bhoogol

pruthvi ka maanachitr

bhoogol (Geography) vah shaastr hai jiske dbaara pruthvi ke oopari svarup aur uske praakrutik vibhaagon (jaise, pahaad, mahaadesh, desh, nagar, nadi, samudra, jheel, damarumadhya, upatyaka, adhityaka, van aadi) ka gyaan hota hai. [1]praakrutik vijnyaaanon ke nishkarshon ke beech kaarya-kaaran sambandh sthaapit karte hue pruthveetal ki vibhinnataaon ka maanaveeya drushtikon se adhyayan hi bhoogol ka saar tatv hai. pruthvi ki satah par jo sthaan vishesh hain unki samataaon tatha vishmataaon ka kaaran aur unka spashteekaran bhoogol ka niji kshetr hai. bhoogol shabd do shabdon bhoo yaani pruthvi aur gol se milkar bana hai.

bhoogol ek or anya shrunkhalaabaddh vijnyaaanon se praapt gyaan ka upayog us seema tak karta hai jahaaain tak vah ghatnaaon aur vishleshanon ki sameeksha tatha unke sambandhon ke yathaasanbhav samuchit samanvaya karne mein sahaayak hota hai. doosari or anya vijnyaaanon se praapt jis gyaan ka upayog bhoogol karta hai, usamein anek vyutpattik dhaaranaaeain evam nirdhaarit vargeekaran hote hain. yadi ye dhaaranaaeain aur vargeekaran bhaugolik uddeshyon ke liye upayogi na hon, to bhoogol ko niji vyutpattik dhaaranaaeain tatha vargeekaran ki pranaali viksit karni hoti hai. at: bhoogol maanaveeya gyaan ki vruddhi mein teen prakaar se sahaayak hota hai:

  • (1) vijnyaaanon se praapt tathyon ka vivechan karke maanaveeya vaasasthaan ke roop mein pruthvi ka adhyayan karta hai.
  • (2) anya vijnyaaanon ke dvaara viksit dhaaranaaon mein antarnihit tathya ki pareeksha ka avsar deta hai, kyonki bhoogol un dhaaranaaon ka sthaan vishesh par prayog kar sakta hai.
  • (3) yeh saarvajanik athva niji neetiyon ke nirdhaaran mein apni vishisht prushtabhoomi pradaan karta hai, jiske aadhaar par samasyaaon ka sapshteekaran suvidhaajanak ho jaata hai.

sarvapratham praacheen yoonaani vidvaan iraitosthanij ne bhoogol ko dharaatal ke ek vishishtavijnyaaan ke rup mein maanyata di. iske baad hirodotas tatha roman vidvaan straibo tatha klaadiys taulami ne bhoogol ko sunishchit svarup pradaan kiya. is prakaar bhoogol mein 'kahaan' 'kaise 'kab' 'kyon' va 'kitnein' prashnon ki uchit vayaakhya ki jaati hain.

anukram

paribhaasha

  • bhoogol pruthvi ki jhalak ko svarg mein dekhne wala aabhaamaya vigyaan hain -- klaadiys taulami
  • bhoogol ek esa svatantr vishay hai, jiska uddeshya logon ko is vishv ka, aakaasheeya pindo ka, sthal, maahaasaagar, jeev-jantuon, vanaspatiyon, falon tatha bhoodharaatal ke kshetron me dekhi jaane waali pratyek anya vastu ka gyaan prrapt karaana hain -- straibo

itihaas

bhoogol ek praacheenatam vigyaan hai aur iski neenv praarambhik yoonaani vidvaanon ke kaaryon mein dikhaai padti hai. bhoogol shabd ka pratham prayog yoonaani vidvaan iretausthaneej ne teesari shataabdi isa poorv mein kiya tha. bhoogol vistrut paimaane par sabhi bhautik va maanaveeya tathyon ki antarkriyaaon aur in antarkriyaaon se utpann sthalaroopon ka adhyayan karta hai. yeh bataata hai ki kaise, kyon aur kahaaain maanaveeya va praakrutik kriyaakalaapon ka udbhav hota hai aur kaise ye kriyaakalaap ek doosare se antarsanbandhit hain.

