bhootaan


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bhootaan ka raajatantr
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samay mandal bhootaan samay bi.ti.ti (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+6:00)
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bhootaan ka raajatantr (bhotaant) himaalaya par basa dakshin Asia ka ek chhota aur mahatvapoorn desh hai. yeh desh cheen (Tibet) aur Bhaarat ke beech sthit hai. is desh ka sthaaneeya naam druk you hai, jiska arth hota hai 'ajhdaha ka desh. yeh desh mukhyat: pahaadi hai keval dakshini bhaag mein thodi si samatal bhoomi hai. saanskrutik aur dhaarmik taur se Tibet se juda hai, lekin bhaugolik aur raajaneetik paristhitiyon ke maddenajar vartamaan mein yeh desh Bhaarat ke kareeb hai.

anukram

naam

kuchh logon ke anusaar bhootaan sanskrut ke bhoo-utthaan se bana shabd hai jiska shaabdik arth hai oonchi bhoomi. kuchh ke anusaar yeh bhot-ant (bhotaant) (yaani Tibet ka ant) ka bigda roop hai. yahaan ke nivaasi bhootaan ko druk-yul (ajhdaha ka desh) tatha iske nivaasiyon ko drupaka kehte hain. iske alaava bhi bhootaan ke kai naam rahe hain poorv mein.

itihaas

satrahaveen sadi ke ant mein bhootaan ne bauddh dharm ko angeekaar kiya. 1865 me Britain aur bhootaan ke beech sinchulu sandhi par hastaakshar hua, jiske tahat bhootaan ko seemaavarti kuchh bhoobhaag ke badle kuchh vaarshik anudaan ke karaar kiye gaye. british prabhaav ke tahat 1907 mein vahaaain raajashaahi ki sthaapana hui. teen saal baad ek aur samjhauta hua, jiske tahat british is baat par raaji hue ki ve bhootaan ke aantarik maamalon mein hastkshep naheen kareinge lekin bhootaan ki videsh neeti England dvaara tay ki jaaegi. baad mein 1947 ke pashchaat yahi bhoomika Bhaarat ko mili. do saal baad 1949 mein Bhaarat bhootaan samjhaute ke tahat Bhaarat ne bhootaan ki vo saari jameen use lauta di jo angrejon ke adheen thi. is samjhaute ke tahat Bhaarat ka bhootaan ki videsh neeti evam raksha neeti mein kaafi mahatvapoorn bhoomika di gayi.

raajaneeti

bhootaan ki raajaneeti ka kendra shogadoo

bhootaan ka raajapramukh raaja arthaat druk gyaalapo hota hai, jo vartamaan mein jigme khesar naamagyaal vaangchuk hain. haalaanki yeh pad vanshaanugat hai lekin bhootaan ke sansad shogadoo ke do tihaai bahumat dvaara hataaya ja sakta hai. shogadoo mein 154 seete hote hain, jisme sthaaneeya roop se chune gaye pratinidhi (105), dhaarmik pratinidhi (12) aur raaja dvaara naamaankit pratinidhi (37) aur in sabhi ka kaaryakaal teen varshon ka hota hai. raaja ki kaaryakaari shaktiyaaain shogadoo ke maadhyam se chune gaye mantriprishd mein nihit hoti hain. mantriprishd ke sadasyon ka chunaav raaja karta hai aur inka kaaryakaal paaainch varshon ka hota hai. sarkaar ki neetiyon ka nirdhaaran is baat ko dhyaan mein rakhakar kiya jaata hai ki isse paaramparik sanskruti aur moolyon ka sanrakshan ho sake. haalaanki bhootaan mein rahane vaale nepaali mool ke alpasankhyak samudaayon mein kuchh asantosh hai, jo apni sanskruti par bhootaani sanskruti laade jaane ke khilaaf hain. is vyavastha ka virodh karne vaale nepaali bhootaani Nepal tatha Bhaarat ke vibhinn hisson mein sharanaarthi banane ko vivsh hain. poorvi Nepal mein kareeb ek lakh se jyaada va Bhaarat mein 30 hajaar ke kareeb bhootaani nepaali sharanaarthi ke taur par rah rahe hain. unki dekhbhaal sharanaarthi sambandhi raashtrasangheeya uchchaayukt se milkar Nepal sarkaar kar rahi hai.

jile

bhootaan bees jilon (jongakhaag) mein vibhaajit hai.

