bheemaraav ambedakar

bheemaraav anbedakar

yuva anbedakar
janm 14 April 1891
mahoo, sentral provins, british Bhaarat (vartamaan madhya pradesh mein)
mrutyu 6 December 1956(1956-12-06) (umr 65)
Delhi, Bhaarat
raashtreeyata bhaarateeya
anya naam mahaan bodhistv, Baba saaheb
shiksha M.A., pi.H.di., di. SC., elael.di., di.lit., bairistar eight law
vidyaalaya Mumbai vishvavidyaalaya
Columbia vishvavidyaalaya
London vishvavidyaalaya
London school of ikaunaumiks
sanstha samata sainik dal, svatantr lebar party, anusoochit jaati federation, Bhaarat ki bauddh society
upaadhi Bhaarat ke pratham kaanoon mantri, samvidhaan masauda samiti ke adhyaksh
raajaneetik party bhaarateeya Republican party
raajaneetik aandolan ambedakar ka bauddh dharm
dharm bauddh dharm
jeevanasaathi raamaabaai aanbedakar (vivaah 1906) «astart: (1906)»"Marriage: raamaabaai to bheemaraav ambedakar" Location: (linkback://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AD%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B5_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0), savita aanbedakar (vivaah 1948) «astart: (1948-04-15)»"Marriage: savita aanbedakar to bheemaraav ambedakar" Location: (linkback://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AD%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B5_%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0)
puraskaar Bhaarat rat‍aan (1990)

dau॰ bheemaraav raamaji anbedakar ( 14 April, 18916 December, 1956 ) ek vishv star ke vidhivetta the. ve ek dalit raajaneetik neta aur ek samaaj punarutthaanavaadi hone ke saath saath, bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke mukhya shilpkaar bhi the. ve baabaasaaheb ke naam se lokapriya hain. inka janm ek gareeb asprushya parivaar me hua tha. ek asprushya parivaar mein janm lene ke kaaran unhein saara jeevan naarakeeya kashton mein bitaana pada. baabaasaaheb aanbedakar ne apna saara jeevan hindu dharm ki chatuvarn pranaali aur bhaarateeya samaaj mein sarvavyaapit jaati vyavastha ke viruddh sangharsh mein bita diya. hindu dharm mein maanav samaaj ko chaar varnon mein vargeekrut kiya hai. jo is prakaar hai- braahman, kshatriya, vaishya aur shoodr. Baba saahab ne is vyavastha ko badalne ke liye saara jeevan sangharsh kiya. is liye unhonne bauddh dharm ko grahan karke iske samataavaadi vichaaron se samaaj mein samaanata sthaapit karaai. unhein bauddh aandolan ko praarambh karne ka shreya bhi jaata hai. baabaasaaheb ambedakar ko Bhaarat ratn se bhi sammaanit kiya gaya hai, jo Bhaarat ka sarvochch naagrik puraskaar hai.

kai saamaajik aur vitteeya baadhaaen paar kar, aanbedakar un kuchh pehle achhooton me se ek ban gaye jinhone Bhaarat mein college ki shiksha praapt ki. aanbedakar ne kaanoon ki upaadhi praapt karne ke saath hi vidhi, arthashaastr va raajaneeti vigyaan mein apne adhyayan aur anusandhaan ke kaaran Columbia vishvavidyaalaya aur London school of ikaunaumiks se kai dauktaret digriyaan bhi arjit keen. aanbedakar vaapas apne desh ek prasiddh vidvaan ke roop mein laut aae aur iske baad kuchh saal tak unhonne vakaalat ka abhyaas kiya. iske baad unhonne kuchh patrikaaon ka prakaashan kiya, jinke dvaara unhonne bhaarateeya asprushyon ke raajanaitik adhikaaron aur saamaajik svatantrata ki vakaalat ki. dau॰ aanbedakar ko bhaarateeya bauddh bhikshuon ne bodhistv ki upaadhi pradaan ki hai, haalaanki unhone khud ko kabhi bhi bodhistv naheen kaha.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

bheemaraav raamaji aanbedakar ka janm britishon dvaara kendreeya praant ( ab madhya pradesh mein ) mein sthaapit nagar va sainya chhaavani mahoo mein hua tha.[1] ve raamaji maaloji sakapaal aur bheemaabaai ki 14 veen va antim santaan the.[2] unka parivaar maraathi tha aur vo anbaavade nagar jo aadhunik Maharashtra ke ratnaagiri jile me hai, se sambandhit tha. ve hindu mahaar jaati se sambandh rakhate the, jo achhoot kahe jaate the aur unke saath saamaajik aur aarthik roop se gahra bhedabhaav kiya jaata tha. ambedakar ke poorvaj lambe samay tak british East India company ki sena mein kaaryarat the aur unke pita, bhaarateeya sena ki maoo chhaavani mein seva mein the aur yahaan kaam karte huye vo soobedaar ke pad tak pahuainche the. unhonne maraathi aur angreji mein aupachaarik shiksha ki degree praapt ki thi. unhone apne bachchon ko school mein padhane aur kadi mehnat karne ke liye hamesha protsaahit kiya.

kabeer panth se sambandhit is parivaar mein, raamaji sakapaal, apne bachchon ko hindu granthon ko padhne ke liye, vishesh roop se mahaabhaarat aur raamaayan protsaahit kiya karte the. unhone sena me apni haisiyat ka upayog apne bachchon ko sarkaari school se shiksha dilaane me kiya, kyonki apni jaati ke kaaran unhein iske liye saamaajik pratirodh ka saamana karna pad raha tha. schooli padhaai mein saksham hone ke baavajood aanbedakar aur anya asprushya bachchon ko vidyaalaya me alag bithaaya jaata tha aur adhyaapakon dvaara na to dhyaan hi diya jaata tha, na hi koi sahaayata di jaati thi. unako kaksha ke andar baithane ki anumati naheen thi, saath hi pyaas lagne pa‍aar koi ooainchi jaati ka vyakti ooainchaai se paani unke haathon par paani daalata tha, kyonki unako na to paani, na hi paani ke paatr ko sparsh karne ki anumati thi. logon ke mutaabik aisa karne se paatr aur paani donon apavitr ho jaate the. aamtaur par yeh kaam school ke chaparaasi dvaara kiya jaata tha jiski anupasthiti mein baalak aanbedakar ko bina paani ke hi rahana padta tha. 1894 me raamaji sakapaal sevaanivrutt ho jaane ke baad saparivaar sataara chale gaye aur iske do saal baad, ambedakar ki maan ki mrutyu ho gayi. bachchon ki dekhbhaal unki chaachi ne kathin paristhitiyon mein rahate huye ki. raamaji sakapaal ke keval teen bete, balaraam, aanandaraav aur bheemaraav aur do betiyaaain manjula aur tulaasa hi in kathin haalaaton me jeevit bach paaye. apne bhaaiyon aur bahanon me keval ambedakar hi school ki pareeksha mein safal hue aur iske baad bade school me jaane mein safal huye. apne ek deshast braahman shikshak mahaadev ambedakar jo unase vishesh sneh rakhate the ke kehne par ambedakar ne apne naam se sakapaal hataakar ambedakar jod liya jo unke gaanv ke naam "anbaavade" par aadhaarit tha.