bhoogol ki adhyayan vidhi parivrtit hoti rahi hai. praarambhik vidvaan varnanaatmak bhoogolavetta the. baad mein, bhoogol vishleshanaatmak bhoogol ke roop mein viksit hua. aaj yeh vishay na keval varnan karta hai, balki vishleshan ke saath-saath bhavishyavaani bhi karta hai.

praacheen kaal

aaranbhik pramaanon ke anusaar is samay ke vidvaan maanachitr nirmaan aur khagoleeya maapon dvaara pruthvi ke bhautik tathyon ko samajhte the. bhoogol mein aaranbhik vidvaan dene ka shreya yoonaan ko hi jaata hai, jismein pramukh the homar, herodotas, thels, arastu aur iretausthaneej.

poorv-aadhunik kaal

yeh kaal 15veen sadi ke madhya se shuroo hokar 18veen sadi ke poorv tak chala. yeh kaal aaranbhik bhoogolavettaaon ki khojon aur anveshanon dvaara vishv ki bhautik va saanskrutik prakruti ke baare mein vruhat gyaan pradaan karta hai. 17veen sadi ka praarambhik kaal naveen 'vaigyaanik bhoogol' ki shurooaat ka gavaah bana. kolambas, vaaskodigaama, maigalen aur Thomas cook is kaal ke pramukh anveshanakartta the. vaareniys, kaant, hambolt aur ritr is kaal ke pramukh bhoogolavetta the. in vidvaanon ne maanachitrakala ke vikaas mein yogadaan diya aur naveen sthalon ki khoj ki, jiske falasvaroop bhoogol ek vaigyaanik vishay ke roop mein viksit hua.

aadhunik kaal

ritr aur hambolt ka ullekh bahudha aadhunik bhoogol ke sansthaapak ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. saamaanyat: 19veen sadi ke uttaraardh ka kaal aadhunik bhoogol ka kaal maana jaata hai. vastut: retjel pratham aadhunik bhoogolavetta the, jinne chirsammat bhoogolavettaaon dvaara sthaapit neenv par aadhunik bhoogol ki sanrachana ka nirmaan kiya.

naveen kaal

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad bhoogol ka vikaas badi teevr gati se hua. haartashaurn jaise ameriki aur Europeeya bhoogolavettaaon ne is dauraan adhiktam yogadaan diya. haartashaurn ne bhoogol ko ek aise vigyaan ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jo kshetreeya vibhinnataaon ka adhyayan karta hai. vartamaan bhoogolavetta praadeshik upaagam aur kramabaddh upaagam ko virodhaabhaasi ki jagah poorak upaagam ke roop mein dekhte hain.

ang tatha shaakhaaeain

bhoogol ne aaj vigyaan ka darja praapt kar liya hai, jo pruthvi tal par upasthit vividh praakrutik aur saanskrutik roopon ki vyaakhya karta hai. bhoogol ek samagr aur antarsambandhit kshetreeya adhyayan hai jo sthaanik sanrachana mein bhoot se bhavishya mein hone vaale parivartan ka adhyayan karta hai. is tarah bhoogol ka kshetr vividh vishyon jaise sainya sevaaon, paryaavaran prabandhan, jal sansaadhan, aapada prabandhan, mausam vigyaan, niyojan aur vividh saamaajik vijnyaaanon mein hai. iske alaava bhoogolavetta dainik jeevan se sambandhit ghatnaaon jaise paryatan, sthaan parivartan, aavaason tatha svaasthya sambandhi kriyaakalaapon mein sahaayak ho sakta hai

