bhooshan (hindi kavi)

bhooshan kavi
Bhushan kavi Birla mandir 6 dec 2009 (39).JPG
bhooshan kavi dvaara chhatrapati shivaaji mahaaraaj ke baare mein rache kaavya ka Birla mandir, Delhi mein ek shilaalekh
janm: 1613
tikvaanpur, Kanpur, uttar pradesh
mrutyu: 1705
kaaryakshetr: kavita
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: reetikaal
vidha: reetigranth
vishay: veer ras kavita
shivraaj bhooshan, shiva baavani, chhatrasaal dashak

bhooshan (1613-1715) reetikaal ke teen pramukh kaviyon mein se ek hain, anya do kavi hain bihaari tatha keshav. reeti kaal mein jab sab kavi shrrungaar ras mein rachana kar rahe the, veer ras mein pramukhata se rachana kar bhooshan ne apne ko sabse alag saabit kiya. 'bhooshan' ki upaadhi unhein chitrakoot ke raaja roodrasaah ke putr hrudayaraam ne pradaan ki thi. ye morang, kumaayooain, shreenagar, Jaipur, Jodhpur, reevaaain, shivaaji aur chhatrasaal aadi ke aashray mein rahe, parantu inke pasandeeda naresh shivaaji aur bundela the.

anukram

jeevan parichay

kavivr bhooshan ka jeevan vivran abhi tak sandigdhaavastha mein hi hai. unke janm mrutyu, parivaar aadi ke vishay mein kuchh bhi nishchit roop se naheen kaha ja sakta. aachaarya raamachandr shukl ke anusaar bhooshan ka janm samvat 1670 tadanusaar isvi 1613 mein hua. unka janm sthaan Kanpur jile mein tikvaanpur naam ka gram bataaya jaata hai. unke pita ka naam 'ratinaath' ya ratnaakar tripaathi tha. ve kaavyakubj braahman the. inke chhote bhaai the -chintaamani aur matiraam.[1]

bhooshan ke vaastavik naam ka theek pata naheen chalta. shivraaj bhooshan granth ke nimn dohe ke anusaar 'bhooshan' unki upaadhi hai jo unhein chitrakoot ke raaj hrudayaraam ke putr rudrashaah ne di thi -

kul sulanki chitrakoot-pati saahas seal-samudra.
kavi bhooshan padavi dai, hrudaya Ram sut rudr.

kaha jaata hai ki bhooshan kavi matiraam aur chintaamani ke bhaai the. ek din bhaabhi ke taana dene par unhonne ghar chhod diya aur kai aashram mein gaye. yahaan aashray praapt karne ke baad shivaaji ke aashram mein chale gaye aur ant tak vaheen rahe.

panna naresh chhatrasaal se bhi bhooshan ka sambandh raha. vaastav mein bhooshan keval shivaaji aur chhatrasaal in do raajaaon ke hi sachche prashansak the. unhonne swayam hi sveekaar kiya hai-

aur Rao raaja ek man mein na lyaaoon ab.
saahoo ko saraahon kai saraahaun chhatrasaal ko.

samvat 1772 tadanusaar isvi 1705 mein bhooshan paralokavaasi ho gaye.

rachanaaeain

vidvaanon ne inke chhah granth maane hain - shivraajabhooshan, shivaabaavani, chhatrasaaladashak, bhooshan ullaas, bhooshan hajaara, dooshanollaasa. parantu inmein shivraaj bhooshan, chhatrasaal dashak va shiva baavani hi upalabdh hain. shivraajabhooshan mein alankaar, chhatrasaal dashak mein chhatrasaal bundela ke paraakram, daanasheelata va shivaabavani me shivaaji ke gunon ka varnan kiya gaya hai.

