bhoo-aakruti vigyaan

dharati ki satah

bhoo-aakruti vigyaan (Geomorphology) (greek: γaaῆ, ge, "pruthvi"; μaaοaaρaaφaaή, morfé, "aakruti"; aur λaaόaaγaaοaaς, logos, "adhyayan") bhoo-aakrutiyon aur unako aakaar dene waali prakriyaaon ka vaigyaanik adhyayan hai; tatha adhik vyaapak roop mein, un prakriyaaon ka adhyayan hai jo kisi bhi grah ke uchchaavach aur sthalaroopon ko niyantrit karti hain. bhoo-aakruti vaigyaanik yeh samajhne ki koshish karte hain ki bhoo-drushya jaise dikhte hain vaisa dikhne ke peechhe kaaran kya hai, ve bhoo-aakrutiyon ke itihaas aur unki gatiki ko jaanane ka prayaas karte hain aur bhoomi avlokan, bhautik pareekshan aur sankhyaatmak modelling ke ek sanyojan ke maadhyam se bhavishya ke badlaavon ka poorvaanumaan karte hain. bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ka adhyayan bhoogol, bhoovijnyaaan, bhooganit, engineering bhoovijnyaaan, puraatatv aur bhoo-takaneeki engineering mein kiya jaata hai aur roochi ka yeh vyaapak aadhaar is vishay ke tahat anusandhaan shaili aur ruchiyon ki vyaapak vividhta ko utpann karta hai.

pruthvi ki satah, praakrutik aur maanavodbhav vigyaan sambandhi prakriyaaon ke sanyojan ki pratikriya svaroop vikaas karti hai aur saamagri jodne waali aur use hataane waali prakriyaaon ke beech santulan ke saath javaab deti hai. aisi prakriyaaen sthaan aur samay ke vibhinn paimaanon par kaarya kar sakti hain. sarvaadhik vyaapak paimaane par, bhoo-drushya ka nirmaan vivrtanik utthaan aur jvaalaamukhi ke maadhyam se hota hai. anaachhaadan, kataav aur vyaapak barbaadi se hota hai, jo aise talachhat ka nirmaan karta hai jiska parivhan aur jamaav bhoo-drushya ke bheetar ya tat se door kaheen anya sthaan par ho jaata hai.[1] uttarottar chhote paimaane par, isi tarah ki avadhaarana laagoo hoti hai, jahaan ikaai bhoo-aakrutiyaan yogasheel (vivrtanik ya talachhati) aur ghataav prakriyaaon (kataav) ke santulan ke javaab mein viksit hoti hain. aadhunik bhoo-aakruti vigyaan, kisi grah ke satah par saamagri ke pravaah ke apasaran ka adhyayan hai aur isliye talachhat vigyaan ke saath nikat roop se sambaddh hai, jise samaan roop se us pravaah ke abhisran ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai.

bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaen vivrtaniki, jalavaayu, paaristhitiki, aur maanav gatividhiyon se prabhaavit hoti hain aur samaan roop se inmein se kai kaarak dharati ki satah par chal rahe vikaas se prabhaavit ho sakte hain, udaaharan ke liye, aaisostesi ya parvateeya varshan ke maadhyam se. kai bhoo-aakruti vigyaani, bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaon ki madhyasthata vaale jalavaayu aur vivrtaniki ke beech pratipushti ki sambhaavana mein vishesh ruchi lete hain.[2]

bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ke vyaavahaarik anuprayog mein shaamil hai sankat aakalan jismein shaamil hai bhooskhalan poorvaanumaan aur shaman, nadi niyantran aur punarsthaapana aur tateeya sanrakshan.

anukram

itihaas

kuchh ullekhaneeya apavaadon ke saath (neeche dekhein), bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ek apekshaakrut naya vigyaan hai, jo 19veen sadi ke madhya se bhoo vigyaan ke anya pahaluon mein ruchi ke saath badh raha hai. is khand mein kuchh pramukh aakrutiyon aur unke vikaas ki ghatnaaon ke baare mein ek sankshipt rooparekha pradaan ki gayi hai.