vidvaanon ne bhoogol ke teen mukhya vibhaag kiye hain- ganiteeya bhoogol, bhautik bhoogol tatha maanav bhoogol. pehle vibhaag mein pruthvi ka saur jagat ke anyaanya grahon aur upagrahon aadi se sambandh batalaaya jaata hai aur un sabke saath uske saapekshik sambandh ka varnan hota hai. is vibhaag ka bahut kuchh sambandh ganit jyotish se bhi hai. doosare vibhaag mein pruthvi ke bhautik roop ka varnan hota hai aur usase yeh jaana jaata hai ki nadi, pahaad, desh, nagar aadi kise kehte hai aur amuk desh, nagar, nadi ya pahaad aadi kahaaain hain. saadhaaranat: bhoogol se uske isi vibhaag ka arth liya jaata hai. bhoogol ka teesara vibhaag maanav bhoogol hai jiske antargat raajaneetik bhoogol bhi aata hai jismein is baat ka vivechan hota hai ki raajaneeti, shaasan, bhaasha, jaati aur sabhyata aadi ke vichaar se pruthvi ke kaun vibhaag hai aur un vibhaagon ka vistaar aur seema aadi kya hai.

ek anya drushti se bhoogol ke do pradhaan ang hai : shrunkhalaabaddh bhoogol tatha praadeshik bhoogol. pruthvi ke kisi sthaanavishesh par shrunkhalaabaddh bhoogol ki shaakhaaon ke samanvaya ko keindrit karne ka pratifl praadeshik bhoogol hai.

bhoogol ek pragatisheel vigyaan hai. pratyek desh mein visheshagya apne apne kshetron ka vikaas kar rahe hain. falat: iski nimnalikhit anek shaakhaaeain tatha upashaakhaaeain ho gayi hai :

aarthik bhoogol-- iski shaakhaaeain krushi, udyog, khanij, shakti tatha bhandaar bhoogol aur bhoo upabhog, vyaavasaayik, parivhan evam yaataayaat bhoogol hain. arthik sanrachana sambandhi yojana bhi bhoogol ki shaakha hai.

raajaneetik bhoogol -- iske ang bhooraajaneetik shaastr, antararaashtreeya, raashtreeya, aupaniveshik bhoogol, sheet yuddh ka bhoogol, saamarik evam sainik bhoogol hain.

aitihaasik bhoogol --praacheen, madhyakaaleen, aadhunik vaidik, pauraanik, injeel sambandhi tatha arabi bhoogol bhi iske ang hai.

rachanaatmak bhoogol-- iske bhinn bhinn ang rachana miti, sarvekshan aakruti-ankan, chitraankan, aalokachitr, kalaamiti (fotograametari) tatha sthaananaamaadhyayan hain.

iske atirikt bhoogol ke anya khand bhi viksit ho rahe hain jaise granth vijnyaaaneeya, daarshanik, manovaigyaanik, ganit shaastreeya, jyotish shaastreeya evam bhraman bhoogol tatha sthaananaamaadhyayan hain.

bhautik bhoogol

bhautik bhoogol -- iske bhinn bhinn shaastreeya ang sthalaakruti, him-kriya-vigyaan, tateeya sthal rachana, bhoospandanashaastr, samudra vigyaan, vaayu vigyaan, mruttika vigyaan, jeev vigyaan, chikitsa ya bhaishajik bhoogol tatha puraalipi shaastr hain.

bhoo-aakruti (sthalaakruti) vigyaan

pruthvi par 7 mahaadveep hain: Asia, Europe, Africa, uttari amareeka, dakshin America, Australia, antaarkatika.

pruthvi par 4 mahaasaagar hain: atalaantik mahaasaagar, [[aarkatik mahaasaagar],hind mahaasaagar, prashaant mahaasaagar |

sthalaakruti vigyaan -

shail - (1) aagneya shail (2) kaayaantarit shail (3) avasaadi shail |

mahaasaagareeya vigyaan

jalavaayu-vigyaan

vaayumandal, ritu, taapamaan, garmi, ushnata, kshaya ooshma, aardrata |

maanav bhoogol

maanav bhoogol, bhoogol ki vah shaakha hai jo maanav samaaj ke kriyaakalaapon aur unke parinaam svaroop bane bhaugolik pratiroopon ka adhyayan karta hai. iske antargat maanav ke raajanaitik, saanskrutik, saamaajik tatha aarthik pahaloo aate hain. maanav bhoogol ko anek shreniyon mein baanta ja sakta hai, jaise:'

