janta ke liye bhi mahatva rakhata hai. yeh paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon ka hal sujha sakta hai tatha bhootakaal ke jalavaayu parivrtanon ke sambandh mein antardrushti deta hai. bhootakaneeki injeeniyri mein iski bhoomika mahatvapoorn hai.

bhoovijnyaaan ke kshetr

is vigyaan ke anek upavibhaag hain jismein se nimnalikhit atyant mahatvapoorn hain- aitihaasik bhoovijnyaaan, bhautik bhoovijnyaaan, aarthik bhoovijnyaaan, sanrachanaatmak bhoovijnyaaan, khanij vigyaan, khanan bhoovijnyaaan, bhoo-aakruti vigyaan, shail varnana, shail vigyaan, jvaalaamukhi vigyaan, starik bhoovijnyaaan evam jeevaashm vigyaan.

bhoovijnyaaan ko do pramukh vargon mein vibhkt kiya jaata hai:

bhautik bhoovijnyaaan ke antargat khanij vigyaan (mineralogy), mruda vigyaan (pedology), sanrachanaatmak bhoovijnyaaan (structural geology) aur bhooaakrutik vigyaan (physiography) sammilit hain. aitihaasik bhoovijnyaaan mein starit shailavijnyaaan (stratigraphy), jeevaashm vigyaan (palaeontology) tatha puraabhoogol (palaeogeography) ko sammilit kiya jaata hai.

aajkal bhoovijnyaaan ko nimnalikhit do shaakhaaon mein vibhkt karte hain-

  • moolabhoot bhaumiki (fundamental geology), tatha
  • anuprayukt bhaumiki (applied geology)

bhautik bhoovijnyaaan

bhooprushtheeya parivrtanon ke adhyayan ko bahudha gatikeeya bhoovijnyaaan bhi kehte hain. spasht hai ki yeh naam prushtheeya vaataavaran ki gatisheel sthiti ki or sanket karta hain, kintu aajkal yeh naam kuchh vishesh prachalit naheen hai aur iske sthaan par bhautik bhoovijnyaaan (Physical geology) adhik prachalit hai. is vigyaan ke teen mukhya ang hote hain, jo is prakaar hain :

  • (1) praakrutik kaarakon dvaara prushtheeya shailon ka kshaya (decay), aparadan (erosion) evam anaachhaadan (denudation) tatha usase utpann avasaad ityaadi ka parivhan (transport),
  • (2) avasaad ka sanchayan (accumulation) tatha
  • (3) sanchit avasaad ka sanyojan (cementation) aur drudheebhavan

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • Earth Science India - an International Open & Free Access quarterly e-Journal publishing peer-reviewed primary research/review papers from all the domains: geophysics, geology, physical geography, atmospheric science, oceanography, soil and environmental science in English language.

sandarbh

  1. bhoovijnyaaan, enasaaiklopeediya britaanika, (angreji mein), abhigman tithi 01-09-2014