praacheen bhoo-aakruti vigyaan

bahujnya cheeni vaigyaanik aur raajaneta Shane kuo (1031-1095 E.) bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ka ek siddhaant khojane wala shaayad sabse praarambhik vyakti tha. yeh prashaant mahaasaagar se saikadon meal ki doori par ek pahaad ke bhoovaijnyaaanik parat mein samudri jeevaashm ke khol ke uske avlokan par aadhaarit hai. jab usane chattaan ke kataav khand ki taraf dvikpaati khol ko ek kshaitij vistaar mein chalte dekha, to usane siddhaant nikaala ki yeh chattaan kabhi praag-aitihaasik kaal ke samudri tat ka sthaan thi jo kai sadiyon ke dauraan saikadon meal ki doori par sthaanaantarit ho gaya. usane nishkarsh nikaala ki vah bhoomi pahaadon ki mruda kataav aur gaad ke jamaav ke kaaran bhinn roop mein punargathit hui. aisa usane tab kaha jab usane vaanajaau ke nikat taaihaang parvat aur yandaang parvat ke ajeeb praakrutik aparadan ko dekha. iske alaava, jab usane praacheen ashmibhoot baans ko yaanjhaaoo, jo aaj aadhunik samay ka yaanan, jaansi praant hai, ke shushk, uttari jalavaayu kshetr mein bhoomigat roop se sanrakshit paaya, to usane kai sadiyon ke dauraan kramik jalavaayu parivartan ke siddhaant ko prastaavit kiya.

aarambhik aadhunik bhoo-aakruti vigyaan

jiomaurfoloji (bhoo-aakruti vigyaan) shabd ka pehla prayog sanbhavat: jarman bhaasha mein hua tha, jab yeh laauman ke 1858 ke kaaryon mein chhaapa. keeth teenklar ka sujhaav hai ki jab John vesle paavel aur dabloo.J. maikagi ne is shabd ka istemaal 1891 ke antarraashtreeya bhoovaijnyaaanik sammelan mein kiya to yeh angreji, jarman aur French mein saamaanya upayog mein aa gaya.[3]

ek aaranbhik lokapriya bhoo-aakrutik model bhaugolik chakr ya kataav ka chakr tha jise 1884 aur 1899 ke beech William mauris Davis dvaara viksit kiya gaya tha. yeh chakr ekaroopataavaad ke siddhaanton se prerit tha jise sarvapratham James hatan (1726-1797) ne prastaavit kiya tha. ghaati jaisi aakrutiyon ke sambandh mein, ekaroopataavaad ne is chakr ko aise anukram mein chitrit kiya jismein ek nadi kisi ghaati ko adhik se adhik gahra kaatati hai, lekin fir paksh ghaatiyon ka kataav us ilaake ko antat: pun: samatal kar deta hai aur oonchaai ko kam kar deta hai, jiske baad utthaan us chakr ko fir se shuroo kar sakta hai. Davis dvaara apne siddhaant ke vikaas ke dashakon baad bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ke kai adhyayanon ne vyaapak paimaane par bhoodrushya vikaas ke liye apne vichaaron ko is saanche mein baithaane ki koshish ki aur unhein aaj aksar "devisiyn" kaha jaata hai. Davis ke vichaaron ko kaafi had tak aaj paar kar liya gaya hai, mukhya roop se unamein poorvaanumaan kshamata aur gunaatmak prakruti ki kami ki vajah se, lekin ve is vishay ke itihaas mein ek atyant mahatvapoorn vyakti bane hue hain.

