bhookamp

pruthvi ki parat (crust) se oorja ke achaanak utpaadan ke parinaamasvaroop aata hai jo bhookanpi tarangein (seismic wave) utpann karta hai. bhookamp ka rikaard ek seesmomeetar (seismometer) ke saath rakha jaata hai, jo seesmograaf bhi kahalaata hai. ek bhookamp ka kshan parimaan () paaramparik roop se maapa jaata hai, ya sambandhit aur aprachalit richter (Richter) parimaan liya jaata hai, 3 ya kam parimaan ki richter teevrata ka bhookamp aksar imparasepteebal hota hai aur 7 richter ki teevrata ka bhookamp bade kshetron mein gambhir kshati ka kaaran hota hai. jhatakon ki teevrata ka maapan viksit marakaili paimaane par (Mercalli scale) kiya jaata hai.

pruthvi ki satah par, bhookamp apne aap ko, bhoomi ko hilaakar ya visthaapit kar ke prakat karta hai. jab ek bada bhookamp adhikendr (epicenter) apatateeya sthati mein hota hai, yeh samudra ke kinaare par paryaapt maatra mein visthaapan ka kaaran banta hai, jo soonaami ka kaaran hai. bhookamp ke jhatke kabhi-kabhi bhooskhalan aur jvaalaamukhi g ([[en:phenomenon|phenomenon]tividhiyon ko bhi paida kar sakte hain.

sarvaadhik saamaanya arth mein, kisi bhi seesmik ghatna ka varnan karne ke liye bhookamp shabd ka prayog kiya jaata hai, ek praakrutik ghatna]) ya manushyon ke kaaran hui koi ghatna -jo seesmik tarangon ) ko utpann karti hai. aksar bhookamp bhoogarbheeya doshon ke kaaran aate hain, bhaari maatra mein gas pravaas, pruthvi ke bheetar mukhyat: gahari methane, jvaalaamukhi, bhooskhalan aur naabhikeeya parikshan aise mukhya dosh hain.

bhookamp ke utpann hone ka praarambhik bindu kendra (focus) ya haaipo center (hypocenter) kahalaata hai. shabd adhikendr (epicenter) ka arth hai, bhoomi ke star par theek iske oopar ka bindu.

1963-1998 ke bhookanpon ke adhikendr (epicenter)s
global plate tektonik movement

=

plate seemaaon se door bhookamp.

jahaaain plate seemaayein mahaadveepeeya sthalamandal mein utpann hoti hain, viroopan plate ki seema se bade kshetr mein fail jaata hai. mahaadveepeeya viroopan San Andreas dosh ([[:en:San Andreas = svaabhaavik roop se hone vaale bhookamp ==

dosh ke prakaar

tektonik bhookamp bhoomi ke aise kisi bhi sthaan par aa sakta hai, jahaaain paryaapt maatra mein sangraheet pratyaasthata tanaav urja hoti hai jo samatal dosh (fault plane) ke saath bhoo-bhang utpann karti hai.roopaantarit (transform) ya abhikeindrit (convergent) prakaar ki plate seemaaon ke maamalon mein, jo dharati par sabse badi dosh satah bante hain, ve ek doosare ko saamaanya roop se aur aseesmik roop (aseismically) se hilaate hain, aisa keval tabhi hota hai jab seema ke saath kisi prakaar ki aniyamitata na ho jo gharshan ke kaaran pratirodh ko badhaati hai. adhikaansh satahon mein is prakaar ki aniymittaaen hoti hain aur yeh stick-slip vyavahaar (stick-slip behaviour) ka kaaran banti hain. ek baar jab seema band ho jaati hai, pleton ke beech mein satat saapeksh gati tanaav ko badha deti hai, isliye, dosh satah ke chaaron aur ke sthaan mein tanaav urja sangruheet ho jaati hai. yeh t ([[en:phenomenon|phenomenon]b tak jaari rahata hai jab tanaav paryaapt maatra mein badhkar aniyamitata ko utpann karta hai aur dosh satah ki band seema ke oopar achaanak bhoomi khiskane lagti hai, sangraheet oorja mukt hone lagti hai. yeh oorja vikirit pratyaasth tanaav (strain) bhookampeeya tarangon (seismic waves), dosh satah par gharshan ki ushma aur chattaanon mein daraar padne, ke sammilit prabhaav ke kaaran mukt hoti hai aur is prakaar bhookamp ka kaaran banti hai. tanaav ke banane ki yeh kramik prakriya, achaanak bhookamp ki vifalta ke kaaran hoti hai ise pratyaasthata-punarbandhan siddhaant (Elastic-rebound theory) kehte hain. yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki bhookamp ki kul oorja ka 10 pratishat ya isse bhi kam seesmik oorja ke roop mein vikirit hota hai. bhookamp ki adhikaansh urja ya to bhoo bhang (fracture) ki vruddhi ko shakti pradaan karne ke liye kaam mein aati hai ya gharshan ke kaaran utpann ooshma mein badal jaati hai. isliye bhookamp pruthvi ki upalabdh pratyaasth sthitij oorja ko kam karta hai aur iska taapamaan badhaata hai, haalaaainki ye parivartan pruthvi ki gaharaai mein se baahar aane waali ushma sancharan aur sanvahan ki tulana (phenomenon]mein naganya hote hain.[1]fault|San Andreas fault) ke maamale mein, bahut se bhookamp plate seema se door utpann hote hain aur viroopan ke vyaapak kshetr mein viksit tanaav se sambandhit hote hain, yeh viroopan dosh kshetr (uda. “abig band ” kshetr) mein pramukh aniyamitataon ke kaaran hote hain. Northridge bhookamp (Northridge earthquake) aise hi ek kshetr mein andh dabaav gati se sambandhit tha. ek anya udaaharan hai arab (Arabian) aur yooreshiyn plate (Eurasian plate) s ke beech tiryak abhikeindrit plate seema jahaaain yeh jaagros (Zagros) pahaadon ke pashchimottar hisse se hokar jaati hai. is plate seema se sambandhit viroopan, ek bade pashchim-dakshin seema ke lambavat lagbhag shuddh dabaav gati tatha vaastavik plate seema ke najadeek ([[en:phenomenon|phenomenon] haal hi mein hue mukhya dosh ke kinaare hue lagbhag shuddh streek-slip gati mein vibhaajit hai. iska pradarshan bhookamp ki kendreeya kriyaavidhi (focal mechanism) ke dvaara kiya jaata hai.[2]

