bhoomi upayog

Europe ka bhoomi upayog dikhaata naksha - krushi bhoomi (peela) aur chaaraagaah (halka hara)

bhoomi upayog pruthvi ke kisi kshetr ka manushya dvaara upayog ko soochit karta hai. saamaanyat: jameen ke hisse par hone vaale aarthik kriya-kalaap ko soochit karte hue use van bhoomi, krushi bhoomi, parati, charaagaah ityaadi vargon mein baaainta jaata hai. aur adhik takaneeki bhaasha mein bhoomi upayog ko "kisi vishisht bhoo-aavaran-prakaar ki rachana, parivartan athva sanrakshan hetu maanav dvaara us par kiye jaane vaale kriya-kalaapon" ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai.[1]

vruhat star par great Britain mein pratham bhoomi upayog sarvekshan san 1930 i॰ mein dadale staamp mahodaya dvaara kiya gaya tha.[2]

Bhaarat mein bhoomi upayog se sambandhit maamale 'Bhaarat sarkaar' ke 'graameen vikaas mantraalaya' ke 'bhoomi sansaadhan vibhaag' ke antargat aate hain. vaheen raashtreeya star par bhoomi upayog se sambandhit sarvekshanon ka kaarya Nagpur sthit 'raashtreeya mruda sarvekshan evam bhoomi upayog niyojan bureau' naamak sanstha karti hai. is sanstha dvaara Bhaarat ke vibhinn hisson ke bhoomi upayog maanachitr prakaashit kiye jaate hain.

bhoomi upayog aur ismein parivartan ka kisi kshetr ke paryaavaran aur paaristhitiki par atyant mahatvapoorn prabhaav padta hai. praakrutik sansaadhan sanrakshan se jude muddon mein bhoomi upayog sanrakshan se jude bindu hain: mruda aparadan evam sanrakshan, mruda gunavatta sanvardhan, jal gunavatta aur upalabdhata, vanaspati sanrakshan, vanya-jeev aavaas ityaadi.[3]

anukram

bhoomi upayog vargeekaran

Bhaarat mein graameen bhoomi upayog ki vibhinn shreniyaan is prakaar hain[2]-

  1. van,
  2. banjar tatha krushi ayogya bhoomi,
  3. gair-krushi upayog hetu prayukt bhoomi,
  4. krushi yogya banjar,
  5. sthaayi chaaraagaah evam pashuchaaran,
  6. vrukshon evam jhaadiyon ke antargat bhoomi,
  7. chaaloo parati,
  8. anya parati,
  9. shuddh boya gaya kshetr, aur
  10. ek se adhik baar boya gaya kshetr.

nagareeya bhoomi upayog isse bhinn hota hai.

bhoomi upayog neeti

Bhaarat mein pehli baar tatkaaleen pradhaanamantri Rajiv gaaaindhi ke prayaason dvaara san 1988 mein ek raashtreeya bhoomi upayog neeti banaai gayi. iske dvaara bhoomi upayog mein avaanchhit parivartan ko avaidh kraar diya gaya. haalaaainki sattar ke dashak mein hi jyaadaatar raajyon ne bhoomi upayog bordon ki sthaapana ki thi kintu inmein kaarya raashtreeya neeti ke banane ke baad hi shuroo ho paaya aur vartamaanakaal mein inmein se kitne sakriya hain kaha naheen ja sakta.[4]

Bhaarat mein bhoomi upayog neeti ke mukhya lakshya the: bhoomi upayog ka vistrut aur vaigyaanik sarvekshan karaana, van neeti ke anuroop 33.3% bhoomi par vanaavaran sthaapit karna, gair-krushi yogya bhoomi ke kshetr mein badhottri ko rokana, banjar bhoomi ka vikaas kar ise krushi laayak banaana, sthaayi chaaraagaahon ka vikaas karna aur shasya gahanata mein vruddhi karna.[5]