1920 ke dashak mein, vaaltar peink ne Davis ke model ka ek vaikalpik model viksit kiya, yeh maanate hue ki sthaalaakruti vikaas ko utthaan aur anaachhaadan ki satat prakriyaaon ke beech santulan ke roop mein behtar paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai, na ki Davis ke ekal utthaan ke baad hone vaale kshaya ke roop mein. haalaanki, apekshaakrut yuvaavastha mein hi usaki asaamayik mrutyu ki vajah se, Davis ke saath vivaad aur unke kaaryon ke angreji anuvaad ki kami se unke vichaaron ko kai varshon tak vyaapak maanyata naheen mili.

in lekhakon ne pruthvi ki satah ke vikaas ke adhyayan ko, pehle ki tulana mein adhik saamaanyakrut, vishv star par praasangik aadhaar dene ka prayaas kiya. 19veen sadi ke aarambhik kaal mein, lekhakon ne - vishesh roop se Europe mein - bhoo-aakrutiyon ke liye sthaaneeya jalavaayu ko shreya diya aur vishesh roop se himaachhaadan aur pereegleshial prakriyaaon ko. iske vipreet, Davis aur peink, donon ne hi samay ke saath hone vaale bhoodrushya vikaas ke mahatva aur alag-alag paristhitiyon mein alag-alag bhoo-drushyon par pruthvi ki satahi prakriyaaon ki saamaanyata par jor dene ka prayaas kiya.

maatraatmak bhoo-aakruti vigyaan

jabki peink aur Davis aur unke anuyaayi mukhyat: pashchimi Europe mein lekhan aur adhyayan kar rahe the, bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ka ek anya, mote taur par pruthak school 20veen shataabdi ke madhya mein sanyukt raajya America mein viksit hua. 20veen sadi ki shuruaat mein grov kaarl gilbart ke pathapradarshak kaaryon ke baad, praakrutik vaigyaaniko, bhoovaijnyaaanikon aur haaidrolik injeeniyron ke ek samooh ne, jismein shaamil the raalf elgar baiganold, John haik, luna liyopold, Thomas medok aur aarthar straalar ne bhoodrushya aakaaron ke tatvon par anusandhaan shuroo kiya jaise ki nadi aur pahaadi dhalaan, jiske liye unhonne unke pahaluon ka vyavasthit, pratyaksh, maatraatmak maapan liya aur in maapon ke skeling ki chhaanabeen ki. in vidhiyon se vartamaan aakalanon ke aadhaar par ateet aur bhavishya ke bhoodrushya ke vyavahaar ke sambandh mein poorvaanumaan ki anumati milne lagi aur baad mein inka vikaas maatraatmak bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ya jiomaurfometri ke roop mein hua.

samakaaleen bhoo-aakruti vigyaan

aaj, bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ke kshetr mein alag-alag drushtikonon aur hiton ki ek bahut vyaapak seema shaamil hai. aadhunik shodhakarta maatraatmak "siddhaant" nikaalne ka prayaas karte hain jo pruthvi ki satah ki prakriyaaon ko niyantrit karte hain, lekin samaan roop se, ve pratyek bhoodrushya aur vaataavaran ki vishishtata ko pahachaanate hain, jinmein ye prakriyaaen sanchaalit hoti hain. samakaaleen bhoo-aakruti vigyaan mein vishesh mahatvapoorn prateeti mein shaamil hain:

  1. ki sabhi bhoodrushyon ko na to "sthir" aur na hi "vichlit" ke roop mein maana ja sakta hai, jahaan yeh vichlan sthiti kisi aadarsh lakshya roop se door ek asthaayi visthaapan hai. iske bajaay, bhoodrushya ke gatisheel parivartan ko ab unke svabhaav ka ek aavashyak hissa maana jaata hai.[4][5]
  1. ki kai bhoo-aakrutik pranaaliyon ko unamein ghatit hone waali prasambhaavyata prakriyaaon ke sambandh mein behtar samjha ja sakta hai, yaani, ghatna ke parimaan aur vaapasi samay ka sanbhaavyata vitran.[6] badle mein bhoodrushyon ke liye araajak niytivaad ke mahatva ko darshaaya gaya hai aur yeh ki bhoodrushya visheshataaon ko saankhyikeeya roop mein behtar samjha ja sakta hai.[7] samaan bhoodrushya mein samaan prakriyaaen hamesha ek hi antim parinaam ko falit naheen karti hain.

prakriyaaen

Cono de Arita, Salar de Arizaro (Argentina).jpg
grand kenyan, erijona

aadhunik bhoo-aakruti vigyaan, paraspar sambandhit prakriyaaon ke maatraatmak vishleshan par keindrit hai. bhoo-rasaayan mein aadhunik pragati, vishesh roop se kausmokemistri, aaisotop bhoo-rasaayan aur fishn track deting ne hamein pehli baar un daron ke maapan mein saksham banaaya hai jis par bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaen, bhoogarbheeya roop se praasangik samayarekha par ghatit hoti hain.[8][9] usi samay, adhik sateek bhautik maapan takaneek ke upayog se, jismein shaamil hai bhedaatmak jeepeees, doorasth roop mahasoos kiye gaye digital taren model aur lejar skaining takaneekon ne in prakriyaaon ke hote hue unke parimaanan aur adhyayan ki anumati di hai.[10] iske baad computer simuleshan aur modelling ka upayog tab yeh samajhne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai ki kaise ye prakriyaaen ek saath aur samayaavadhi mein kaam karti hain.

bhoogarbheeya roop se praasangik adhikaansh prakriyaaon ko ya to aparadanakaari, sthaanaantaran kaari maana ja sakta hai ya fir donon ka sanyojan. jamaav prakriyaaon ko adhiktar avasaad-vigyaan ke kshetr ke bheetar maana jaata hai, lekin aksar bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ke hisse ke roop mein bhi samjha jaata hai. apakshaya, pruthvi ki saamagri ka vaayumandaleeya ya satah ke najdeeki agenton se sampark ke kaaran hone wala raasaayanik aur bhautik vightan hai. satah ke najdeek in parivrtanon ke utpaadon ko baad mein kataav ke vibhinn kaarakon dvaara door le jaaya ja sakta hai.

bhoo-vaigyaanik dvaara jaanch ki jaane waali prakriyaaon ki prakruti, drudh roop se jaanch mein shaamil bhoodrushya ya sthalaakruti par aur samay aur lambaai rekha ki roochi par nirbhar hai. haalaanki, nimnalikhit gair-vistrut soochi inmein se kuchh ke saath jude bhoodrushya tatvon ki ek jhalak pradaan karti hai.

praathamik satahi prakriyaaen jo adhikaansh sthalaakrutik svaroopon ke liye jimmedaar hai, usamein shaamil hai hava, lahar, raasaayanik vightan, jan vinaash, bhoojal gatividhi, satahi jal pravaah, him kaarravaai, vivrtaniki aur jvaalaamukhi. anya adhik gambhir bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaon mein shaamil ho sakta hai pereegleshial (parihimaani) prakriyaaen, namak ki madhyasthata waali kriya, ya paaralaukik prabhaav.

nadi-sambandhi prakriyaaen

nadiyaan aur dhaaraaen, keval paani ki hi vaahak naheen hain balki talachhat ki bhi hain. paani, jab satah par pravaahamaan rahata hai, to vah talachhaton ka istemaal karne mein saksham hota hai aur inhein neeche ki taraf baha le jaata hai, ya to tal bhaar athva prasupt bhaar ke roop mein ya fir vightit bhaar ke roop mein. talachhat parivhan ki dar, swayam talachhat ki upalabdhata aur nadi ke nirvahan par nirbhar karti hai.[11]

nadiyaan nae chattaanon ka aparadan karne aur nae talachhat banaane mein bhi saksham hain, apne tal dvaara aur aaspaas pahaadi dhalaanon ke saath yugman dvaara. is tarah, nadiyon ko gair-himnadeeya vaataavaran mein bade paimaane ke bhoodrushya ke liye aadhaar star ki sthaapana karne ke liye jimmedaar maana jaata hai.[12][13] vibhinn bhoodrushya tatvon ke sampark mein nadiyaan mahatvapoorn sootr hain.

jab nadiyaan sthaalaakrutiyon se hote hue pravaahit hoti hain, ve aam taur par aakaar mein badi ho jaati hain aur anya nadiyon ke saath mil jaati hain. is prakaar gathit nadiyon ka network ek apavaah tantr hai aur aksar vrukshanuma hota hai, lekin antarnihit bhoovijnyaaan aur sthaaneeya sthalaakruti ke aadhaar par anya svaroop bhi dhaaran kar sakta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein: Hack's law evam Sediment transport

vaayoodh prakriyaaen

moaab, oota ke paas vaayu dvaara aparadit gufa

vaayoodh prakriyaaen hava ki gatividhi se sambandhit hai aur adhik vishisht roop se, pruthvi ki satah ko aakaar dene ki haava ki kshamata se. havaaen cheejon ka aparadan, parivhan aur jamaav kar sakti hain aur ye havaaen un kshetron mein adhik prabhaavi hoti hain jahaan vanaspati virl hote hai aur talachhat ki paryaapt aapoorti hoti hai. haalaanki paani aur bruhat pravaah, adhikaansh vaataavaran mein hava ki tulana mein adhik cheejon ka istemaal karta hai, vaayoodh prakriyaaen shushk vaataavaran mein mahatvapoorn hain, registaan.[14]

star doon ki uttar pashchimi bhuja se kautanavud parvat ki or death valley mein mesakvaait flat tibba (2003)

dhalaani ki prakriyaaen

paalo dooro kenyan, Texas mein saamoohik barbaadi ka udaaharan

mitti, regolith aur patthar, gurutvaakarshan ke prabhaav ke antargat reingate hue, ludhkate hue, bahate hue, girte hue neechi ki taraf jaate hain. aisi bruhad tootan sthaleeya aur dhalaanon par hoti hai aur inhein pruthvi, mangal shukr, taaitan aur iaapetas par dekha gaya hai.

pahaad ke dhalaanon par chal rahi prakriyaaen dhalaan ke satah ki sansthiti ko badal sakti hain, jo badle mein un prakriyaaon ki daron ko parivrtit kar sakti hai. aisi dhalaanein jo naajuk sthiti tak gahari ho jaati hain ve badi maatra mein saamagri ko jaldi-jaldi chhodne mein saksham ho jaati hain, jisse dhalaani prakriya vivrtanik roop se sakriya kshetron mein bhoodrushya ka ek mahatvapoorn tattv ban jaati hain.[15]

pruthvi par, jaivik prakriyaaen jaise ki khudaai ya tri throw kuchh dhalaani prakriyaaon ki daron ko nirdhaarit karne mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibha sakti hain.[16]

himnad prakriyaaen

ek himnad bhoo-drushya ki visheshataaen

himnadi, jo ki bhaugolik roop se seemit hai, bhoodrushya parivartan ke prabhaavi kaarak hain. ghaati mein neeche ki taraf dheere-dheere jaate barf ki gatividhi neeche ki chattaan ka gharshan karti hai aur use ukhaad deti hai. gharshan se maheen talachhat ka nirmaan hota hai, jise himnad aata kehte hain. himnad ke samaapt ho jaane ke baad uske dvaara parivhan kiye gaye malabe ko moren kaha jaata hai. himnad kataav, you aakaar ki ghaatiyon ke liye jimmedaar hai, jo ki nadi dvaara banaai gayi vi aakaar ki ghaatiyon ke vipreet hai.[17]

himnad ki prakriya jis tarah se anya bhoodrushya tatvon ke saath sampark karti hai, vishesh roop se dhalaani aur nadi ki prakriyaaon ke saath, vah plio-pleestoseen bhoodrushya vikaas ka ek mahatvapoorn pahaloo hai aur uske talachhat kai oonchi pahaadi ke vaataavaran mein milte hain. jo vaataavaran apekshaakrut haal hi mein himaachhaadit hue hain magar ab naheen hain, ve un bhoodrushyon ke mukaabale jo kabhi himaachhaadit naheen hue, ab bhi uchch bhoodrushya parivartan dar ko dikha sakte hain. gair-himnad bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaen jinhein tis par bhi poorv himaachhaadan dvaara anukoolit kiya gaya hai unhein paraahimnad prakriyaaen kaha jaata hai. yeh avadhaarana, pereegleshial prakriyaaon ki virodhaabhaasi hai, jo barf ya paale ke nirmaan ya pighlaav dvaara seedhe sanchaalit hoti hai.[18]