sabhi tektonik plets mein aantarik dabaav kshetr hote hain jo apni padosi pleton ke saath antarkriya ke kaaran ya talachhati ladaan ya utaraai ke kaaran hote hain. (jaise deglaciation) .ye tanaav upasthit dosh satahon ke kinaare vifalta ka paryaapt kaaran ho sakte hain, ye ant:plet bhookamp (intraplate earthquake) ko janm dete hain.

uthala - aur gahre kendra ka bhookamp

adhikaansh tektonik bhookamp 10 kilometer se adhik ki gaharaai se utpann naheen hote hain. 70 kilometer se kam ki gaharaai par utpann hone vaale bhookamp 'chhichhle-kendra' ke bhookamp kahalaate hain, jabki 70-300 kilometer ke beech ki gaharaai se utpann hone vaale bhookamp 'madhya -kendreeya' ya 'antar madhya-kendreeya' bhookamp kahalaate hain. subduction kshetr (subduction zones) mein jahaaain puraani aur thandi samudri parat (oceanic crust) anya tektonik plate ke neeche khisak jaati hai, gahre keindrit bhookamp (deep-focus earthquake) adhik gaharaai par (300 se lekar 700 kilometer tak)[3] aa sakte hain. seesmik roop se subduction ke ye sakreeya kshetr Wadati - Benioff kshetr (Wadati-Benioff zone) s kahalaate hain. gahre kendra ke bhookamp us gaharaai par utpann hote hain jahaaain uchch taapamaan aur dabaav ke kaaran subducted sthalamandal (lithosphere) bhangur naheen hona chaahiye.gahre kendra ke bhookamp ke utpann hone ke liye ek sambhaavit kriyaavidhi hai oleevaain ke kaaran utpann dosh jo spinel (spinel) sanrachana mein ek avastha sankraman (phase transition) ke doraan hota hai.[4]

bhookamp aur jvaalaamukhi gatividhi

bhookamp aksar jvaalaamukhi kshetron mein bhi utpann hote hain, yahaaain inke do kaaran hote hain tektonik dosh tatha jvaalaamukhi mein laava (magma) ki gatiyaan.aise bhookamp jvaalaamukhi visfot ki poorv chetaavani ho sakte hain.

bhookamp samoohon

ek kram mein hone vaale adhikaansh bhookamp, sthaan aur samay ke sandarbh mein ek doosare se sambandhit ho sakte hain.

bhookamp jhund

yadi aisa koi jhatka na aae jise spasht roop se mukhya jhatka kaha ja sake, to in jhatakon ke kram ko bhookamp jhund kaha jaata hai.