shivraaj bhooshan ek vishaalakaaya granth hai jismein 385 padya hain. shiva baavani mein 52 kaviton mein shivaaji ke shaurya, paraakram aadi ka ojapoorn varnan hai. chhatrashaal dashak mein keval das kaviton ke andar bundela veer chhatrasaal ke shaurya ka varnan kiya gaya hai. inki sampoorn kavita veer ras aur oj gun se otaprot hai jiske naayak shivaaji hain aur khalanaayak aurangajeb. aurangajeb ke prati unka jaateeya vaimanasya na hokar shaasak ke roop mein usaki aneetiyon ke viruddh hai. [2]

shivraaj bhooshan se kuchh chhand
indr jimi janbh par , vaadav suanbh par .
raavan sadanbh par , raghukul raaj hai .1.
paun baribaah par , sanbhu ratinaah par .
jyon sahasabaah par , Ram dvijraaj hai .2.
daava drumadand par , cheeta mrugajhund par .
bhooshan vitund par , jaise mrugaraaj hai .3.
tejatam ans par , kaanh jimi kans par .
tyon mlechh bans par , sher sivraaj hai .4.

kaavyagat visheshataaeain

reeti yug tha par bhooshan ne veer ras mein kavita rachi. unke kaavya ki mool samvedna veer-prashasti, jaateeya gaurav tatha shaurya varnan hai.[3] nireeh hindu janta atyaachaaron se peedit thi. bhooshan ne is atyaachaar ke viruddh aavaaj uthaai tatha niraash hindu jan samudaaya ko aasha ka sanbal pradaan kar use sangharsh ke liye utsaahit kiya. inhonne apne kaavya naayak shivaaji va chhatrasaal ko chuna. shivaaji ki veerata ke vishay mein bhooshan likhte hain:

bhooshan bhanat mahaavari balakan laagyo saari paatasaahi ke udaaya gaye jiyre.
tamake ke laal mukh siva ko nirkhi bhaye syaah mukh naurang sipaah mukh piyre.

inhonne shivaaji ki yuddhaveerata, daanaveerata, dayaaveerata va dharmaveerata ka varnan kiya hai. bhooshan ke kaavya mein utsaah va shakti bhari hui hai. ismein hindu janta ki bhaavanaaon ko ojamayi bhaasha mein ankan kiya gaya hai. bhooshan ne kaha ki yadi shivaaji na hote to sab kuchh sunnat ho gaya hotaa:

deval giraavate firaavate nisaan Ali aise doobe Rao raane sabi gaye labaki,
gauraaganapati aap auran ko det taap aap ke makaan sab maari gaye dabaki.
peera payagambara digmbara dikhaai det siddh ki sidhaai gayi rahi baat rabaki,
kaasihoo te kala jaati Mathura maseed hoti sivaaji na hoto tau sunati hot sabki.
saanch ko na maanai deveedevata na jaanai aru aisi ur aanai main kahat baat jabaki,
aur paatasaahan ke huti chaah hindun ki Akbar saahajahaan kahai saakhi tabaki.
babbar ke tibbar humaayoon hadd baandhi gaye do main ek Kareena Quraan bed dhabaki,
kaasihoo ki kala jaati Mathura maseed hoti sivaaji na hoto tau sunati hot sabki.
kumbhakarn asur autaari avarangajeb keenhi katl Mathura dohaai feri rabaki,
khodi daare devi Dave sahar mohalla baanke laakhan turuk keenhe chhoot gayi tabaki.
bhooshan bhanat bhaagyo kaaseepati bisvanaath aur kaun ginti mai bhooli gati bhav ki,
chaarau varn dharm chhodi kalama nevaaj padhi sivaaji na hoto tau sunati hot sabki.

bhooshan ke kaavya mein sarvatr udaarata ka bhaav milta hai. ve sabhi dharmon ko samaan drushtikon se dekhte hain. inke saahitya mein aitihaasik ghatnaaon ka yathaarthavaadi chitran milta hai. inhonne shivaaji ko dharmarakshak ke roop prashansa ki hai to jasavant Singh, karan Singh aadi ki aalochna bhi ki hai. bhooshan ne saara kaavya brajabhaasha mein racha tha. ojagun se paripoorn brajabhasha ka prayog sarvapratham inhonne hi kiya tha. inhonne prashastiyaaain bhi likhi hai.

aaj gareeb nivaaj mahi par to so tuhi sivraaj virjai

bhooshan ne muktak shaili mein kaavya ki rachana ki. inhonne alankaaron ka sundar prayog kiya hai. kavitt va savaiya, chhand ka pramukhataya prayog kiya hai. vastut: bhooshan bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani the. ve kavi va aachaarya the.