vivrtanik prakriya

bhoo-aakruti vigyaan par vivrtanik prabhaav laakhon saal se lekar ek minute ya usase kam ke paimaane ka bhi ho sakta hai. bhoodrushya par vivrtaniki ka prabhaav bhaari roop se antarnihit chattaani aadhaaron ki banaavat par nirbhar karta hai jo is baat ko niyantrit karta hai ki vivrtaniki kis prakaar ki sthaaneeya aakaariki ko janm degi. bhookamp, minton ke andar, vistrut bhoo-bhaag ko jalaplaavit kar sakte hain aur ne aardrapradeshon ko janm de sakte hain. aaisostetik palataav ke kaaran saikadon ya hajaaron saal mein mahatvapoorn parivartan ho sakta hai aur isse parvateeya shrrunkhala ko atirikt kataav ki anumati milti hai, kyonki shrrunkhala se bade hisse ko hata diya jaata hai aur katibandh ka utthaan hota hai. deerghakaalik plate vivrtanik gatisheelata, laakhon varsheeya jeevanakaal vaale orojenik katibandh, vishaal parvat maalaaon ko ubhaarati hai, jo nadi aur pahaadi dhalaan ki uchch dar ki prakriyaaon ka kendra hoti hai aur is prakaar deerghakaalik avasaad utpaadan karti hai.

gahari papadi gatisheelata ki visheshataaen, jaise ki plooms aur nimn sthalamandal ka gair-paratabandi ko bhi maana jaata hai ki deerghakaaleen avadhi (>laakhon varsh) mein dharati ki sthalaakruti ke bade paimaane par (hajaaron keemi) vikaas mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai. donon hi aaisostesi ke maadhyam se utthaan ko prerit kar sakte hain, kyonki garam, kam ghanatv waali papadi ki chattaanein, dharati ke andar apekshaakrut thandi, adhik ghanatv waali papadi ki chattaanon ko visthaapit kar deti hain.[19][20]

aagneya prakriyaaen

jvaalaamukheeya (visfotak) aur vitleeya (hastakshepi) aagneya prakriyaaon ka bhoo-aakruti vigyaan par mahatvapoorn prabhaav ho sakta hai. jvaalaamukhi ki ghatna bhoo-drushya ka naveeneekaran karti hai aur jameen ki puraani satah ko laava aur tefra se dhak deti hai aur paairoklaastik saamagri ko chhodta hai aur nadiyon ko nae raaston par agrasar karti hai. visfotan dvaara nirmit shanku bhi paryaapt nai sthalaakruti banaata hai, jis par anya satahi prakriyaaen apna kaam kar sakti hain.

laava ki upasatahi gatividhi bhi bhoo-aakruti vigyaan mein ek bhoomika nibhaata hai. satah ke neeche chalta pighlaav jameeni satah ki sfeeti aur avasfeeti ka kaaran bana sakta hai aur Tibet ke neeche aanshik roop se pighli hui bhoopatal parat ko hajaaron kilometer par faile tibbati pathaar ki bhoo-aakruti ko niyantrit karne ka yogadaan diya gaya hai.[21]