raamaji sakapaal ne 1898 me punarvivaah kar liya aur parivaar ke saath Mumbai (tab Mumbai )chale aaye. yahaaain ambedakar elfinston road par sthit gavarnmeint haai school ke pehle achhoot chhaatr bane.[3] padhaai mein apne utkrusht pradarshan ke baavajood, ambedakar lagaataar apne viruddh ho rahe is alagaav aur, bhedabhaav se vyathit rahe. 1907 mein maitrik pareeksha paas karne ke baad ambedakar ne Mumbai vishvavidyaalaya mein pravesh liya aur is tarah vo Bhaarat mein college mein pravesh lene vaale pehle asprushya ban gaye. unki is safalta se unke poore samaaj me ek khushi ki lahar daud gayi aur baad mein ek saarvajanik samaaroh unka sammaan kiya gaya isi samaaroh mein unke ek shikshak krushanaji arjun keloosakar ne unhein mahaatma buddh ki jeevani bheint ki, shri keloosakar, ek maraatha jaati ke vidvaan the. ambedakar ki sagaai ek saal pehle hindu reeti ke anusaar daapoli ki, ek nau varsheeya ladki, ramaabaai se tay ki gayi thi.[3] 1908 mein, unhonne elifinston college mein pravesh liya aur Baroda ke Gaikwad shaasak sahayaaji Rao truteeya se sanyukt raajya America me uchch adhdhayan ke liye ek pachchees rupaye prati maah ka vajeefaa praapt kiya. 1912 mein unhonne raajaneeti vigyaan aur arthashaastr mein apni degree praapt ki aur Baroda raajya sarkaar ki naukri ko taiyaar ho gaye. unki patni ne apne pehle bete yashavant ko isi varsh janm diya. ambedakar apne parivaar ke saath Baroda chale aaye par jald hi unhein apne pita ki beemaari ke chalte Mumbai vaapas lautana padaa, jinki mrutyu 2 February 1913 ko ho gayi.

shiksha

1922 mein ek vakeel ke roop mein ambedakar

gaayakavaad shaasak ne sanyukt raajya America ke Columbia vishvavidyaalaya me jaakar adhyayan ke liye ambedakar ka chayan kiya gaya saath hi iske liye ek 11.5 dollar prati maas ki chhaatravrutti bhi pradaan ki. New York shahar mein aane ke baad, ambedakar ko raajaneeti vigyaan vibhaag ke snaatak adhyayan kaaryakram mein pravesh de diya gaya. shayanashaala me kuchh din rahane ke baad, ve bhaarateeya chhaatron dvaara chalaaye ja rahe ek aavaas club me rahane chale gaye aur unhone apne ek paarasi mitr naval bhaatena ke saath ek kamara le liya. 1916 mein, unhe unke ek shodh ke liye pi. H.di. se sammaanit kiya gaya. is shodh ko antat: unhonne pustak "ivolyushan of provinshial finaans in british India" ke roop mein prakaashit kiya. haalaaainki unki pehla prakaashit kaam, ek lekh jiska sheershak, Bhaarat mein jaati : unki pranaali, utpatti aur vikaas hai. apni daaktaret ki degree lekar ambedakar London chale gaye jahaaain unhone gre's in aur London school of ikaunaumiks mein kaanoon ka adhyayan aur arthashaastr mein dauktaret shodh ki taiyaari ke liye apna naam likhva liya. agale varsh chhaatravrutti ki samaapti ke chalte majabooran unhein apna adhyayan asthaayi taur beech me hi chhod kar Bhaarat vaapas lautana padaa ye vishv yuddh pratham ka kaal tha. Baroda raajya ke sena sachiv ke roop mein kaam karte huye apne jeevan me achaanak fir se aaye bhedabhaav se ambedakar udaas ho gaye aur apni naukri chhod ek niji tutor aur lekhaakaar ke roop mein kaam karne lage. yahaaain tak ki apni paraamarsh vyavasaaya bhi aarambh kiya jo unki saamaajik sthiti ke kaaran vifal raha. apne ek angrej jaankaar Mumbai ke poorv raajyapaal Lord sidnem, ke kaaran unhein Mumbai ke sidnem college of Commerce end ikonomiks me raajaneetik arthavyavastha ke professor ke roop mein naukri mil gayi. 1920 mein kolhaapur ke mahaaraaja apne paarasi mitr ke sahayog aur apni bachat ke kaaran vo ek baar fir se England vaapas jaane mein saksham ho gaye. 1923 mein unhonne apna shodh problems of the rupi (rupaye ki samasyaayein) poora kar liya. unhein London vishvavidyaalaya dvaara "Doctor of saains" ki upaadhi pradaan ki gayi. aur unki kaanoon ka adhyayan poora hone ke, saath hi saath unhein british baar me bairistar ke roop mein pravesh mil gaya. Bhaarat vaapas lautate huye ambedakar teen maheene Germany mein ruke, jahaaain unhone apna arthashaastr ka adhyayan, baun vishvavidyaalaya mein jaari rakha. unhe aupachaarik roop se 8 June 1927 ko Columbia vishvavidyaalaya dvaara pi H.di. pradaan ki gayi.