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  • gaasa
  • ha
  • loontase
  • mongar
  • paaro
  • pemaagaatsel
  • punaakha
  • saamadrup jongakhaar
  • saamtse
  • saarapaang
  • thimfoo
  • traasheegaang
  • traashi yaangtse
  • trongasa
  • shiraang
  • vaangadyoo fodraang
  • jemeg

bhoogol

bhootaan ka upagrah dvaara liya gaya. chitr mein uttar ki aur himaalaya ki barfeeli chotiyaan tatha dakshin ki or brahmaputr ka maidaan najar aa raha hai.

bhootaan chaaron taraf se sthal se ghira hua parvateeya kshetr hai. uttar mein parvaton ki chotiyaaain kaheen-kaheen 7000 meter se bhi ooainchi hain, sabse ooainchi choti kula kaangari 7553 meter hai. gaangakhar puenasum ki ooainchaai 6896 meter hai, jis par abhi tak maanavon ke kadam naheen pahuainche hain. desh ka dakshini hissa apekshaakrut kam ooaincha hai aur yahaaain kai upajaaoo aur saghan ghaatiyaaain hain, jo brahmaputr ki ghaati se milti hai. desh ka lagbhag 70% hissa vanon se aachhaadit hai. desh ki jyaadaatar aabaadi desh ke madhyavarti hisson mein rahati hai. desh ka sabse bada shahar, rajdhani thimfoo hai, jiski aabaadi 50,000 hai, jo desh ke pashchimi hisse mein sthit hai. yahaaain ki jalavaayu mukhya roop se ushnakatibandheeya hai.

arthavyavastha

bhootaan mein himaalaya ki oonchi parvatamaala se ghire gleshiyr hain.

vishv ke sabse chhoti arthavyavasthaaon mein se ek bhootaan ka aarthik dhaaaincha mukhya roop se krushi aur van kshetron aur apne yahaaain nirmit panabijli ke Bhaarat ko vikraya par nirbhar hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki in teen cheejon se bhootaan ki sarkaari aay ka 75% aata hai. krushi jo yahaaain ke logon ka aadhaar hai, is par 90% se jyaada log nirbhar hain. bhootaan ka mukhya aarthik sahayogi Bhaarat hain kyonki Tibet se lagne waali bhootaan ki seema band hai. bhootaan ki mudra nongtrum hai, jiska bhaarateeya roopaya se aasaani se vinimay kiya ja sakta hai. audyogik utpaadan lagbhag naganya hai aur jo kuchh bhi hai, ve kuteer udyog ki shreni mein aate hain. jyaadaatar vikaas pariyojanaaeain jaise sadkon ka vikaas ityaadi bhaarateeya sahayog se hi hota hai. bhootaan ki panabijli aur paryatan ke kshetr mein aseemit sanbhaavanaaeain hain.

log

bhootaan ki lagbhag aadhi aabaadi bhootaan ke moolanivaasi hain, jinhein gaanlop kaha jaata hai aur inka nikat ka sambandh Tibet ki kuchh prajaatiyon se hai. iske alaava anya prajaatiyon mein nepaali hai aur inka sambandh Nepal raajya se hai. uske baad shaarachop aur lhotashaanpa hain. yahaaain ki aadhikaarik bhaasha jongakha hai, iske saath hi yahaaain kai anya bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain, jinmein kuchh to vilupt hone ke kagaar par hain.

bhootaan mein aadhikaarik dharm bauddh dharm ki mahaayaan shaakha hai, jiska anupaalan desh ki lagbhag teen chauthaai janta karti hai. bhootaan ki 25 pratishat janasankhya hindu dharm ki anuyaayi hai. bhootaan ke hindu dharmi nepaali mool ke log hai, jinhe lhotsaampa bhi kaha jaata hai.

sanskruti

bhootaan duniya ke un kuchh deshon mein hai, jo khud ko shesh sansaar se alag-thalag rakhata chala aa raha hai aur aaj bhi kaafi had tak yahaaain videshiyon ka pravesh niyantrit hai. desh ki jyaadaatar aabaadi chhote gaaainv mein rahate hain aur krushi par nirbhar hain. shahareekaran dheere-dheere apne paaainv jama raha hai. bauddh vichaar yahaaain ki jindagi ka aham hissa hain. teerandaaji yahaaain ka raashtreeya khel hai.

yeh bhi dekhiye

baahari kadiyaaain

  1. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.