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saanskrutik bhoogol vikaas bhoogol aarthik bhoogol svaasthya bhoogol
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aitihaasik & samay bhoogol raajaneetik bhoogol va bhooraajaneeti janasankhya bhoogol ya janaankiki dhaarmik bhoogol
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saamaajik bhoogol parivhan bhoogol paryatan bhoogol nagareeya bhoogol

bhoogol ek antarsambandhit vigyaan ke roop mein

itihaas ke bhinn kaalon mein bhoogol ko vibhinn roopon mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai. praacheen yoonaani vidvaanon ne bhaugolik dhaaranaaon ko do pakshon mein rakha tha-

  • pratham ganiteeya paksh, jo ki pruthvi ki satah par sthaanon ki avasthiti ko kendrit karta tha
  • doosra yaatraaon aur kshetreeya kaaryon dvaara bhaugolik soochanaaon ko ekatr karta tha. inke anusaar, bhoogol ka mukhya uddeshya vishv ke vibhinn bhaagon ki bhautik aakrutiyon aur dashaaon ka varnan karna hai.

bhoogol mein praadeshik upaagam ka udbhav bhi bhoogol ki varnanaatmak prakruti par bal deta hai. hambolt ke anusaar, bhoogol prakruti se sambandhit vigyaan hai aur yeh pruthvi par paaye jaane vaale sabhi saadhanon ka adhyayan va varnan karta hai.

hetanar aur haartashaurn par aadhaarit bhoogol ki teen mukhya shaakhaaeain hai : bhautik bhoogol, maanav bhoogol aur praadeshik bhoogol. bhautik bhoogol mein praakrutik parightanaaon ka ullekh hota hai, jaise ki jalavaayu vigyaan, mruda aur vanaspati. maanav bhoogol bhootal aur maanav samaaj ke sambandhon ka varnan karta hai. bhoogol ek antara-anushaasanik vishay hai.

bhoogol ka ganit, praakrutik vijnyaaanon aur saamaajik vijnyaaanon ke saath ghanishth sambandh hai. jabki anya vigyaan vishisht prakaar ki parightanaaon ka hi varnan karte hain, bhoogol vividh prakaar ki un parightanaaon ka bhi adhyayan karta hai, jinka adhyayan anyavijnyaaanon mein bhi shaamil hota hai. is prakaar bhoogol ne swayam ko antarsambandhit vyavahaaron ke sanshleshit adhyayan ke roop mein sthaapit kiya hai.

bhoogol sthaanon ka vigyaan hai. bhoogol praakrutik va saamaajik donon hi vigyaan hai, joki maanav va paryaavaran donon ka hi adhyayan karta hai. yeh bhautik va saanskrutik vishv ko jodta hai. bhautik bhoogol pruthvi ki vyavastha se utpann praakrutik paryaavaranaka adhyayan karta hai. maanav bhoogol raajaneetik, aarthik, saamaajik, saanskrutik aur janaankikeeya prakriyaaon se sambandhit hai. yeh sansaadhanon ke vividh prayogon se bhi sambandhit hai. praarambhik bhoogol sirf sthaanon ka varnan karta tha. haalaaainki yeh aaj bhi bhoogol ke adhyayan mein shaamil hai parantu pichhle kuchh varshon mein iske pratiroopon ke varnan mein parivartan hua hai. bhaugolik parightanaaonn ka varnan saamaanyat: do upaagamon ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai jaise (1) praadeshik aur (2) kramabaddh. praadeshik upaagam pradeshon ke nirmaan va visheshataaon ki vyaakhya karta hai. yeh is baat ka varnan karne ka prayaas karta hai ki koi kshetr kaise aur kyon ek doosare se alag hai. pradesh bhautik, saamaajik, aarthik, raajaneetik, janaankikeeya aadi ho sakta hai. kramabaddh upaagam parightanaaon tatha saamaanya bhaugolik mahatvon ke dvaara sanchaalit hai. pratyek parightana ka adhyayan kshetreeya vibhinnataaon va doosare ke saath unke sambandhon ka adhyayan bhoogol aadhaar par kiya jaata hai.