bhooshan veer ras ke shreshth kavi hain

bhooshan ka veerakaavya hindi saahitya ki veer kaavya parampara mein likha gaya hai. inki kavita ka angeeras veer ras hai. inki rachanaaeain shivraaj bhooshan, shivaabaavaji aur chhatrasaal dashak veer ras se otaprot hai. ye teenon krutiyaaain bhooshan ki veer bhaavana ki sachchi nirdeshak hai. yeh kaavya apne yug ke aadarsh naayakon ke charitra ko prastut karne wala hai. inmein shivaaji aur chhatrasaal ke shaurya-saahas, prabhaav va paraakram, tej va oj ka jeevant varnan hua hai. bhooshan ke veerakaavya ki mukhya visheshata yeh hai ki usamein kalpana aur puraan ki tulana mein itihaas ki sahaayata adhik li gayi hai. kaavya ka aadhaar aitihaasik hai. iske atirikt, is veerakaavya mein desh ki sanskruti va gaurav ka gaan hai. bhooshan ne apne veerakaavya mein aurangajeb ke prati aakrosh sarvatr vyakt kiya hai.

bhooshan ki veerabhaavana ka varnan bahuaayaami hai. ise ham yuddhamoolak, dharmamoolak, daanamoolak, stutimoolak aadi roopon mein dekh sakte hain.

yuddhamoolak

veer ras ke sthaayi bhaav utsaah ka utkrusht roop yuddhabhoomi mein shatru ko lalakaarate hue ujaagar hota hain shivaaji svanya veer the aur unki prerana se hindu sainikon ke man mein veerata ka bhaav utpann hua tha. bhooshan ne un sainikon ki veerata ka varnan karte hue kaha hai:

ghootat kamaan aroo teer goli baanan ke musakil hoti murachaan hoo ki ot mein .
taahi samai sivraaj hukam ke hall kiyo daava baandhi par halla veer bhat jot mein.
yuddhon ka sajeev chitran

bhooshan ka yuddh varnan bada hi sajeev aur svaabhaavik hai. yuddh ke utsaah se yukt senaaon ka ran prasthaan yudhd ke baajon ka ghor garjan, ran bhoomi mein hathiyaaron ka ghaat-pratighaat, shoor veeron ka paraakram aur kaayaron ki bhayapoorn sthiti aadi drushyon ka chitran atyant prabhaavashaali dhang se prastut kiya gaya hai. shivaaji ki sena ka ran ke liye prasthaan karte samay ka ek chitr dekhiye -

saaji chaturang beerarang mein turang chadhi.
saraja sivaaji jang jeetan chalat hai.
bhooshan bhanat naad vihd nagaaran ke.
nadi nad mad gaibaran ke ralat hain.
ail fail khail bhail khalak mein gail gail,
gaajan ki thel-pel sail usalat hain.
taara son tarani ghoori dhara mein lagat jim,
dhaara par paara paaraavaar jyon halat hain. -- (shiva baavani)

dharmabhoolak

kavi ne shivaaji ko dharm va sanskruti ke unnaayak ke roop mein ankit kiya hai. shivaaji ne musalmaanon se takkar li tatha hinduon ki raksha ki.

kavi ne shivaabaavani mein kaha hai :-

ved raakhe vidit puraane raakhe saarayut,
Ram naam raakhyon ati rasana sudhaar main,
hindun ki choti roti raakhi hai siphin ki,
kaandhe mein janeoo raakhyo maala raakhi gar main.

daanamoolak

veer ras ke kaviyon ne apne naayak ko atyadhik daanaveer dikhlaaya hai. bhooshan ne shivaaji ki daanaveerata ka atishyoktipoorn varnan kiya hai. paachak ko apni ichha se jyaada daan milta hai. shivaastuti me kavi ne shivaaji ki apoorv daanasheelata ka varnan kiya hai.

jaahir jahaan suni daan ke bakhaan aaju,
mahaadaani saahitnai garib nevaaj ke.
bhooshan javaahir jaloos jarabaak joti,
dekhi-dekhi saraja ki sukavi samaaj ke.