chhuaachhoot ke viruddh sangharsh

Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam 1919, taiyaar kar rahi saauthaboroh samiti ke samaksh, Bhaarat ke ek pramukh vidvaan ke taur par ambedakar ko gavaahi dene ke liye aamantrit kiya gaya. is sunavaai ke dauraan, ambedakar ne daliton aur anya dhaarmik samudaayon ke liye pruthak nirvaachika (separate electorates) aur aarakshan dene ki vakaalat ki. 1920 mein, Mumbai mein, unhonne saaptaahik mookanaayak ke prakaashan ki shurooaat ki. yeh prakaashan jald hi paathakon me lokapriya ho gaya, tab, ambedakar ne iska istemaal roodhivaadi hindu raajanetaaon va jaateeya bhedabhaav se ladne ke prati bhaarateeya raajanaitik samudaaya ki anichha ki aalochna karne ke liye kiya. unke dalit varg ke ek sammelan ke dauraan diye gaye bhaashan ne kolhaapur raajya ke sthaaneeya shaasak shaahoo chaturth ko bahut prabhaavit kiya, jinka ambedakar ke saath bhojan karna roodhivaadi samaaj me halachal macha gaya. ambedakar ne apni vakaalat achhi tarah jama li aur bahishkrut hitkaarini sabha ki sthaapana bhi ki jiska uddeshya dalit vargon mein shiksha ka prasaar aur unke saamaajik aarthik utthaan ke liye kaam karna tha. san 1926 mein, vo Mumbai vidhaan parishad ke ek manoneet sadasya ban gaye. san 1927 mein dau॰ ambedakar ne chhuaachhoot ke khilaaf ek vyaapak aandolan shuroo karne ka faisala kiya. unhonne saarvajanik aandolanon aur julooson ke dvaara, peyajal ke saarvajanik sansaadhan samaaj ke sabhi logon ke liye khulavaane ke saath hi unhonein achhooton ko bhi hindu mandiron mein pravesh karne ka adhikaar dilaane ke liye bhi sangharsh kiya. unhonne mahad mein asprushya samudaaya ko bhi shahar ki paani ki mukhya tanki se paani lene ka adhikaar dilaane ki liye satyaagrah chalaaya.

1 January 1927 ko Dr ambedakar ne dviteeya aangl - maraatha yuddh, ki koregaaainv ki ladaai ke dauraan maare gaye bhaarateeya sainikon ke sammaan mein koregaaainv vijay smaarak me ek samaaroh aayojit kiya. yahaaain mahaar samudaaya se sambandhit sainikon ke naam sangamaramar ke ek shilaalekh par khudavaaye. 1927 mein, unhonne apna doosari patrika bahishkrut Bhaarat shuroo ki aur uske baad reekrishtend janta ki. unhein baaainbe preseedeinsi samiti me sabhi Europeeya sadasyon vaale Simon commission 1928 mein kaam karne ke liye niyukt kiya gaya. is aayog ke virodh me Bhaarat bhar mein virodh pradarshan huye aur jabki iski report ko jyaadaatar bhaarateeyon dvaara najaraandaaj kar diya gaya, Dr ambedakar ne alag se bhavishya ke samvaidhaanik sudhaaron ke liye sifaarishon likheen.

poona sandhi

doosra golamej sammelan

ab tak Dr ambedakar aaj tak ki sabse badee achhoot raajaneetik hasti ban chuke the. unhonne mukhyadhaara ke mahatvapoorn raajaneetik dalon ki jaati vyavastha ke unmoolan ke prati unki kathit udaaseenata ki katu aalochna ki. ambedakar ne bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress aur uske neta mohanadaas Gandhi ki aalochna ki, unhone un par asprushya samudaaya ko ek karuna ki vastu ke roop me prastut karne ka aarop lagaaya. ambedakar british shaasan ki viflataaon se bhi asantusht the, unhone asprushya samudaaya ke liye ek aisi alag raajanaitik pehchaan ki vakaalat ki jisme Congress aur british donon ka hi koi dakhal na ho. 8 August, 1930 ko ek shoshit varg ke sammelan ke dauraan ambedakar ne apni raajaneetik drushti ko duniya ke saamane rakha, jiske anusaar shoshit varg ki suraksha uske sarkaar aur Congress donon se svatantr hone me hai.

hamein apna raasta svayain banaana hoga aur svayain ... raajaneetik shakti shoshito ki samasyaaon ka nivaaran naheen ho sakti, unka uddhaar samaaj me unka uchit sthaan paane me nihit hai. unako apna rahane ka bura tareeka badalna hoga.... unako shikshit hona chaahiye .... ek badi aavashyakta unki heenata ki bhaavana ko jhakjhorne aur unke andar us daiveeya asantosh ki sthaapana karne ki hai jo sabhi uainchaaiyon ka srot hai.[2]

is bhaashan mein ambedakar ne Congress aur Gandhi dvaara chalaaye gaye namak satyaagrah ki shurooaat ki aalochna ki. ambedakar ki aalochanaaon aur unke raajaneetik kaam ne usako roodhivaadi hinduon ke saath hi Congress ke kai netaaon me bhi bahut alokapriya bana diya, yeh vahi neta the jo pehle chhuaachhoot ki ninda karte the aur iske unmoolan ke liye jinhone desh bhar mein kaam kiya tha. iska mukhya kaaran tha ki ye "udaar" raajaneta aamtaur par achhooton ko poorn samaanata dene ka mudda poori tarah naheen uthaate the. ambedakar ki asprushya samudaaya me badhti lokapriyta aur jan samarthan ke chalte unako 1931 me London mein doosare golamej sammelan mein, bhaag lene ke liye aamantrit kiya gaya. yahaaain unki achhooton ko pruthak nirvaachika dene ke mudde par teekhi bahas hui. dharm aur jaati ke aadhaar par pruthak nirvaachika dene ke prabal virodhi Gandhi ne aashanka jataai, ki achhooton ko di gayi pruthak nirvaachika, hindu samaaj ki bhaavi peedhee ko hamesha ke liye vibhaajit kar degi.

1932 me jab britishon ne ambedakar ke saath sahamati vyakt karte huye achhooton ko pruthak nirvaachika dene ki ghoshana ki,[4][5] tab Gandhi ne iske virodh me Pune ki yaravada central jail mein aamaran anashan shuru kar diya. gaaaindhi ne roodhivaadi hindu samaaj se saamaajik bhedabhaav aur asprushyata ko khatm karne tatha, hinduon ki raajaneetik aur saamaajik ekta ki baat ki. Gandhi ke anashan ko desh bhar ki janta se ghor samarthan mila aur roodhivaadi hindu netaaon, Congress ke netaaon aur kaaryakartaaon jaise pavalankar baaloo aur madan mohan maalaveeya ne ambedakar aur unke samarthakon ke saath yaravada me sanyukt baithakein keen. anashan ke kaaran Gandhi ki mrutyu hone ki sthiti me, hone vaale saamaajik pratishodh ke kaaran hone waali achhooton ki hatyaaon ke dar se aur gaaaindhi ji ke samarthakon ke bhaari davaab ke chalte anbedakar ne apni pruthak nirvaachika ki maaaing vaapas le li. iske evaj me achhooton ko seaton ke aarakshan, mandiron mein pravesh/pooja ke adhikaar evam chhooaa-chhoot khtam karne ki baat sveekaar kar li gayi. gaaaindhi ne is ummeed par ki baaki sabhi svarn bhi poona sandhi ka aadar kar, sabhi sharte maan leinge apna anashan samaapt kar diya.

aarakshan pranaali mein pehle dalit apne liye sambhaavit ummeedavaaron mein se chunaav dvaara (keval dalit) chaar sambhaavit ummeedavaar chunate. in chaar ummeedavaaron mein se fir sanyukt nirvaachan chunaav (sabhi dharm \ jaati) dvaara ek neta chuna jaata. is aadhaar par sirf ek baar san 1937 mein chunaav hue. aanbedakar 20-25 saal ke liye aarakshan chaahate the lekin gaaaindhi ke ade rahane ke kaaran yeh aarakshan maatr 5 saal ke liye hi laagoo hua.

pruthak nirvaachika mein dalit do vote deta ek saamaanya varg ke ummeedavaar ko or doosra dalit (pruthak) ummeedavaar ko. aisi sthiti mein daliton dvaara chuna gaya dalit ummeedavaar daliton ki samasya ko achhi tarah se to rakh sakta tha kintu gair ummeedavaar ke liye yeh jaroori naheen tha ki unki samasyaaon ke samaadhaan ka prayaas bhi karta. baad me ambedakar ne gaaaindhi ji ki aalochna karte huye unke is anashan ko achhooton ko unke raajaneetik adhikaaron se vanchit karne aur unhein unki maaaing se peechhe hatne ke liye davaab daalne ke liye Gandhi dvaara khela gaya ek naatak karaar diya. unke anusaar asli mahaatma to jyoti Rao fule the.

raajaneetik jeevan

13 October 1935, ko yeola Nasik me ambedakar ek rally ko sambodhit karte hue.

13 October 1935 ko, ambedakar ko sarkaari law college ka pradhaanachaarya niyukt kiya gaya aur is pad par unhone do varsh tak kaarya kiya. iske chalte anbedakar Mumbai mein bas gaye, unhone yahaaain ek bade ghar ka nirmaan karaaya, jisme unke niji pustakaalaya me 50000 se adhik pustakein theen.[6] isi varsh unki patni ramaabaai ki ek lambi beemaari ke baad mrutyu ho gayi. ramaabaai apni mrutyu se pehle teerthayaatra ke liye pandharapur jaana chaahati theen par anbedakar ne unhe iski ijaajt naheen di. ambedakar ne kaha ki us hindu teerth me jahaaain unako achhoot maana jaata hai, jaane ka koi auchitya naheen hai iske bajaay unhone unke liye ek naya pandharapur banaane ki baat kahi. bhale hi asprushyata ke khilaaf unki ladaai ko Bhaarat bhar se samarthan haasil ho raha tha par unhone apna ravaiya aur apne vichaaron ko roodhivaadi hinduon ke prati aur kathor kar liya. unki roodhivaadi hinduon ki aalochna ka uttar badee sankhya me hindu kaaryakartaaon dvaara ki gayi unki aalochna se mila. 13 October ko Nasik ke nikat yeola me ek sammelan mein bolte hue ambedakar ne dharm parivartan karne ki apni ichha prakat ki. unhone apne anuyaayiyon se bhi hindu dharm chhod koi aur dharm apnaane ka aahvaan kiya.[6] unhone apni is baat ko Bhaarat bhar me kai saarvajanik sabhaaon me doharaaya bhi.

1936 mein, ambedakar ne svatantr lebar party ki sthaapana ki, jo 1937 mein kendreeya vidhaan sabha chunaavon me 15 seatein jeeti. unhonne apni pustak jaati ke vinaash bhi isi varsh prakaashit ki jo unke New York me likhe ek shodhapatr par aadhaarit thi. is safal aur lokapriya pustak me ambedakar ne hindu dhaarmik netaaon aur jaati vyavastha ki jordaar aalochna ki. unhonne asprushya samudaaya ke logon ko gaaaindhi dvaara rachit shabd harijn pukaarane ke Congress ke faisale ki kadee ninda ki.[6] ambedakar ne raksha salaahakaar samiti aur vaaisaraaya ki kaaryakaari parishad ke liye shram mantri ke roop mein sevaarat rahe.

1941 aur 1945 ke beech mein unhonne badi sankhya mein atyadhik vivaadaaspad pustakein aur parche prakaashit kiye jinme 'thauts on Pakistan' bhi shaamil hai, jismein unhone muslim league ki musalmaanon ke liye ek alag desh Pakistan ki maang ki aalochna ki. vaut kaaaingres end Gandhi haiv dan too the anatachebals (kaaaingres aur gaandhi ne achhooton ke liye kya kiya) ke saath, ambedakar ne Gandhi aur Congress dono par apne hamlon ko teekha kar diya unhone un par dhong karne ka aarop lagaaya.[7] unhone apni pustak 'hoo var the shudraaj?'( shudr kaun the?) ke dvaara hindu jaati vyavastha ke padaanukram mein sabse neechi jaati yaani shudron ke astitv me aane ki vyaakhya ki. unhonne is baat par bhi jor diya ki kis tarah se achhoot, shudron se alag hain. ambedakar ne apni raajaneetik party ko akhil bhaarateeya anusoochit jaati federation me badalate dekha, haalaanki 1946 mein aayojit Bhaarat ke samvidhaan sabha ke liye huye chunaav mein isne kharaab pradarshan kiya. 1948 mein hoo var the shudraaj? ki uttarakatha the anatachebalas: A theesis on the orijn of anatachebiliti (asprushya: asprushyata ke mool par ek shodh) me ambedakar ne hindu dharm ko lataada.

hindu sabhyata .... jo maanavata ko das banaane aur usaka daman karne ki ek kroor yukti hai aur iska uchit naam badanaami hoga. ek sabhyata ke baare me aur kya kaha ja sakta hai jisne logon ke ek bahut bade varg ko viksit kiya jise... ek maanav se heen samjha gaya aur jiska sparsh maatr pradooshan failaane ka paryaapt kaaran hai?

[7]

ambedakar islaam aur dakshin Asia mein usaki reetiyon ke bhi bade aalochak the. unhone Bhaarat vibhaajan ka to paksh liya par muslimo me vyaapt baal vivaah ki pratha aur mahilaaon ke saath hone vaale durvyavahaar ki ghor ninda ki. unhonne kaha,

bahuvivaah aur rakhail rakhane ke dushparinaam shabdon mein vyakt naheen kiye ja sakte jo vishesh roop se ek muslim mahila ke du:kh ke srot hain. jaati vyavastha ko hi lein, har koi kehta hai ki islaam gulaami aur jaati se mukt hona chaahiye, jabki gulaami astitv mein hai aur ise islaam aur islaami deshon se samarthan mila hai. islaam mein aisa kuchh naheen hai jo is abhishaap ke unmoolan ka samarthan karta ho. agar gulaami khatm bhi ho jaaye par fir bhi musalmaanon ke beech jaati vyavastha rah jaayegi.[8]

unhonne likha ki muslim samaaj me to hindu samaaj se bhi kahi adhik saamaajik buraaiyaan hai aur musalmaan unhein " bhaaichaare " jaise naram shabdon ke prayog se chhupaate hain. unhonne musalamaano dvaara arjl vargon ke khilaaf bhedabhaav jinhein " nichle darje ka " maana jaata tha ke saath hi muslim samaaj mein mahilaaon ke utpeedn ki damanakaari parda pratha ki bhi aalochna ki. unhonne kaha haalaaainki parda hinduon me bhi hota hai par use dharmik maanyata keval musalmaanon ne di hai. unhonne islaam me kattarata ki aalochna ki jiske kaaran islaam ki naatiyon ka aksharaksh anupaalan ki baddhata ke kaaran samaaj bahut kattar ho gaya hai aur use ko badalna bahut mushkil ho gaya hai. unhonne aage likha ki bhaarateeya musalmaan apne samaaj ka sudhaar karne mein vifal rahe hain jabki iske vipreet Turkey jaise deshon ne apne aapko bahut badal liya hai.[8]

"saanpradaayikta" se peedit hinduon aur musalmaanon donon samoohon ne saamaajik nyaaya ki maaaing ki upeksha ki hai.[8]

haalaanki ve mohammad Ali jinna aur muslim league ki vibhaajanakaari saampradaayik rananeeti ke ghor aalochak the par unhone tark diya ki hinduon aur musalmaanon ko pruthak kar dena chaahiye aur Pakistan ka gathan ho jaana chaahiye kyoki ek hi desh ka netrutv karne ke liye, jaateeya raashtravaad ke chalte desh ke bheetar aur adhik hinsa panapegi. unhonne hindu aur musalmaanon ke saampradaayik vibhaajan ke baare mein apne vichaar ke paksh me otomon saamraajya aur chekoslovaakiya ke vightan jaisi aitihaasik ghatnaaon ka ullekh kiya.

unhonne poochha ki kya Pakistan ki sthaapana ke liye paryaapt kaaran maujood the? aur sujhaav diya ki hindu aur musalmaanon ke beech ke matabhed ek kam kathor kadam se bhi mitaana sambhav ho sakta tha. unhonne likha hai ki Pakistan ko apne astitv ka auchitya siddh karna chaahiye. Canada jaise deshon me bhi saampradaayik mudde hamesha se rahe hain par aaj bhi angrej aur fraanseesi ek saath rahate hain, to kya hindu aur musalmaan bhi saath naheen rah sakte. unhonne chetaaya ki do desh banaane ke samaadhaan ka vaastavik kriyaanvayan atyant kathinaai bhara hoga. vishaal janasankhya ke sthaanaantaran ke saath seema vivaad ki samasya bhi rahegi. Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke baad hone waali hinsa ko dhyaan me rakh kar yeh bhavishyavaani kitni sahi thi||

samvidhaan nirmaan

apne vivaadaaspad vichaaron aur Gandhi va Congress ki katu aalochna ke baavajood ambedakar ki pratishtha ek adviteeya vidvaan aur vidhivetta ki thi jiske kaaran jab, 15 August 1947 mein Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke baad, Congress ke netrutv waali nai sarkaar astitv me I to usane ambedakar ko desh ka pehle kaanoon mantri ke roop mein seva karne ke liye aamantrit kiya, jise unhonne sveekaar kar liya. 29 August 1947 ko, ambedakar ko svatantr Bhaarat ke nae samvidhaan ki rachana ki liye bani ke samvidhaan masauda samiti ke adhyaksh pad par niyukt kiya gaya. ambedakar ne masauda taiyaar karne ke is kaam me apne sahayogiyon aur samakaaleen prekshakon ki prashansa arjit ki. is kaarya mein ambedakar ka shuruaati bauddh sangh reetiyon aur anya bauddh granthon ka adhyayan bahut kaam aaya.

sangh reeti me matapatr dvaara matadaan, bahas ke niyam, poorvavartita aur kaaryasoochi ke prayog, samitiyaaain aur kaam karne ke liye prastaav laana shaamil hai. sangh reetiyaaain swayam praacheen ganaraajyon jaise shaakya aur lichhavi ki shaasan pranaali ke nidrsh (model) par aadhaarit theen. ambedakar ne haalaanki unke samvidhaan ko aakaar dene ke liye pashchimi model istemaal kiya hai par usaki bhaavana bhaarateeya hai.