bhoogol ka bhautik vijnyaaanon se sambandh

bhoogol aur ganit

bhoogol ki praay: sabhi shaakhaaon vishesh roop se bhautik bhoogol ki shaakhaaon mein tathyon ke vishleshan mein ganiteeya vidhiyon ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

bhoogol au r khago l vigyaan (Geography and Astronomy)

khagol vigyaan mein aakaasheeya pindon ka vaigyaanik adhyayan kiya jaata hai. bhootal ki ghatnaaon aur tatvon par aakaasheeya pindon - soorya, chandrama, dhoomaketuon aadi ka pratyaksh prabhaav hota hai. iseeliye bhoogol mein sauramandal, soorya ka apne aabhaasi path par gaman, pruthvi ki dainik aur vaarshi gatiyon tatha unke parinaamasvaroop hone vaale parivrtanon - din-raat aur ritu parivartan, chandr kalaaon, soorya grahan, chandragahan aadi ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. in tatvon aur ghatnaaon ka maulik adhyayan khagol vigyaan mein kiya jaata hai. is prakaar bhoogol ka khagol vigyaan se ghanisht sambandh parilkshit hota hai.

bhoogol aur bhoovijnyaaan (Geography and Geology)

bhoo-vigyaan pruthvi ke sangathan, sanrachana tatha itihaas ke vaigyaanik adhyayan san sambandhit hai. iske antargat pruthvi ke sanghathak padaarthon, bhootal par kriyaasheel shaktiyon tatha unase utpann sanrachanaaon, bhoopatal ki shailein ki sanrachana evam vitran, pruthvi ke bhoo-vaigyaanik kaalon aadi ka adhyayan sammilit hota hai. bhoogol mein sthalaroopon ke vishleshan mein bhoovijnyaaan ke siddhaanton tatha saakshyon ka sahaara liya jaata hai. is prakaar bhautik bhoogol visheshat: bhoo-aakruti vigyaan (Geomorphology) ka bhoo-vigyaan se atyant ghanisht sambandh hai.

bhoogol aur mausam vigyaan

bhootal ko prabhaavit karne vaale bhaugolik kaarakon mein jalavaayu sarvaadhik prabhaavashaali aur mahatvapoorn kaarak hai. mausam vigyaan vaayumandal visheshat: usamein ghatit hone vaale bhautik prakramon tatha usase sambaddh sthalamandal aur jalamandal ke vividh prakramon ka adhyayan karta hai. iske antargat vaayudaab, taapamaan, pavan, aardrata, varshan, meghaachhaadan, soorya prakaash aadi ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. mausam vigyaan ke in tatvon ka vishleshan bhoogol mein bhi kiya jaata hai.

bhoogol aur jal vigyaan (Geography and Hydrology)

jal vigyaan pruthvi par sthit jal ke adhyayan se sambandhit hai. iske saath hi ismein jal ke anveshan, prayog, niyantran aur sanrakshan ka adhyayan bhi samaahit hota hai. mahaasaagareeya tatvon ke sthaanik vitran ka adhyayan bhoogol ki ek shaakha samudra vigyaan (Oceanography) mein kiya jaata hai. samudra vigyaan mein mahaasaagarayi jal ke taapamaan, ghanatv, lavanata, saagareeya laharon, dhaaraaon aadi ka adhyayan sammilit hota hai. maanav jeevan mein jalaashayon ka mahatva sarvopari hai kyonki peene se lekar pashuon ke peene, fasalon ki sinchaai karne, kaarkhaanon mein jalaapoorti, jalashakti, jal parivhan, matsyaakhet aadi vibhinn roopon mein jal aavashyak hi naheen anivaarya hota hai. is prakaar ham paate hain ki bhoogol aur jal vigyaan mein atyant nikat ka aur ghanisht sambandh hai.