bhookamp toofaan

kai baar bhookampon ki ek shrrunkhla bhookamp toofaan (earthquake storm) ke roop mein utpann hoti hai, jahaaain bhookamp samooh mein dosh utpann karta hai, pratyek jhatke mein poorv jhatke ke tanaav ka punarvitran hota hai. ye baad ke jhatke (aftershock) ke samaan hai lekin dosh ka anugaami bhaag hai, ye toofaan kai varshon ki avadhi mein utpann hote hain aur kai baad mein aane vaale bhookamp utane hi kshatikaarak hote hain jitne ki pehle vaale. is prakaar ka pratiroop Turkey mein 20 veen sadi mein dekha gaya jahaaain lagbhag ek darjan bhookampon ke kram ne uttar Anatolian dosh (North Anatolian Fault) par prahaar kiya, ise madhya poorv mein bhookamp ke bade guchhon ke roop mein maana jaata hai.[5] bldk ve ls

anukram

bhookamp ke prabhaav

1755 taanbe ka chitran utkeernan lisban khandahar mein badal gaya aur 1755 mein lisban mein bhookamp (1755 Lisbon earthquake) ke baad jal kar raakh ho gaya. ek soonaami bandargaah mein jahaajo ko baha le jaati hai.
San Francisco 1906 mein aae bhookamp ke baad Smoldering (1906 San Francisco earthquake)

.

ainkarij, alaaska (Anchorage)(1964) mein bhookamp mein hui kshati.
chitr:Tlatelolco.PNG
bhookamp mein kshati Mexico city (Mexico City) (1985) .
chitr:Spitakear.jpg
bhookamp mein kshati Armenia (1988) .
saaipras pul ka ek bhaag loma Prieta bhookamp (Loma Prieta Earthquake) (1989) ke doraan dah gaya.
kaisar Permanente bhavan Northridge bhookamp (Northridge Earthquake) (1994) mein nasht ho gaya.

great Hanshin bhookamp (Great Hanshin earthquake) (1995) mein kobe, Japan

Chūaetsu (Chūaetsu earthquake) ke bhookamp (2004) .

bhookamp ke prabhaavon mein nimn likhit shaamil hain, lekin ye prabhaav yahaaain tak hi seemit naheen hain.

jhatke aur bhoomi ka fatana.

jhatke aur bhoomi ka fatana bhookamp ke mukhya prabhaav hain, jo mukhya roop se imaaraton va anya kathor sanrachanaaon kam ya adhik gambhir nuksaan pahuchati hai. sthaaneeya prabhaav ki gambheerta bhookamp ke parimaan (magnitude) ke jatil sanyojan par, epicenter (epicenter) se doori par aur sthaaneeya bhoo vaigyaanik v bhoo aakarikeeya sthitiyon par nirbhar karti hai, jo tarang ke prasaar (wave propagation)[6] kam ya adhik kar sakti hai. bhoomi ke jhatakon ko bhoomi tvaran (acceleration) se naapa jaata hai.

vishisht bhoovaijnyaaanik, bhoo aakarikeeya aur bhoo sanrachanaatmak lakshan bhoo satah par uchch stareeya jhatke paida kar sakte hain, yahaaain tak ki kam teevrata ke bhookamp bhi aisa karne mein saksham hain. yeh prabhaav sthaaneeya pravardhan kahalaata hai. yeh mukhyat: kathor gahari mruda se satahi komal mruda tak bhookampeeya (seismic) gati ke sthaanaantaran ke kaaran hai aur bhookampeeya urja ke kendreekaran ka prabhaav jamaavon ki praaroopik jyaamiteeya seting karta hai.

dosh satah ke kinaare par bhoomi ki satah ka visthaapan va bhoomi ka fatana drushya hai, ye mukhya bhookampon ke maamalon mein kuchh meter tak ho sakta hai. bhoomi ka fatana pramukh abhiyaantriki sanrachanaaon jaise baandhon (dams), pul (bridges) aur parmaanu shakti stationon (nuclear power stations) ke liye bahut bada jokhim hai, saavadhaaneepoorvak inmein aae doshon ya sambhaavit bhoo sfatan ko pehchaanana bahut jaruri hai.[7]

bhooskhalan aur him skhalan

bhookamp, bhooskhalan (landslide) aur him skhalan paida kar sakta hai, jo pahaadi aur parvateeya ilaakon mein kshati ka kaaran ho sakta hai.


ek bhookamp ke baad, kisi line ya vidyut shakti (electrical power) ke toot jaane se aag (fire) lag sakti hai. yadi jal ka mukhya srot fat jaae ya dabaav kam ho jaae, to ek baar aag shuroo ho jaane ke baad ise failane se rokana kathin ho jaata hai.

mitti draveekaran

mitti draveekaran (Soil liquefaction) tab hota hai jab jhatakon ke kaaran jal santrupt daanedaar (granular) padaarth asthaayi roop se apni kshamata ko kho deta hai aur ek thos (solid) se taral (liquid) mein roopaantarit ho jaata hai. mitti draveekaran kathor sanrachanaaon jaise imaaraton aur pulon ko draveebhoot mein jhuka sakta hai ya dooba sakta hai.

sunaami

samudra ke bheetar bhookamp se ya bhookamp ke kaaran hue bhoo skhalan ke samudra mein takaraane se sunaami aa sakte hai. udaaharan ke liye, 2004 hind mahaasaagar mein aae bhookamp.

baadh

yadi baaaindh kshatigrast ho jaaeain to baadh bhookamp ka dviteeyak prabhaav ho sakta hai. bhookamp ke kaaran bhoomi fisl kar baaaindh ki nadi mein takara sakti hai, jiske kaaran baaaindh toot sakta hai aur baadh aa sakti hai.

maanav prabhaav

bhookamp rog, moolabhoot aavashyakataaon ki kami, jeevan ki haani, uchch beema premium, saamaanya sampatti ki kshati, sadak aur pul ka nuksaan aur imaaraton ko dhvast hona, ya imaaraton ke aadhaar ka kamjor ho jaana, in sab ka kaaran ho sakta hai, jo bhavishya mein fir se bhookamp ka kaaran banta hai.

maanav par padne wala sabse mahatvapoorn prabhaav hai, jeevan ki kshati.

bhookamp ke liye taiyaari

dharm aur pauraanik kathaaon mein bhookamp

Norse pauraanik kathaaon (Norse mythology) mein, bhookamp ko devata Loki (Loki) ke hinsak sangharsh ke roop mein bataaya gaya hai. jab sharaarat aur sangharsh ke devata (god) loki ne, saundarya aur prakaash ke devata Baldr (Baldr) ki hatya kar di, use dandit karne ke liye ek gufa mein band kar diya gaya, uske par ek jahareela saanp rakh diya gaya, jisse uske sar par jahar tapak raha tha.Loki ki patni Sigyn (Sigyn) uske paas ek katora lekar khadi ho gayi jismein vah jahar ikaththa kar rahi thi, lekin jab bhi vah katore ko khaali karti, jahar loki ke chehare par gir jaata, tab vah use bachaane ke liye uske sar par doosari aur dhakka deti, jisse dharati kaanpane lagti.[8]

greek pauraanik kathaaon mein nepchoon bhookamp ke devata the. [9]

yeh bhi dekhiye

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
bhookamp ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain

shiksha-sambandhi

bhookampeeya aankadon ke kendra

Europe

Japan

sanyukt raajya America

bhookamp paimaane

vaigyaanik jaankaari

vividh

Copy To Translation

sandarbh

  1. Spence, William; S. A. Sipkin, G. L. Choy (1989). "Measuring the Size of an Earthquake". United States Geological Survey. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/topics/measure.php. abhigman tithi: 2006-11-03.
  2. Talebian, M.Jackson, je2004 .bhookamp ki kendreeya kriyaavidhi ka punaramoolyaankan aur Iran ke jaagros pahaadon mein sakreeya laghukaran. bhoo-bhautikeeya journal international, 156, prushth 506 -526
  3. USGS. "M7.5 Northern Peru Earthquake of 26 September 2005" (pdf). ftp://hazards.cr.usgs.gov/maps/sigeqs/20050926/20050926.pdf. abhigman tithi: 1 August 2008.
  4. Greene, H. W.; Burnley, P. C. (26 October, 1989). "A new self-organizing mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes". Nature 341: 733–737. doi:10.1038/341733a0.
  5. Amos Nur (2000). "Poseidon's Horses: Plate Tectonics and Earthquake Storms in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean". Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 43–63. doi:10.1006/jasc.1999.0431. ISSN 0305-4403. http://water.stanford.edu/nur/EndBronzeage.pdf.
  6. asthir maidaan par, association of khaadi kshetr sarkaaron, San Francisco, riportein 1995,1998 (adyatan 2003)
  7. dosh satah ke fatne ke moolyaankan ke liye, California bhoovaijnyaaanik sarvekshan
  8. gadya ida (Prose Edda) ke dvaara Snorri Sturluson (Snorri Sturluson)
  9. nepchoon : samudra aur bhookamp ke greek devata, pauraanik kathaaon ; chitr : nepachyoon

bhoopatal mein hone waali aakasmik kanpan ya gati jiski utpatti praakrutik roop se bhootal ke neeche (bhoogarbh mein) hoti hai. bhoogarbhik halchalon ke kaaran bhoopatal tatha usaki shailon mein sanpeedan evam tanaav hone se shailon mein uthal-puthal hoti hai jisse bhookamp utpann hote hain. vivrtanik kriya, jvaalaamukhi kriya, samasthitik samaayojan tatha vitleeya kaaranon se bhookamp ki utpatti hoti hai. jvaalaamukhi kriya dvaara bhoogarbh se tapt maigma, jal gaisein aadi oopar nikalne ke liye shailon par teji se dhakke lagaate hain tatha dabaav daalte hain jiske kaaran bhookamp utpann hote hain. isi prakaar bhoo-aakrutik prakramon dvaara bhoopatal ki oopari shail paraton mein samasthitik santulan bigad jaane par kshanik asantulan utpann ho jaata hai jise door karne ke liye samasthitik samaayojan hota hai jisse shail paraton mein aakasmik halachal tatha bhookamp utpann hote hain. kuchh seemit bhookamp pruthvi ke adhik gaharaai (300 se 720 kimi.) mein vitleeya kaaranon se bhi utpann hote hain.