dayaamoolak

bhooshan ke anusaar, shivaaji daya ke saagar hain. ve sharanaagat par daya karte the. unhonne apne sainikon ko striyon va bachchon ko tang na karne ka nirdesh diya hua tha. vastut: bhooshan ne shivaaji ke paraakram, shaurya va aatank ka prabhaavashaali varnan kiya hai. unhonne shivaaji ke dharmarakshak, daanaveer va dayaavaan, roop ko prakat kiya hai. inke veeraras se sambandhit pad muktak hain. inmein ojagun ka nirvaah hai. hindi ke anya veer ras ke kavi shrungaar ka varnan bhi saath mein karte hain. jabki bhooshan ka kaavya shrungaar bhaavana se bacha hua hai. at: kaha ja sakta hai ki bhooshan veeraras ke shreshth kavi hain.

bhaasha

bhooshan ne apne kaavya ki rachana braj bhaasha mein ki. ve sarvapratham kavi hain jinhonne braj bhaasha ko veer ras ki kavita ke liye apnaaya. veer ras ke anukool unki braj bhaasha mein sarvatr hi aaj ke darshan hote hain.

bhooshan ki braj bhaasha mein urdoo, arabi, faarasi aadi bhaashaaon ke shabdon ki bharamaar hai. jang, aaftaab, fauj aadi shabdon ka khul kar prayog hua hai. shabdon ka chayan veer ras ke anukool hai. muhaavaron aur lokoktiyon ka prayog sundarata se hua hai.

vyaakaran ki avyavastha, shabdon ko tod-marod, vaakya vinyaas ki gadbadi aadi ke hote hue bhi bhooshan ki bhaasha badi sashakt aur pravaahamayi hai. haan, praakrut aur apabhransh ke shabd prayukt hone se vah kuchh klisht avashya ho gayi hai.

shaili

bhooshan ki shaili apne vishay ke anukool hai. vah ojapoorn hai aur veer ras ki vyanjana ke liye sarvatha upayukt hai. at: unki shaili ko veer ras ki oj poorn shaili kaha ja sakta hai. prabhaavotpaadakata, chitropamata aur sarasata bhooshan ki shaili ki mukhya visheshataaen hain.

ras

bhooshan ki kavita ki veer ras ke varnan mein bhooshan hindi saahitya mein adviteeya kavi hain. veer ke saath raudr bhayaanak-veebhats aadi rason ko bhi sthaan mila hai. bhooshan ne shrrungaar ras ki bhi kuchh kavitaaen likhi hain, kintu shrrungaar ras ke varnan ne bhi unki veer ras ki evam ruchi ka spasht prabhaav deekh padta hai -

na karu niraadar piya sau mil saadar ye
aae veer baadar bahaadur madan ke

chhand

bhooshan ki chhand yojana ras ke anukool hai. doha, kavitt, savaiya, chhappaya aadi unke pramukh chhand hain.

alankaar

reeti kaaleen kaviyon ki bhaanti bhooshan ne alankaaron ko atyadhik mahatva diya hai. unki kavita mein praay: sabhi alankaar paae jaate hain. arthaalankaaron ki upeksha shabdaalankaaron ko pradhaanata mili hai. yamak alankaar ka ek udaaharan dekhiye-

oonche ghor mandar ke andar rahan vaari,
oonche ghor mandar ke andar rahaati hain.

bhooshan ki raashtreeya chetna

bhooshan raashtreeya bhaavon ke gaayak hai. unki vaani peedit praja ke prati ek apoorv aashvasaan hain. inka samay aurangajeb ka shaasan tha. aurangajeb ke samay se mugal vaibhav va satta ki pakad kamjor hoti ja rahi thi. aurangajeb ki katurata va hinduon ke prati nafarat ne use janta se door kar diya tha. sankat ki is ghadi mein bhooshan ne do raashtreeya purooshon - shivaaji va chhatrasaal ke maadhyam se poore raashtra mein raashtreeya bhaavana sanchaarit karne ka prayaas kiya.[4] bhooshan ne tatkaaleen janta ki vaani ko apni kavitaaon ka aadhaar banaaya hai. inhonne svadeshaanuraag, sanskruti anuraag, saahitya anuraag, mahaapurushon ke prati anuraag, utsaah aadi ka varnan kiya hai.