ambedakar dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya samvidhaan paath me samvaidhaanik guaranty ke saath vyaktigat naagrikon ko ek vyaapak shreni ki naagrik svatantrataaon ki suraksha pradaan ki jinmein, dhaarmik svatantrata, asprushyata ka ant aur sabhi prakaar ke bhedabhaavon ko gair kaanooni karaar diya gaya. ambedakar ne mahilaaon ke liye dharaa370vyaapak aarthik aur saamaajik adhikaaron ki vakaalat ki aur anusoochit jaati aur anusoochit janajaati ke logon ke liye civil sevaaon, schoolon aur collegeon ki naukariyon me aarakshan pranaali shuroo ke liye sabha ka samarthan bhi haasil kiya, Bhaarat ke vidhi nirmaataaon ne is sakaaraatmak kaaryavaahi ke dvaara dalit vargon ke liye saamaajik aur aarthik asamaanataaon ke unmoolan aur unhe har kshetr me avsar pradaan karaane ki cheshta ki jabki mool kalpana me pehle is kadam ko asthaayi roop se aur aavashyakta ke aadhaar par shaamil karne ki baat kahi gayi thi. 26 November 1949 ko samvidhaan sabha ne samvidhaan ko apna liya. apne kaam ko poora karne ke baad, bolte hue, ambedakar ne kaha :

main mahasoos karta hoon ki samvidhaan, saadhya (kaam karne laayak) hai, yeh lacheela hai par saath hi yeh itna majboot bhi hai ki desh ko shaanti aur yuddh donon ke samay jod kar rakh sake. vaastav mein, main kah sakta hooain ki agar kabhi kuchh galat hua to iska kaaran yeh nahi hoga ki hamaara samvidhaan kharaab tha balki iska upayog karne wala manushya adham tha.

1951 me sansad mein apne hindu code bill ke masaude ko roke jaane ke baad ambedakar ne mantrimandal se isteefa de diya is masaude me uttaraadhikaar, vivaah aur arthavyavastha ke kaanoonon mein laingik samaanata ki maang ki gayi thi. haalaanki pradhaanamantri Nehru, cabinet aur kai anya Congressi netaaon ne iska samarthan kiya par sansad sadasyon ki ek badi sankhya iske khilaaf thi. ambedakar ne 1952 mein lok sabha ka chunaav ek nirdaleeya ummeedavaar ke roop me lada par haar gaye. March 1952 me unhein sansad ke oopari sadan yaani raajya sabha ke liye niyukt kiya gaya aur iske baad unki mrutyu tak vo is sadan ke sadasya rahe.

bauddh dharm mein parivartan

deeksha bhoomi, Nagpur; jahaan ambedakar apne anuyaayiyon ke saath bauddh dharm me parivrtit hue.

san 1950 ke dashak mein ambedakar bauddh dharm ke prati aakarshit hue aur bauddh bhikshuon va vidvaanon ke ek sammelan mein bhaag lene ke liye Sri Lanka (tab seelon) gaye. Pune ke paas ek naya bauddh vihaar ko samarpit karte hue, ambedakar ne ghoshana ki ki ve bauddh dharm par ek pustak likh rahe hain aur jaise hi yeh samaapt hogi vo aupachaarik roop se bauddh dharm apna leinge.[9] 1954 mein ambedakar ne barma ka do baar daura kiya; doosari baar vo rangoon me teesare vishv bauddh failoship ke sammelan mein bhaag lene ke liye gaye. 1955 mein unhone bhaarateeya buddh mahaasabha ya bauddh society of India ki sthaapana ki. unhonne apne antim lekh, the buddh end hij dhamm ko 1956 mein poora kiya. yeh unki mrutyu ke pashchaat prakaashit hua. 14 October 1956 ko Nagpur mein ambedakar ne khud aur unke samarthakon ke liye ek aupachaarik saarvajanik samaaroh ka aayojan kiya. ambedakar ne ek bauddh bhikshu se paaramparik tareeke se teen ratn grahan aur panchasheel ko apnaate huye bauddh dharm grahan kiya. iske baad unhone ek anumaan ke anusaar lagbhag 500000 samarthako ko bauddh dharm me parivrtit kiya.[9] navayaan lekar ambedakar aur unke samarthakon ne hindu dharm aur hindu darshan ki spasht ninda ki aur use tyaag diya. iske baad ve Nepal mein chauthe vishv bauddh sammelan me bhaag lene ke liye kaathamaandoo gaye. unhonne apni antim paandulipi buddh ya kaarl maarks ko 2 December 1956 ko poora kiya.

da bi.aar. ambedakar ne deeksha bhoomi, Nagpur, Bhaarat mein aitihaasik bauddh dharman mein parivartan ke avsar par,14 October 1956 ko apne anuyaayiyon ke liye 22 pratijnyaaaeain nirdhaarit keen.800000 logon ka bauddh dharm mein roopaantaran aitihaasik tha kyonki yeh vishv ka sabse bada dhaarmik roopaantaran tha. unhonne in shapathon ko nirdhaarit kiya taaki hindu dharm ke bandhanon ko poori tarah pruthak kiya ja sake.ye 22 pratijnyaaaeain hindu maanyataaon aur paddhatiyon ki jadon par gahra aaghaat karti hain. ye ek setu ke roop mein bauddh dharman ki hindu dharm mein vyaapt bhram aur virodhaabhaason se raksha karne mein sahaayak ho sakti hain. in pratijnyaaaon se hindu dharm, jismein keval hinduon ki oonchi jaatiyon ke sanvardhan ke liye maarg prashast kiya gaya, mein vyaapt andhavishvaason, vyarth aur arthaheen rasmon, se dharmaantarit hote samay svatantr raha ja sakta hai.

22 pratijnyaaaeainain

  1. main brahma, vishnu aur mahesh mein koi vishvaas naheen karooainga aur na hi main unki pooja karooainga.
  2. main Ram aur Krishna, jo Bhagwan ke avataar maane jaate hain, mein koi aastha naheen rakhooainga aur na hi main unki pooja karooainga .
  3. main Gauri, ganapati aur hinduon ke anya devi-devataaon mein aastha naheen rakhooainga aur na hi main unki pooja karooainga.
  4. main Bhagwan ke avataar mein vishvaas naheen karta hooain.
  5. main yeh naheen maanata aur na kabhi maanoonga ki Bhagwan buddh vishnu ke avataar the. main ise paagalapan aur jhootha prachaar-prasaar maanata hooain.
  6. main shraddha (shraaddh) mein bhaag naheen looainga aur na hi pind-daan dooainga.
  7. main buddh ke siddhaanton aur upadeshon ka ullanghan karne vaale tareeke se kaarya naheen karooainga.
  8. main braahmanon dvaara nishpaadit hone vaale kisi bhi samaaroh ko sveekaar naheen karooainga.
  9. main manushya ki samaanata mein vishvaas karta hooain.
  10. main samaanata sthaapit karne ka prayaas karooainga.
  11. main buddh ke aashtaangik maarg ka anusharan karooainga.
  12. main buddh dvaara nirdhaarit paramiton ka paalan karooainga.
  13. main sabhi jeevit praaniyon ke prati daya aur pyaar bhari dayaaluta rakhooainga tatha unki raksha karooainga.
  14. main chori naheen karooainga.
  15. main jhooth naheen bolooainga.
  16. main kaamuk paapon ko naheen karooainga.
  17. main sharaab, drags jaise maadak padaarthon ka sevan naheen karooainga.
  18. main mahaan aashtaangik maarg ke paalan ka prayaas karooainga evam sahaanubhooti aur pyaar bhari dayaaluta ka dainik jeevan mein abhyaas karooainga.
  19. main hindu dharm ka tyaag karta hooain jo maanavata ke liye haanikaarak hai aur unnati aur maanavata ke vikaas mein baadhak hai kyonki yeh asamaanata par aadhaarit hai, aur sv-dharman ke roop mein bauddh dharm ko apanaata hooain.
  20. main drudhta ke saath yeh vishvaas karta hooain ki buddh ka dhamm hi sachcha dharm hai.
  21. mujhe vishvaas hai ki main fir se janm le raha hooain (is dharm parivartan ke dvaara).
  22. main gambheerta evam drudhta ke saath ghoshit karta hooain ki main iske (dharm parivartan ke) baad apne jeevan ka buddh ke siddhaanton va shikshaaon evam unke dhamm ke anusaar maargadarshan karooainga.

mrutyu / mahaaparinirvaan

annaal ambedakar manimandapam, chennai
Pune sangrahaalaya mein ambedakar ki pratima.

1948 se, ambedakar madhumeh se peedit the. June se October 1954 tak vo bahut beemaar rahe is dauraan vo kamjor hoti drushti se grast the. raajaneetik muddon se pareshaan ambedakar ka svaasthya bad se badatar hota chala gaya aur 1955 ke dauraan kiye gaye lagaataar kaam ne unhein tod kar rakh diya. apni antim paandulipi buddh aur unke dhamm ko poora karne ke teen din ke baad 6 December 1956 ko ambedakar ki mrutyu neend mein Delhi mein unke ghar me ho gayi. 7 December ko chaupaati samudra tat par bauddh shaili me antim sanskaar kiya gaya jismein saikadon hajaaron samarthakon, kaaryakartaaon aur prashansakon ne bhaag liya.

mrutyuparaant ambedakar ke parivaar me unki doosari patni savita ambedakar rah gayi theen jo, janm se braahman theen par unke saath hi vo bhi dharm parivrtit kar bauddh ban gayi theen. vivaah se pehle unki patni ka naam shaarada kabeer tha. savita ambedakar ki ek bauddh ke roop mein san 2002 mein mrutyu ho gayi, ambedakar ke pautr, prakaash yashavant ambedakar, bhaaripa bahujan mahaasangh ka netrutv karte hai aur bhaarateeya sansad ke donon sadanon me ke sadasya rah chuke hai.

kai adhoore tankalipit aur hastalikhit masaude ambedakar ke not aur patron mein paae gaye hain. inmein vaiting for A veesa jo sanbhavat: 1935-36 ke beech ka aatmakathaanaatmak kaam hai aur anatachebal, or the children of indiyaaj ghetto jo 1951 ki janaganana se sambandhit hai.

ek smaarak ambedakar ke Delhi sthit unke ghar 26 Alipur road mein sthaapit kiya gaya hai. ambedakar jayanti par saarvajanik avakaash rakha jaata hai. 1990 mein unhein maranoparaant Bhaarat ke sarvochch naagrik sammaan Bhaarat ratn se sammaanit kiya gaya hai. kai saarvajanik sansthaan ka naam unke sammaan mein unke naam par rakha gaya hai jaise Hyderabad, Andhra pradesh ka dau॰ ambedakar mukt vishvavidyaalaya, bi aar ambedakar Bihar vishvavidyaalaya- mujaffarapur, dau॰ baabaasaaheb ambedakar antararaashtreeya havaai adda Nagpur mein hai, jo pehle sonegaanv havaai adde ke naam se jaana jaata tha. ambedakar ka ek bada aadhikaarik chitr bhaarateeya sansad bhavan mein pradarshit kiya gaya hai.

Mumbai me unke smaarak har saal lagbhag paaainch lakh log unki varshagaanth (14 April) punyatithi (6 December) aur dhamm chakr parivrtan din 14 October Nagpur mein, unhe apni shraddhaanjali arpit karne ke liye ikatthe hote hain. saikadon pustakaalaya sthaapit ho gaye hain aur laakhon rupae ki pustakein bechi jaati hain. apne anuyaayiyon ko unka sandesh tha !' shikshit bano, sangathit raho, sangharsh karo.

graameen jeevan par ambedakar banaam Gandhi

ambedakar, mahaatma Gandhi aur bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke ugr aalochak the. unke samakaaleenon aur aadhunik vidvaanon ne unke mahaatma Gandhi (jo ki pehle bhaarateeya neta the jinhone asprushyata aur bhedabhaav karne ka mudda sabse pehle uthaaya tha) ke virodh ki aalochna hai.

Gandhi ka darshan Bhaarat ke paaramparik graameen jeevan ke prati adhik sakaaraatmak, lekin roomaani tha aur unka drushtikon asprushyon ke prati bhaavanaatmak tha unhone unhein harijn kah kar pukaara. ambedakar ne is visheshan ko sire se asveekaar kar diya. unhonne apne anuyaayiyon ko gaanv chhod kar shahar jaakar basane aur shiksha praapt karne ke liye prerit kiya.

viraasat

ambedakar ki saamaajik aur raajanaitik sudhaarak ki viraasat ka aadhunik Bhaarat par gahra prabhaav pada hai. svatantrata ke baad ke Bhaarat me unki saamaajik aur raajaneetik soch ko saare raajaneetik halake ka sammaan haasil hua. unki is pahal ne jeevan ke vibhinn kshetron me aaj ke Bhaarat ki soch ko prabhaavit kiya. unki yah soch aaj ki saamaajik, aarthik neetiyon, shiksha, kaanoon aur sakaaraatmak kaarravaai ke maadhyam se pradarshit hoti hai. ek vidvaan ke roop mein unki khyaati unki niyukti svatantr Bhaarat ke pehle kaanoon mantri aur samvidhaan masauda samiti ke adhyaksh ke roop mein karaane me sahaayak siddh huyi. unhein vyakti ki svatantrata mein atoot vishvaas tha aur unhone samaan roop se roodhivaadi aur jaativaadi hindu samaaj aur islaam ki sankeern aur kattar neetiyon ki aalochna ki hai. usaki hindu aur islaam ki ninda ne usako vivaadaaspad aur alokapriya banaaya hai, haalaanki unke bauddh dharm me parivrtit hone ke baad Bhaarat mein bauddh darshan mein logon ki ruchi badhi hai.