bhoogol aur mruda vigyaan (Geography and Pedology)

mruda vigyaan (Pedology or soil science) mitti ke nirmaan, sanrachana aur visheshata ka vaigyaanik adhyayan karta hai. bhootal par mittiyon ke vitran ka adhyayan mruda bhoogol (Pedogeogaphy or Soil Geography) ke antargat kiya jaata hai. mitti ka adhyayan krushi bhoogol ka bhi mahatvapoorn vishay hai. is prakaar bhoogol ki ghanishtata mruda vigyaan se bhi paayi jaati hai.

bhoogol au r vanaspati vigyaan

ped-paudhon ka maanav jeevan se gahra sambandh hai. vanaspati vigyaan paadap jeevan (Plant life) aur uske sampoorn vishv roopon ka vaigyaanik adhyaya karta hai. praakrutik vanaspatiyon ke sthaanik vitran aur visheshataaon ka vishleshan bhautik bhoogol ki shaakha jaiv bhoogol (Biogeography) aur upashaakha vanaspati ya paadap bhoogol (Plant Geography) mein ki jaati hai.

bhoogol aur jantu vigyaan

jantu vigyaan ya praani samast prakaar ke praani jeevan ki sanrachana, vargeekaran tatha kaaryon ka vaigyaanik adhyayan hai. manushya ke liye jantu jagat aur pashu sansaadhan (Animal resource) ka atyadhik mahatva hai. pashu manushya ke liye bahu-upayogi hain. manushya ko pashuon se anek upayogi padaarth yatha doodh, maans, oon, chamada aadi praapt hote hain aur kuchh pashuon ka prayog saamaan dhone aur parivhan ya savaari karne ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai. jaiv bhoogol ki ek up-shaakha hai jantu bhoogol (Animal Geography) jismein vibhinn praaniyon ke sthaanik vitran aur visheshataaon ka vishleshan kiya jaata hai. maanav jeevan ke aarthik, saamaajik, saanskrutik sabhi kshetron mein pashu jagat ka mahatvapoorn sthaan hone ke kaaran isko bhaugolik adhyayanon mein bhi vishisht sthaan praapt hai. at: bhoogol ka jantu vigyaan se bhi ghanisht sambandh pramaanit hota hai.

bhoogol ka saamaajik vijnyaaanon se sambandh

bhoogol aur arth shaastr

bhojan, vastr aur aashray manushya ki praathamik aavashyakataaen hain jo kisi bhi desh, kaal ya paristhiti mein pratyek vyakti ke liye anivaarya hoti hain. iske saath hi maanav ya maanav samooh ki anyaanya saamaajik, aarthik, raajaneetik aadi aavashyakataaen bhi hoti hain jo bahut kuchh arthavyavastha par aadhaarit hoti hain. arthavyavastha (economy) ka adhyayan karna arthashaastr ka mool vishay hai. kisi sthaan, kshetr ya janasamudaaya ke samast jeevika sroton ya aarthik sansaadhanon ke prabandh, sangathan tatha prashaasan ko hi arthavyavastha kehte hain. vividh aarthik pakshon ka sthaanik adhyayan bhoogol ki ek vishisht shaakha aarthik bhoogol mein kiya jaata hai.

bhoogol au r samaajashaastr

samaajashaastr manushyon ke saamaajik jeevan, vyavahaar tatha saamaajik kriya ka adhyayan hai jismein maanav samaaj ki utpatti, vikaas, sanrachana tatha saamaajik sansthaaon ka adhyayan sammilit hota hai. samaajashaastr maanav samaaj ke vikaas, pravrutti tatha niyamon ki vaigyaanik vyaakhya karta hai. samast maanav samaaj anek vargon, samoohon tatha samudaayon mein vibhkt hai jiske apne-apne reeti-rivaaj, prathaaen, paramparaaen tatha niyam hote hain jin par bhaugolik paryaavaran ka prabhaav nishchit roop se paaya jaata hai. at: samaajashaastreeya adhyayanon mein bhaugolik gyaan aavashyak hota hai.