bhookamp, bhoochaal ya bhoondol bhooparpati ke ve kanpan hain jo dharaatal ko kanpa dete hain aur ise aage peechhe hilaate hain.

bhooparpati mein shailon ki (ya shailon ke andar) ek teevr abhijnyaeya kanpan-gati evam samaayojan, jis parinaamasvaroop pratyaasth (elastic) ghaat tarangein (shock wave) utpann hoti hain aur chaaron or sabhi dishaaon mein failati hain.

pruthvi mein honevaale in kanpanon ka svaroop taalaab mein feinke gaye ek kankad se utpann hone waali laharon ki bhaaainti hota hai. bhookamp bahudha aate rahate hain. vaigyaaniko ka mat hai vishv mein prati teen minute mein ek bhookamp hota hai. saadhaaranataya bhookamp ke hone ke poorv koi soochana naheen praapt hoti hai. yeh akasmaat‌ ho jaata hai. vaigyaanik drushti se bhookamp pruthvi star ke sthaanaantaran se hota hai. in sthaanaantaran se pruthveetal par oopar aur neeche, daahini tatha baai or gati utpann hoti hai aur iske saath saath pruthvi mein marod bhi hote hain. bhookamp gati se pruthvi ke prushth par ki tarango bhaag par paani ke tal ke sadrush tarangein utpann hoti hain. 1890 E. mein asam mein jo bhayankar bhookamp hua tha usaki laharein dhaan ke kheton mein spashtataya dekhi gayi theen. pruthvi ki lacheeli chattaanon par kisi prahaar ki pratikriya rabar ki pratikriya ki bhaaainti hoti hain. aisi tarangon ke chadhaav utaar praaya: ek foot tak hote hain. teevr kanpan se dharati fat jaati hai aur daraaron se baaloo, mitti, jal aur gandhakavaali gaisein kabhi kabhi bade teevr veg se nikal aati hain. in padaarthon ka niklana us sthaan ki bhoomigat avastha ya adh:stal avastha par nirbhar karta hai. jis sthaan par aisa vikshobh hota hai vahaaain pruthvi tal par valan, ya viroopan, adhik teekshn hota hai. aisa dekha gaya hai ki bhookamp ke kaaran pruthvi mein anek tod mod utpann ho jaate hain.

bade bade bhookanpon ke kuchh pehle, ya saath saath, bhoogarbh se dhvani utpann hoti hai. yeh dhvani bheeshan gadgadaahat ke sadrush hoti hai. bhookamp ki yeh vikt gadgadaahat mateeli jagahon ki apeksha pathareeli jagahon mein adhik sheeghrata se suni jaati hai. bhookamp se aabhyantar bhaag ki apeksha pruthvi ke tal par kanpan adhik teevr hota hai. asam ke san‌ 1897 vaale bhookamp ki dhvani raaneeganj ki koyale khaanon mein suni gayi thi, par us bhookamp ka anubhav vahaaain naheen hua tha.

bhookamp ka vitran -

ab tak jitne bhookamp is bhoomandal par hue hain, yadi un sabka abhilekh hamaare paas hota to usase spasht ho jaata ki pruthvi tal par koi aisa sthaan naheen hai jahaaain kabhi na kabhi bhookamp na aaya ho. jo kshetr aaj bhookamp shoonya samajhe jaate hain, ve kabhi bhookamp kshetr rah chuke hain. idhar bhookamp ke sambandh mein jo vaigyaanik khoj been hui hai,usase gyaat hua hai ki bhookamp kshetr do vruttaakaar katibandh mein vitrit hai. inmein se ek bhookamp pradesh New Zealand ke nikat dakshini prashaant mahaasaagar se aarambh hokar, uttar pashchim ki or badhta hua cheen ke poorv bhaag mein aata hai. yahaaain se yeh uttar poorv ki or mudkar Japan hota hua, bering muhaane ko paar karta hai aur fir dakshini amareeka ke dakshin-pashchim ki or hota hua amareeka ki pashchimi parvat shreni tak pahunchata hai. doosra bhookamp pradesh jo vastut: pehle ki shaakha hi hai, East Indies dweep samooh se praarambh hokar Bengal ki khaadi par barma, himaalaya, Tibet, tatha ailps se hota hua dakshin pashchim ghoomkar aitalaintik mahaasaagar paar karta hua, pashchimi dveepasamooh (vest Indies) hokar Mexico mein pahalevaale bhookamp pradesh se mil jaata hai. pehle bhookamp kshetr ko prashaant paridhi peti (Circum pacific belt) kehte hain. ismein 68 pratishat bhookamp aate hain aur doosare ko roopasaagareeya peti (Mediterranean belt) kehte hain iske antargat samast vishv ke 21 pratishat bhookamp aate hain. in donon pradeshon ke alaava cheen, manchooriya aur madhya afraka mein bhi bhookamp ke pramukh kendra hain. samudron mein bhi hind, aitalaintik aur aarkatik mahaasaagaron mein bhookamp ke kendra hain.

bhookamp ke kaaran --

atyant praacheen kaal se bhookamp maanav ke sammukh ek samasya bankar upasthit hota raha hai. praacheen kaal mein ise daivi prakop samjha jaata raha hai. praacheen granthon mein, bhinn bhinn sabhyata ke deshon mein bhookamp ke bhinn bhinn kaaran diye gaye hain. koi jaati is pruthvi ko sarp par, koi billi par, koi suar par, koi kachhuve par aur koi ek bruhatkaaya raakshas par sthit samajhti hai. un logon ka vishvaas hai ki in jantuon ke hilne dulane se bhookamp hota hai. arastoo (384 E. poo.) ka vichaar tha ki adh:stal ki vaayu jab baahar nikalne ka prayaas karti hai, tab bhookamp aata hai. 16veen aur 17veen shataabdi mein logon ka anumaan tha ki pruthvi ke andar raasaayanik kaaranon se tatha gaison ke visfotan se bhookamp hota hai. 18veen shati mein yeh vichaar panap raha tha kish pruthvi ke andaravaali gufaaon kesh achaanak gir padne se bhookamp aata hai. 1874 E mein vaigyaanik Edward jus (Edward Sress) ne apni khojon ke aadhaar par kaha tha ki 'bhookamp bhransh ki seedh mein bhooparpati ke khandan ya fislane se hota hai'. aise bhookanpon ko vivrtanik bhookamp (Tectonic Earthquake) kehte hain. ye teen prakaar ke hote hain. (1) saamaanya (Normal), jabki udgam kendra ki gaharaai 48 kimi. tak ho, (2) madhyam (Intermediate), jabki udgam kendra ki gaharaaish 48 se 240 kimi. ho tatha (3) gahra udgam (Deep Focus), jabki udgam kendra ki gaharaai 240 se 1,200 kimi. tak ho.

inke alaava do prakaar ke bhookamp aur hote hain : jvaalaamukheeya (Volcanic) aur nipaat (Collapse). 18veen shati mein bhookanpon ka kaaran jvaalaamukhi samjha jaane laga tha, parantu sheegra hi yeh maaloom ho gaya ki anek pralayankaari bhookanpon ka jvaalaamukhi se koi sambandh naheen hai. himaalaya parvat mein koi jvaalaamukhi naheen hai, parantu himaalaya kshetr mein gat sau varsho mein anek bhookamp hue hain. ati sookshmata se adhyan karne par pata chala hai ki jvaalaamukhi ka bhookamp par parinaam alp kshetr mein hi seemit rahata hai. isi prakaar nipaat bhookamp ka, jo choone ki chattaan mein bani kandara, ya khaali ki hui khaanon ki, chhat ke nipaat se utpann hote hain, bhi parinaam alp kshetr tak hi seemit rahata hai. kabhi kabhi to keval halke kanp maatr hi hote hain.

bhoovijnyaaaniyon ki drushti bhookamp ke kaaranon ko khoj nikaalne ke liye pruthvi ke aabhyaantarik staron ki or gayi. bhoovaijnyaaanikon ke anusaar bhookamp vartamaan yug mein unheen parvatapradeshon mein hote hain jo parvat bhaumiki ki drushti se navanirmit hain. jahaaain ye parvat sthit hain vahaaain bhoomi ki satah kuchh dhalavaaain hai, jisse pruthvi ke star kabhi kabhi akasmaat‌ baith jaate hain. staron se, adhik dabaav ke kaaran thos staron ke fatne ya ek chattaan ke doosari chattaan par fislane se hota hai. jaisa oopar bhi kaha ja chuka hai, pruthvi star ki is asthirta se jo bhookamp hote hain unhein vivrtanik bhookamp kehte hain. Bhaarat ke sab bhookanpon ka kaaran vivrtanik bhookamp hain.

bhookamp ke kaaranon par nimnalikhit vibhinn siddhaanton ka pratipaadan hua hai :

(1) pratyaasth pratikshep siddhaant (Elastic Rebound Theory) - san‌ 1906 mein Harry feelding reed ne is siddhaant ko pratipaadit kiya tha. yeh siddhaant sain frainsisko ke bhookamp ke poorn adhyayan tatha sarvekshan ke pashchaat‌ prakaash mein aaya tha. is siddhaant ke anusaar bhooparpati par neeche se koi bal lambi avadhi tak kaarya kare, to vah ek nishchat samay tatha bindu tak (apni kshamata tak) us bal ko sahegi aur uske pashchaat‌ chattaanon mein vikruti utpann ho jaaegi. vikruti utpann hone ke baad bhi yadi bal kaarya karta rahega to chattaanein toot jaaeaingi. is prakaar bhookamp ke pehle bhookamp gati (earthquake motion) banaanevaaleesh oorja chattaanon mein pratyaasth vikruti oorja (elastic strain energy) ke roop mein sanchit hoti rahati hai. tootane ke samay chattaanein bhransh ke donon or avikruti ki avastha ke pratikshipt (rebound) hoti hai. pratyaasth oorja bhookanpatarangon ke roop mein mukt hoti hai. pratyaasth pratikshep siddhaant keval bhookamp ke uparyukt kaaran ko, jo bhaumiki ki drushti se bhi samarthit hota hai hi batalaata hai.

(2) pruthvi ke sheetal hone ka siddhaant - bhookamp ke kaaranon mein ek atyant praacheen vichaar pruthvi ka thandha hona bhi hai. pruthvi ke andar (kareeb 700 kimi. ya usase adhik gaharaai mein) ke taap mein bhoopaparti ke thos hone ke baad bhi koi antar naheen aaya hai. pruthvi andar se garam tatha plastic avastha mein hai aur baahari satah thandi tatha thos hai. yeh baahari satah bheetari satahon ke saath theek theekash anuroop naheen baithati tatha niptit hoti hai aur is tarah se bhookamp hote hain.

(3) samasthiti (Isostasy) siddhaant -iske anusaar bhootal ke parvat evam saagar dharaatal ek doosare ko tula ki bhaaainti santulan mein rakhe hue hain. jab ksharan aadi dvaara ooainche sthaan ki mitti neeche sthaan par jama ho jaati hai, tab santulan bigad jaata hai tatha pun: santulan rakhane ke liye jamaavavaala bhaag neeche dhainsata hai aur yeh bhookamp ka kaaran banta hai

(4) mahaadveepeeya visthaapan pravaah siddhaant --(Continental drift) -abhi tak anekon bhoovijnyaaaniyon ne mahaadveepeeya visthaapan par apne apne mat pratipaadit kiye hain. inke anusaar sabhi mahaadveep pehle ek pind (mass) the, jo peechhe toot gaye aur dheere dheere visthaapan se alag alag hokar aaj ki sthiti mein aa gaye. (deinkhein mahaadveep). is parikalpana mein jahaaain kuchh samasyaaon par prakaash padta hai vaheen visthaapan ke liye paryaapt maatra mein aavashyak bal ke abhaav mein yeh parikalpana mahatvaheen bhi ho jaati hai. iske anusaar jab mahaadveepon ka visthaapan hota hai tab pahaad oopar uthate hain aur uske saath hi bhransh tatha bhookamp hote hain.

rediyoaiktivta (Radioactivity) siddhaant -- san‌ 1925 mein jolly ne rediyoaiktiv ooshma ke, jo mahaadveepon ke aavaran ke andar ekatrit hoti hai, chakreeya prabhaav ke kaaran bhookamp hone ke sambandh mein ek siddhaant ka vikaas kiya. iske anusaar rediyoaiktiv ooshma jab mukt hoti hai tab mahaadveepon ke andar ki cheejon ko pighla deti hai aur yeh drav chhote se bal ke kaarya karne par bhi sthaanaantarit kiya ja sakta hai, yadyapi is siddhaant ki kaaryavidhi kuchh vichitr si lagti hai.

sanvahan dhaara (Convection Current) siddhaant -anek siddhaanton mein yeh pratipaadit kiya gaya hai ki pruthvi par sanvahan dhaaraaeain chalti hain. in dhaaraaon ke parinaamasvaroop satahi chattaanon par karshan (drag) hota hai. ye dhaaraaeain rediyoaiktiv ooshma dvaara sanchaalit hoti hain. is kaaryavidhi ke parinaamasvaroop vikruti dheere dheere badhti jaati hai. kuchh samay mein yeh vikruti itni adhik ho jaati hai ki iska parinaam bhookamp hota hai.

udgam kendra aur adhikeindr (Focus and Epicentre) siddhaant - bhookamp ka udgam kendra pruthvi ke andar vah vindu hai jahaaain se vikshep shuroo haata hai. adhikeindr (Epicentere) pruthvi ki satah par udgam kendra ke theek oopar ka bindu hai.

bhookanpon ki bhavishyavaani ke sambandh mein roos ke taajik vigyaan academy ke bhookamp vigyaan tatha bhookamp pratirodhi nirmaan sansthaan ke prayogon ke parinaamasvaroop haal mein yeh nishkarsh nikaala gaya hai ki yadi bhookanpon ke dubaara hone ka samay abhilekhit kar liya jaaya aur vishesh kshetr mein pichhle isi prakaar ke bhookanpon ka kaal vidit rahe, to aagaami adhik shaktishaali bhookamp ka varsh nishchit kiya ja sakta hai. bhookamp vijnyaaaniyon mein ek sanket prachalit hai bhookanpon ki aavruti ki kaalaneeti ka kon aur shaktishaali bhookamp ki dasha ka is kalaneeti mein parivartan aata hai. iski jaankaari ke pashchaat‌ bhookampeeya sthal par yadi tej vidyuteeya sanganak upalabdh ho sake, to do teen din ke samay mein hi shaktishaali bhookamp ke sambandh mein tatha sambaddh sthaan ke vishay mein bhavishyavaani ki ja sakti hai aur bhaavi adhikeindr tak ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai

bhookamp ka prabhaav -

bhookamp ka prabhaav vibhinn kshetron par alag alag dhang se padta hai. ped gir jaate hain tatha bade bade shilaakhand sarak jaate hain. alpakaal ke liye bahudha chhoti athva vishaal jheelein ban jaati hain. vishaal kshetr dhains jaate hain aur kuchh bhookhand sadaiv ke liye uth jaate hain. kai daraarein khulati evam band hoti hai. sote band ho jaate hain tatha saritaaon ke maarg badal jaate hain. bhookamp tanragon ka sabse vidhvansak prabhaav maanav nirmit aakaaron, jaise relamaargo, sadkon, pulon, vidyut evam teleegraaf ke taaron aadi par padta hai. sahastron varsho se sthaapit sabhyata evam aavaas ko ye bhookamp kshan bhar mein nasht kar dete hain. inke kaaran bhranshon ka, visheshakar ananustari (discordant) bhranshon ka hona bataaya jaata hai.

pruthvi ka jhatka (earth lurches) -

bhookamp ke kaaran bahudha mitti is tarah se feinki jaati hai ki nadeetal ke samaantar mein daraarein pad jaati hai. yahaaain par jadtv gurutv se adhik mahatvapoorn kaaran hai. bhookamp se bhookanpi favvaare ityaadi bhi ban jaate hain tatha pahaadon ki dhalaanon par padi hui chattaanein tatha anya cheejein vahaaain se ludhak kar neeche aa jaati hain. samudra mein bhookamp se shunaamis (Tsunamis) naamak tarangein paida hoti hai. ye samudra mein chhote chhote jvaalaamukhi ke footane se, toofaan se, ya daab mein ekaaek parivartan hone se utpann hoti hai. ye Japan aur havaai dveepasamooh ke nikat adhik sankhya mein abhilikhit ki gayi hain tatha inse samudrataton par bahut kshati hoti hai.

bhookanpalekhi (Siesmograph) - bhookamp ka pata lagaane ke liye jo yantr bane hai unhein bhookanpalekhi kehte hain. bhookamp ke kaaran, prabhaav tatha anya prakaar ke sambandhit vishyon ka adhyayan bhookanpavijnyaaan (Seismology) ke antargat hota hai. bhookanpalekhi se ab pruthvi ke andar tel rahane ka bhi pata lagaaya jaata hai. (dekhein bhookanpamaapi).

fooladev sahaaya varma


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vikipeediya se (Meaning from Wikipedia): bhookamp pruthvi ki parat (crust) se oorja ke achaanak utpaadan ke parinaamasvaroop aata hai jo bhookanpi tarangein (seismic wave) utpann karta hai. bhookamp ka rikaard ek seesmomeetar (seismometer) ke saath rakha jaata hai, jo seesmograaf bhi kahalaata hai. ek bhookamp ka kshan parimaan (moment magnitude) paaramparik roop se maapa jaata hai, ya sambandhit aur aprachalit richter (Richter) parimaan liya jaata hai, 3 ya kam parimaan ki richter teevrata ka bhookamp aksar imparasepteebal hota hai aur 7 richter ki teevrata ka bhookamp bade kshetron mein gambhir kshati ka kaaran hota hai. jhatakon ki teevrata ka maapan viksit marakaili paimaane par (Mercalli scale) kiya jaata hai.

pruthvi ki satah par, bhookamp apne aap ko, bhoomi ko hilaakar ya visthaapit kar ke prakat karta hai. jab ek bada bhookamp adhikendr (epicenter) apatateeya sthati mein hota hai, yeh samudra ke kinaare par paryaapt maatra mein visthaapan ka kaaran banta hai, jo soonaami ka kaaran hai. bhookamp ke jhatke kabhi-kabhi bhooskhalan aur jvaalaamukhi gatividhiyon ko bhi paida kar sakte hain.