varsh 2013 mein taiyaar ki gayi raashtreeya van neeti inheen uddeshyon ko aage badhaane aur bhoomi sansaadhanon ke liye alag-alag sektars ke beech badhti pratiyogita ko niyamit tatha niyantrit karne ka prayaas hai. nayi neeti ke anusaar desh ko mukhya bhoomi upayogon ke aadhaar par chhah mandalon (jons) mein baantane ki yojana hai.[4] ye chhah jon hain: graameen evam krushi kshetr, roopaantaran se gujaar rahe kshetr (jaise nagareeya upaant), nagareeya kshetr, audyogik kshetr, paaristhitikeeya aur aapada-prad kshetr. pratyek prakaar ke kshetr ke liye sthaaneeya taur par alag jrooraton ke mutaabik alag tarah ke aayojan tareekon ka upayog kiya jaayega. iske dvaara krushi aur paaritaantreeya sanvedanasheelata vaale kshetron mein bhoomi upayog parivartan ko aparivrtaneeya banaaye jaane ki yojana bhi shaamil hai.[4] yeh neeti vartamaan samay mein chal rahe bhoomi adhigrahan vivaadon ke kaaran bhi mahatvapoorn hai.

paaristhitiki aur paryaavaran

yahabhi dekhein: paaristhitik tantr

sadkon dvaara vikhndit praakrutik bhoodrushya aur vanya-jeev aavaas (Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, U.S.A.)

kisi bhi bhaugolik kshetr ke paryaavaran aur paaritntreeya santulaan mein bhoomi upayog ki kaafi bhoomika hoti hai. praakrutik paryaavaran ke bhoodrushya vartamaan samay ke maanush aakraant bhoodrushyon se bahut alag hua karte the. manushya ne praakrutik paryaavaran aur paaritantron ko takaneeki aur vaigyaanik gyaan dvaara badal kar navya paaritantron ki sthaapana ki hai. in parivrtanon mein bhoomi upayog mein parivartan sabse vyaapak aur pratyaksh roop se parilkshit hone vaale hain. praakrutik vanon ka unmoolan is parivartan ka sabse spasht deekhane wala parinaam hai. bhoomi upayog mein parivartan dvaara vanya jeevon ke aavaason ka vilopan evam vikhandan bhi iska ek pramukh udaaharan hai jisse jaiv-vividhta ko khatra hai.

shahareekaran

shahareekaran pichhli sadi aur vartamaan kaal ki sarvaadhik pramukh ghatnaaon mein se ek hai jisse bhoomi upayog mein vaishvik star par vyaapak parivartan aaye hain. nagar ek atyadhik sankuchit kshetr mein atyadhik sankeindrit oorja upayog ka kendra hota hai aur apni bahut si aavashyakataaon ke liye apne ird-gird ke kshetr par aashrit hota hai, at: nagareeyakaran ka bhoomi upayog par padne wala prabhaav keval use kshetr mein naheen padta jo nagar ke antargat aata hai balki nagar ke pashch-pradesh mein bhi vyaapak bhoomi upayog parivartan hote hain.

nagareekaran aur bhoomi upayog parivrtanon ko samekit roop se jalavaayu parivartan ke sabse pramukh kaarak ke roop mein bhi dekha jaata hai kintu inmein se kaun kitna prabhaav daalata hai yeh maapan thoda mushkil hai.[6]

sudoor sanvedan anuprayog aur bhoo-soochana vigyaan

aadhunik sudoor sanvedan takaneekon ka vikaas aur bhaugolik soochana tantr tatha bhoomitiki ke kshetr mein pragati bhoomi upayog ke jyaada sateek maanachitran aur vishleshan ke mauke upalabdh karva rahe hain. haal hi mein Nagpur sthit 'raashtreeya mruda sarvekshan evam bhoomi upayog niyojan bureau' aur Hyderabad sthit 'raashtreeya sudoor sanvedan kendra' ke beech ek samjhauta patra par dastakhat hue hain jismein uchch koti ke sudoor sanvedan aankadon dvaara bhoomi upayog maanachitran karne ki yojana hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Land use is characterised by the arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it" - (FAO/UNEP, 1999); What is Land Use
  2. a aa bhoomi upayog (Land use) indiya vaatar portal par.
  3. Land Use, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture
  4. a aa i Mahapatra, Richard (30). "Land use policy for the country on anvil" (angreji mein). DownToEarth patrika. http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/land-use-policy-country-anvil. abhigman tithi: 2014.
  5. tivaari, aara॰ see॰ (2013) (hindi mein). Bhaarat ka bhoogol (6 san॰). Allahabad: pravaalika prakaashan. pp. 198.
  6. Kalnay, Eugenia; Ming Cai. "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6939/full/nature01675.html" (angreji mein). Neture. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6939/full/nature01675.html. abhigman tithi: 2014.

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