bhoogol aur itihaas

maanav bhoogol maanav sabhyata ke itihaas tatha maanav samaaj ke vikaas ka adhyayan bhaugolik pariprekshya mein karta hai. kisi bhi desh ya pradesh ke itihaas par vahaan ke bhaugolik paryaavaran tatha paristhitiyon ka gahra prabhaav paaya jaata hai. praakrutik tatha maanaveeya ya saanskrutik tathya ka vishleshan vikaasaatmak drushtikon se karte hain tab manushya aur pruthvi ke parivrtanasheel sambandhon ka spashteekaran ho jaata hai. kisi pradesh mein janasankhya, krushi, pashupaalan, khanan, udyog dhandhon, parivhan ke saadhanon, vyaapaarik evam vaanijki sansthaaon aadi ke aitihaasik vikaas ka adhyayan maanav bhoogol mein kiya jaata hai jiske liye upayukt saakshya aur pramaan itihaas se hi praapt hote hain.

bhoogol aur raajaneeti vigyaan

raajaneeti vigyaan ke adhyayan ka kendra bindu 'shaasan vyavastha' hai. ismein vibhinn raashtron evam raajyon ki shaasan pranaaliyon, sarkaaron, antarraashtreeya sambandhon aadi ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. raajaneetik bhoogol maanav bhoogol ki ek shaakha hai jismein raajaneetik roop se sangathit kshetron ki seema, vistaar, unke vibhinn ghatakon, up-vibhaagon, shaasit bhoo-bhaagon, sansaadhanon, aantarik tatha videshi raajaneetik sambandhon aadi ka adhyayan sammilit hota hai. maanav bhoogol ki ek anya shaakha bhooraajaneeti (Geopolitics) bhi hai jiske antargat bhootal ke vibhinn pradeshon ki raajaneetik pranaali vishesh roop se antarraashteenya raajaneeti par bhaugolik kaarakon ke prabhaav ki vyaakhya ki jaati hai. in tathyon se spasht hai ki bhoogol aur raajaneeti vigyaan paraspar ghanisht roop se sambandhit hain.

bhoogol aur janaankiki (Geography and Demography)

janaankiki ya janasaankhyiki ke antargat janasankhya ke aakaar, sanrachana, vikaas aadi ka parimaanaatmak adhyayan kiya jaata hai. ismein janasankhya sambandhi aankadon ke ekatran, vargeekaran, moolyaankan, vishleshan tatha prakshepan ke saath hi janaankikeeya pratiroopon tatha prakriyaaon ki bhi vyaakhya ki jaati hai. maanav bhoogol aur usaki upashaakha janasankhya bhoogol mein bhaugolik paryaavaran ke sambandh mein janaankikeeya prakramon tatha pratiroopon mein paayi jaane waali kshetreeya bhinnataaon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. is prakaar vishay saadrushya ke kaaran bhoogol aur janaankiki mein ghanisht sambandh paaya jaata hai.

bhoogol mein prayukt takaneekein

maanachitr kala

geraardas merketar
  • nakasha banaana
  • naap, kampaas
  • diksoochak
  • maapan, paimaaish karna
  • aakaashi maanachitr
  • samochch rekhi
  • bhoo- vaigyaanik maanachitr
  • aadhaar maanachitr
  • samochch naksha
  • kaarno pratichitr
  • bit pratichitr protokaul
  • khand pratichitr saarani
  • nakshaanaveesi
  • maanachitr

bhaugolik soochana tantr

sudoor sanvedan

bhoosaankhyikeeya vidhiyaaain

bhoomiti

sarvekshan

  • pratyaasha sarvekshan
  • aarthik sarvekshan
  • khet prabandh sarvekshan
  • bhoomigat jal sarvekshan
  • jal sarvekshan
  • praayogik sarvekshan
  • gram sarvekshan

sandarbh

  1. "Geography" - The American Heritage Dictionary/ of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved October 9, 2006.

yeh bhi dekhein

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