jaivik prakriyaaen

bhoo-aakrutiyon ke saath jeevon ka sampark ya jaiv-bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaen kai roopon ki ho sakti hain aur shaayad sthaleeya bhoo-aakrutik pranaali ke liye samagr roop se kaafi mahatvapoorn hai. jeev vigyaan, kai bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaon ko prabhaavit kar sakta hai, jiska kshetr raasaayanik apakshaya ko niyantrit karne waali jaiv bhoo-raasaayanik prakriyaaon se lekar yaantrik prakriyaaon ke prabhaav tak hai jaise mruda vikaas par khudaai aur tri throw aur yahaan tak ki vaishvik aparadan dar ko kaarban daaioksaaid santulan ke maadhyam se jalavaayu ka aaparivrtan karte hue niyantrit karna bhi ismein shaamil hai. sthaleeya bhoo-drushya jismein satahi prakriyaaon mein madhyasthata karne mein jeev-vigyaan ki bhoomika ko nishchit roop se baahar rakha ja sakta hai, atyant durlabh hain, lekin ve anya grahon jaise mangal ki bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ko samajhne ke liye mahatvapoorn jaankaari pradaan kar sakte hain.[22]

bhoo-aakruti vigyaan mein paimaane

alag-alag sthaanik aur laukik paimaanon par alag-alag bhoo-aakrutik prakriyaaon ka prabhutv hota hai. iske alaava, jin paimaanon par prakriyaaen ghatit hoti hain, ve pratikriyaaon ya doosare roop mein bhoo-drushya ke badlaav ko prerak baalon ke prati nirdhaarit kar sakti hain, jaise ki jalavaayu ya vivrtaniki.[23] ye vichaar, aaj bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ke adhyayan ke liye mahatvapoorn hain.

bhoo-drushya paimaanon ko vargeekrut karne ke liye bho-aakruti vaigyaanik nimnalikhit vargeekaran ka upayog kar sakte hain:

  • pehla - mahaadveep, saagar besin, jalavaayu kshetr (~10,000,000 km2)
  • doosra - shield, jaise baaltik shield, ya parvat shrrunkhala (~1,000,000 km2)
  • teesara - pruthak samudra, sahel (~100,000 km2)
  • chautha - maasif, udaaharan, maasif sentral ya sambandhit bhoo-aakrutiyon ka samooh, jaise veeld (~10000 km2)
  • paanchavaan - nadi ghaati, kotsavold (~1000 km2)
  • chhatha - vyaktigat parvat ya jvaalaamukhi, chhoti ghaatiyaan (~100 km2)
  • saatavaan - pahaadi dhalaan, dhaara channel, muhaana (~10 km2)
  • aathavaan - gali, baarachainal (~1 km2)
  • nauvaan - meter aakaar ki aakrutiyaan

inhein bhi dekhein

  • aadhaar tal
  • jaiv aparadan
  • jaiv-bhoovijnyaaan
  • jaiv bhoo-aakruti vigyaan
  • jaivareksistesi
  • tateeya aparadan
  • apavaah droni
  • jal nikaasi pranaali (bhoo-aakruti vigyaan)
  • engineering bhoovijnyaaan
  • kataav bhavishyavaani
  • nadi nirmit bhoo-aakrutiyaan
  • bhoogarbhik modelling
  • jiomorfometri
  • jiotekniks
  • haik siddhaant
  • haaidrolojik modelling, jal vigyaan mein vyavahaar modelling
  • laindaskep
  • sthalamandal
  • bhautik bhoogol
  • talachhat parivhan
  • mitti
  • mruda sanrakshan
  • sarita apaharan

sandarbh

  1. vilet aur braindan, 2002, on stadi states in maaunten belts, bhoovijnyaaan, ank-30 (2), prushth 175-178.
  2. ro va anya, 2008, feedabaiks amang klaaimet, irojn end tekatoniks in a kritikl vej orojen. M. J vigyaan. vi. 308(7), pi. 815-842.
  3. tinklar, heth J.A. bhoo-aakruti vigyaan ka ek sankshipt itihaas. Page 4 1985
  4. vhipl, 2004, aadhaar nadiyaan aur sakriya orojen ka bhoo-aakruti vigyaan, anu. rev pruthvi grah. vigyaan. 32, pi. 151-185.
  5. elan, 2008, vivrtanik bhoo-drushya aur unke talachhat anumaargan pranaali ki samay-rekha. samaaj. London. SP. pab. vi. 296, p.7-28.
  6. beinda aur dyooni, 1997, stokaastik forsing of sedeemeint saplaai tu channel network fraum land slaaiding end debri flo, vi. 33 (12), pi. 2849-2863.
  7. ditrish va anya. 2003, jiomorfik transport lauj for predeekting laindaskep form end daainemiks, ejeeyu bhoobhautikeeya monograaf, 135, pi. 10-30.
  8. samarafeeld, emae, 1991, global bhoo-aakruti vigyaan, piarasan education limited, 537 pi ISBN 0-19-316121-4.
  9. doonai, ti.J. 2010, kosmojenik nyookleeaaids, Cambridge university press, pi. 187 ISBN 978-0-521-87380-2.
  10. jaise, deeteeem parichay prushth, hantar college bhoogol vibhaag, New York, http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/terrain/intro.html
  11. naitan, di., 1998, nadi sambandhi gathan aur prakriyaaen, hodar arnold, 383 pi ISBN 0-679-42560-8
  12. straalar, A.N. 1950, ikvilibriam thiori of irojnal slops aproch baai freekveinsi distreebyushan anelisis. M.J. vigyaan. 248, pi. 673-696.
  13. burabaink, DW, 2002, rets of irojn end deear implikeshan for ekjyumeshan: minrolojikl maigajeen, vi. 66, pi. 25-52.
  14. leedar, M, 1999, sedeemeintoloji end sedimeintri besins, fraum tarbuleins tu tektoniks, Blackwell vigyaan, 592 pru ISBN 0-632-0497-6
  15. roering, J J, kirshanar, JW aur ditrish, dabloo.E., 1999, evideins for naunaliniar, deefyusiv sedeemeint transport on hilslop end implikeshan for laindaskep morfoloji, vi. 35, pi. 853-870.
  16. gabet, ije, raaishaman, oje, seebloom, idabloo, 2003, the effects of baayotarbeshan on soyel proses end sedeemeint transport. rev pruthvi grah. vigyaan. 31, vi., pi. 249-273.
  17. benet, emaaar aur glaasar, NF, 1996, himnad bhoovijnyaaan: barf ki chaadarein aur bhoo-aakrutiyaan, John vili end sons limited, 364 pru aaiesabeeen 0-471-96345-3
  18. church M. aur rider, jeem, 1972, kandeeshand baai gleshialapaaraagleshial sedeemeinteshan: a kanseedareshan of fluvial proseses baai glesiyeshan, jiolojikl society America buletin, vi. 83, pi. 3059-3072.
  19. serepes, L, kristeinsens, you.aar. aur raaib, samudri meal door, pruthvi grah, prafullit havaai model ke pankh jioed oonchaai banaam sthalaakruti ke liye ek. vigyaan. let. vi. 178 (1-2), pi. 29-38.
  20. saber, di, baaraajangi, M, ibenabraheem, A aur demnaati, A, 1996, jiofisikl evideins for lithosfiar dilemineshan bineeth the alboran si end reef-betik maaunten, nechar, vi. 379 (6568), pi. 785-790.
  21. hojes, ke.vi., eksatroojn parikalpana-ek sanshleshan ke roop mein channel flo viksit himaalaya-tibbati orojenik pranaali. kaanoon, RD, seerale, MP evam godeen, L (Ed.), channel flo, tanya aur mahaadveepeeya kshetron mein takaraav eksatroojn ekjyumeshan, jiol. samaaj. London. pr. vi., 268, pi. 71-90.
  22. ditrish, dabloo.E. aur peron, sanyukt, 2006, v. 439, jeevan, prakruti ki khoj ke liye ek hastaakshar sthalaakrutik, pi. 411-418.
  23. elan, 2008, jiol pranaali samay rekha ke vivrtanik paridrushya aur unke talachhat anumaargan. samaaj. London. sapa. pab. vi. 296, p.7-28.

baahari kadiyaaain