svadeshaanuraag

bhooshan ka apne desh ke prati gahra lagaav tha. unki drushti poore desh par thi. unhonne dekha ki aurangajeb devaalayon ko nasht kar raha hai to unka man vidroh kar utha. shivaaji ke maadhyam se unhonne apni vaani prakat ki -

deval giraavate firvaate nisaan Ali aise samay Rao-raane sabai gaye labaki.
gaura ganapati aay, aurang ki dekhi taap apne mukaam sab maari gaye dabaki.

sanskruti anuraag

bhooshan ne sanskruti ka upayog hinduon ko khoya hua bal dilaane ke liye kiya. inhonne anek devi-devataaon ke kaaryon ka ullekh kiya tatha un mahaan kaaryon ki koti mein shivaaji ke kaaryon ki ganana ki hai. shivaaji kaae dharm va sanskruti ke unnaayak roop mein ankit kiya gaya hai-

meedi raakhe mugal marodi raakhe paatasaah bairi peesi raakhe baradaan raakhyau kar main.
raajan ki hadd raakhi teg-bal sivraaj Dave raakhe deval svadharm raakhyo ghar main .

saahitya anuraag

bhooshan ne vedashaastron ka gahan adhyayan kiya hai. inhonne praacheen saahitya ke aadhaar par hi apne kaavya ki rachana ki unka saahitya prem unki raashtreeya bhaavana ka parichaayak hai.

mahaapurushon ke prati shraddha

bhooshan ne ateet va vartamaan ke mahaapurushon va jananaayakon ke prati shrruddha vyakt ki hai. inhonne shivaaji aur chhatrasaal bundela ya anya koi paatr sabhi ka ullekh keval unheen prasangon mein kiya hai jo raashtreeya bhaavana se sambandhit the. jaise :

raiyaaraav chanpati ko chhatrasaal mahaaraaj bhooshan sakat ko baravaani yon balan ke.

utsaah

raashtreeya saahitya mein chetna ka bhaav hota hai. bhooshan ke saahitya mein sajeevata, sfoorti va umang ka bhaav hai. mugalon ke saath shivaaji ke sangharsh ka kavi utsaahapoorn shaili mein varnan kiya hai:-

daava paatasaahan son kinhon sivraaj beer,
jer keenheen des hrudaya baandhyo darabaare se.
hathi marahathi taamain raakhyau na mavaas kooo,
chheene hathiyaar dolain ban banajaare se.

nissandeh, bhooshan ka kaavya raashtreeya chetna se ot-prot hai. ve sachche arthon mein raashtreeya bhaavana ke kavi hain.

saahitya mein sthaan

bhooshan ka hindi saahitya mein ek vishisht sthaan hain. ve veer ras ke adviteeya kavi the. reeti kaaleen kaviyon mein ve pehle kavi the jinhonne haas-vilaas ki apeksha raashtreeya-bhaavana ko pramukhata pradaan ki. unhonne apne kaavya dvaara tatkaaleen asahaaya hindu samaaj ki veerata ka paath padhaaya aur uske samaksh raksha ke liye ek aadarsh prastut kiya. ve nissandeh raashtra ki amar dharohar hain.

saaraansh

  • janm samvat tatha sthaan - 1670 tikvaanpur jila Kanpur.
  • pita - ratnaakar tripaathi.
  • mrutyu - samvat 1772.
  • granth - shivraaj bhooshan, shiva baavani, chhatrasaal dashak.
  • varnya vishay - shivaaji tatha chhatrasaal ke veerataapoorn kaaryon ka varnan.
  • bhaasha - braj bhaasha jismein arabi, faarasi, Turkey bundelakhandi aur khadi boli ke shabd mile hue hain. vyaakaran ki ashudhdiyaan hain aur shabd bigad gaye hain.
  • shaili - veer ras ki ojapoorn shaili.
  • chhand - kavitt, savaiya.
  • ras - pradhaanata veer, bhayaanak, veebhats, raudr aur shrrungaar bhi hai.
  • alankaar - praay: sabhi alankaar hain.

sandarbh

  1. shivraajabhooshan (navalakishor press Lucknow)
  2. kaavya gaurav (prusht 87) (lekhak-Ram darash mishr)
  3. kaavya gaurav (prushth 86) (sampaadak-Dr raamadarash mishr)
  4. Madhya Pradesh (bhooshan ki raashtreeya bhaavana, prushth 191)

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain