bhoovaijnyaaanik samay-maan

yeh ghadi bhoovaijnyaaanik kaal ke pramukh ikaaiyon ke ke saath-saath pruthvi ke janm se lekar aaj tak ki pramukh ghatnaaon ko bhi dikha rahi hai.

bhoovaijnyaaanik samay-maan (geologic time scale) kaalaanukramik maapan ki ek pranaali hai jo stariki (stratigraphy) ko kaal ke saath jodti hai. yeh ek starik saarani (stratigraphic table) hai. bhoogarbhavijnyaaani, jeevaashmavijnyaaani tatha anya bhoo-vaigyaanik iska prayog dharati ke sampoorn itihaas mein hue sabhi ghatnaaon ko samay ke saath sambandhit karne ke liye karte hain. jis prakaar chattaano ke adhik puraane star neeche hote hain tatha apekshaakrut naye star upar hote hain, usi prakaar is saarani mein puraane kaal aur ghatanaaeain neeche hain jabki naveen ghatanaaeain upar (pehle) di gayeen hain.

vikirnamiteeya pramaanon (radiomeric evidence) se pata chalta hai pruthvi ki aayu lagbhag 454 karod varsh hai.

anukram

bhoogarbhik kaal evam unka nirdhaaran

bhoogarbhik kaalon ka nirdhaaran sahaj kaarya naheen hai. is disha mein anek vidvaanon ne, samay-samay par, anek siddhaant upasthit kiye hain. in kaalon (mahaakalpon, kalpon tatha yugon) ke vibhaajan ka paaramparik aadhaar Europeeya evam uttari amareeka ke tatavarti saagaron ki talahatiyon mein hue parivartan hain. kaalon ka vibhaajan karanevaali seemaaeain vaastavik na hokar maatr suvidhaanusaar hain.

akasherukeeya jantuon ke jeevan mein parivartan athva avasaadon ke nikshepan mein vyavadhaan ko lakshya karke kaalon ko vibhaajit kar liya gaya hai. kaimbriyn kalp se lekar nootan mahaakalp tak, anumaanat:, 50 karod varshon ka vistaar raha hai. shilaakhandon ki pehchaan kar lene ke baad sabse praacheen khand ki aayu teen arab varsh poorv ki aaainki gayi hai. kaimbriyn kaal mein hi pehli baar jeevaashm dikhlaai padte hain; unki aayu 50 karod poorv maani gayi hai. iska yeh arth naheen nikaalna chaahiye ki iske poorv pruthvi par jeevan tha hi naheen. jeevan avashyamev tha, naheen to jeevaashm kahaaain se praapt hote. yeh doosari baat hai ki jeevan ke us aadim kaal ke pramaan hamein upalabdh naheen hain, kyonki unka kramik udvikaas ho raha tha.

pratham kasherukeeya jantu ki utpatti anumaanat: 40 karod varsh poorv hui thi, jo ordovisiyn kalp ke naam se jaana jaata hai. vikhyaat daityaakaar daainaasaur lagbhag 20 karod varsh poorv utpann hue aur praay: 1 karod varshon tak pruthvi par bhraman karte rahe. saat karod varsh poorv stanapaayi (mammals) jantu prakat hue aur daainaasaur lupt ho gaye. manushya ke utpatti lagbhag 10 lakh varsh poorv maani jaati hai.

jeevaashmon tatha bhoogarbhik kaalon mein atoot sambandh hota hai. ye bhoogarbhik kaal kaun-kaun se hain, iska sankshipt parichay nimnalikhit hai :

  • nootanajeevi mahaakalp (Cenozoic Era) - stanapaayi jantuon evam maanav ka kaal
chaturth kalp (Quaternary)
nootanatam yug (Holocene Epoch)
atyantanootan yug (Pleistocene Epoch)
truteeya kalp (Tertiary)
atinootan yug (Pliocene Epoch)
madhyanootan yug (Miocene Epoch)
alpanootan yug (Oligoncene Epoch)
aadinootan yug (Eocene Epoch)
puraanootan yug (Palaeocene Epoch)
chaakamaya kalp ya kreetaishas kalp
juraisik kalp
traaiaisik yug
  • puraajeevi mahaakalp (Paleozoic Era) - akasherukeeya tatha aadim kasherukeeya jantuon ka kaal
parmiyn kalp
misisipiyn evam peinsilvainiyn kalp
divoni kalp ya 'divoniyn kalp' ya 'matsya kalp'
silyooriyn kalp
ordovisiyn kalp
kainbriyn kalp
  • kainbriynapoorvi (Pre-Combrian)

kaalon ka naamakaran

oopar ki taalika mein pratyek mahaakalp, kalp tatha yug ka koi na koi naam diya gaya hai. 'kaimbriyn' naam England ke vels pradesh mein sthit kaimbriya jile ke naam par diya gaya, jahaaain is kaal ke shilaakhand prachur maatra mein upalabdh hue hain. 'ordovisin' tatha 'silyooriyn kalp' ka naamakaran dakshini England tatha vels ki isi naam ki aadim jaatiyon ke naam ke aadhaar par pada hai. divoniyn kalp ka naamakaran divaunashaayar (England) ke naam par pada hai. isi pakaar uttari amareeka ki misisipi nadi tatha peinsilvainiya pradesh ki ailegani parvat shreni ke kshetr mein paae gaye shilaakhandon ke naam pade hain. isi prakaar uttari bhaag mein sthit parm pradesh mein paae gaye puraajeevi shilaakhandon ko parmiyn naam diya gaya. isi prakaar anya naamon ko bhi samajhna chaahiye.

bhoovaijnyaaanik samayarekha

Ediacaran Paleoproterozoic Mesoproterozoic Hadean Archean Proterozoic Phanerozoic Precambrian
Cambrian Ordovician

Devonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Phanerozoic
Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene

Pleistocene Paleogene Neogene Quaternary Cenozoic
Millions of Years

'ek mahaakalp' ko 'ek din' ke baraabar maankar tulana

vaastavik
samay [million varsh mein]
1 din
ka samay
0,01 krushi tatha pashupaalan 0,2 s
0,13 maanav 2 s
1,5 homo haibilis 25 s
7 khade hokar chalana 2 min
10 maanav-poorv 3 min
33 ep 10 min
80 vaanar 20 min
200 stanaposhi 1 h
280 sareesrup 1 h 20 min
360 ubhayachar 1 h 45 min
420 matsya 2 h
470 kasheruk 2 h 15 min
600 bahukosheeya jeev 3 h
1000 laingikta 5 h
1500 yukairiot 7 h
2200 prakaash sanshleshan 11 h
3200 protojuaa 15 h
4600 pruthvi 23 h

bhoovaijnyaaanik kaal evam sambandhit vivran

yahaaain di gayi bhoovaijnyaaanik kaalon ki saarani antararaashtreeya starik aayog dvaara nirdhaarit tithiyon evam naamakaran ke anuroop hai.


sandarbh

  1. Paleontologists often refer to faunal stages rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. For an excellent time-ordered list of faunal stages, see "The Paleobiology Database". http://flatpebble.nceas.ucsb.edu/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?action=startScale. abhigman tithi: 2006-03-19.
  2. a aa Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in radiometric dating and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point has been internationally agreed upon: see List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points for a complete list.
  3. a aa Historically, the Cenozoic has been divided up into the Quaternary and Tertiary sub-eras, as well as the Neogene and Paleogene periods. The 2009 version of the ICS time chart recognizes a slightly extended Quaternary as well as the Paleogene and a truncated Neogene, the Tertiary having been demoted to informal status.
  4. a aa i E u oo For more information on this, see the following articles: Earth's atmosphere, carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, global warming, climate change, Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png, Image:65 Myr Climate Change.png, Image:Five Myr Climate Change.png, and Template:DF temperature
  5. The start time for the Holocene epoch is here given as 11,700 years ago. For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see Holocene.
  6. a aa In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods.
  7. The Precambrian is also known as Cryptozoic.
  8. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh The Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean are often collectively referred to as the Precambrian Time or sometimes, also the Cryptozoic.
  9. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh Defined by absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age).
  10. The age of the oldest measurable craton, or continental crust, is dated to 3600–3800 Ma
  11. Though commonly used, the Hadean is not a formal eon and no lower bound for the Archean and Eoarchean have been agreed upon. The Hadean has also sometimes been called the Priscoan or the Azoic. Sometimes, the Hadean can be found to be subdivided according to the lunar geologic time scale. These eras include the Cryptic and Basin Groups (which are subdivisions of the Pre-Nectarian era), Nectarian, and Early Imbrian units.
  12. a aa i E These unit names were taken from the Lunar geologic timescale and refer to geologic events that did not occur on Earth. Their use for Earth geology is unofficial.
  13. Bowring, Samuel A.; Williams, Ian S. (1999). "Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 134 (1): 3. Bibcode 1999CoMP..134....3B. doi:10.1007/s004100050465. The oldest rock on Earth is the Acasta Gneiss, and it dates to 4.03 Ga, located in the Northwest Territories of Canada.
  14. Geology.wisc.edu

inhein bhi dekhein

  • stariki ya starit shailavijnyaaan (stratigraphy)
  • jeevaashmavijnyaaan#bhaumikeeya kaal ke anusaar jeevaashm
  • kasheruk jeevaashmikee#mahaakalpon ke kasherukeeya jantu

baahari kadiyaaain