ambedakar ke raajaneetik darshan ke kaaran badi sankhya mein dalit raajaneetik dal, prakaashan aur kaaryakarta sangh astitv me aaye hai jo poore Bhaarat mein sakriya rahate hain, vishesh roop se Maharashtra mein. unke dalit bauddh aandolan ko badhaava dene se bauddh darshan Bhaarat ke kai bhaagon mein punarjaagarit hua hai. dalit kaaryakarta samay samay par saamoohik dharm parivartan ke samaaroh aayojit usi tarah karte rahate hain jis tarah ambedakar ne 1956 me Nagpur me aayojit kiya tha.

kuchh vidvaanon, jinmein se kuchh prabhaavit jaatiyon se hai ka vichaar hai ki angrej adhiktar jaatiyon ko ek nazar se dekhte the aur agar unka raaj jaari rahata to samaaj se kaafi buraaiyon ko samaapt kiya ja sakta tha. yeh rai jyotiba fule samet kai thi saamaajik kaaryakartaaon ne rakhi hai.


aadhunik Bhaarat mein kuchh log, ambedakar ke dvaara shuroo kiye gaye aarakshan ko apraasaangik aur pratibha virodhi maanate hain.

ambedakar ke baad

pichhle varshon mein lagaataar bauddh samoohon aur roodhivaadi hinduon ke beech hinsak sangharsh huye hai. 1994 mein Mumbai mein jab kisi ne ambedakar ki pratima ke gale mein joote ki maala lataka kar unka apamaan kiya tha to chaaron or ek saampradaayik hinsa fail gayi thi aur hadtaal ke kaaran shahar ek saptaah se adhik tak buri tarah prabhaavit hua tha. jab agale varsh isi tarah ki gadbadi hui to ek ambedakar pratima ko toda gaya. Tamil Nadu mein oonchi jaati ke samooh bhi bauddhon ke khilaaf hinsa mein lage hue hain.

film

jabbaar Patel ne san 2000 me dau॰ Baba saaheb ambedakar naamak hindi film banaai thi. isame ambedakar ki bhoomika maammooti me nibhaai thi. Bhaarat ke raashtreeya film vikaas nigam aur saamaajik nyaaya mantraalaya ke dvaara praayojit, yeh film pradarshan se pehle ek lambi avadhi tak vivaado me fainsi rahi.

you. si. L. A. me maanav shaastr ke professor aur aitihaasik nruvansh vivranakaar, dau॰ David blundel filmon ki ek shrrunkhala banaane ki deerghakaalik pariyojana banaai hai jo un ghatnaaon par aadhaarit hai jo Bhaarat mein samaaj kalyaan ki sthiti ke baare mein gyaan aur ichha ko prabhaavit karti hai. A raaejig laait dau॰ bi aar ambedakar ke jeevan aur Bhaarat mein saamaajik kalyaan ki sthiti par aadhaarit hai.

naatak

raajesh Kumar ka bheemaraav ambedakar aur Gandhi naatak[10]. aravind gaud ke nirdeshan me asmita theatre group dvaara poore desh me lagaataar manchan.

kitaabein

  • di buddh end hij dhamma 1957
  • buddh ya kaarl maarks
  • hu is shudra ?
  • thauts on Pakistan 1941
  • Pakistan or paarteeshan of India 1945
  • Annihilation of Caste 1936
  • Ideas of A Nation
  • Buddhist Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Ancient India
  • The Untouchables 1948
  • What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables 1945
  • Philosophy of Hinduism
  • Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables 1943
  • Social Justice and Political Safeguard of Depressed classes
  • Gandhi and Gandhism
  • the Decline and Fall of Buddhism in India
  • Buddhist Custom and Manners

sandarbh

  1. Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Fighting the Indian Caste System. New York: Columbia University Press. pa॰ 2. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-231-13602-1.
  2. a aa Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1890s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1890s.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-02.
  3. a aa Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1900s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1900s.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-02.
  4. Pritchett. "Rajah, Rao Bahadur M. C.". University of Columbia. http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/mmt/ambedkar/web/individuals/6750.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-05.
  5. Kothari, R. (2004). Caste in Indian Politics. Orient Blackswan. pa॰ 46. ISBN 81-250-0637-0, ISBN 978-81-250-0637-4.
  6. a aa i Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1930s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1930s.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-02.
  7. a aa Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1940s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1940s.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-02.
  8. a aa i Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1946). "Chapter X: Social Stagnation". Pakistan or the Partition of India. Bombay: Thackers Publishers. pp. 215–219. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_partition/410.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-08.
  9. a aa Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1950s" (PHP). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/timeline/1950s.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-02.
  10. http://mohallalive.com/2010/02/23/a-play-based-on-ambedkar-and-gandhi/

yeh bhi dekhein

  • Mahar, Buddhist. Religious Conversion and Socio-Political Emancipation by Johannes Beltz, 2005, New Delhi, Manohar.
  • Reconstructing the World: B.R. Ambedkar and Buddhism in India edited by Johannes Beltz and S. JondhaleNew Delhi: OUP.
  • Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analyzing and Fighting Caste by Christophe Jaffrelot (2005) ISBN 0-231-13602-1
  • Ambedkar and Buddhism by Urgyen Sangharakshita ISBN 0-904766-28-4
  • Ambedkar: Towards an Enlightened India by Gail Omvedt ISBN 0-670-04991-3
  • Life of Babasaheb Ambedkar by C. Gautam, Published by Ambedkar Memorial Trust, London, Milan House, 8 Kingsland Road, London E2 8DA Second Edition, May 2000
  • Thus Spoke Ambedkar Vol-I* (Selected Speeches of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar) Compiled and edited by Bhagwan Das, published by Dalit Today Parkashan,18/455,Indira Nagar, Lucknow (U.P.)India-226016
  • Revival of Buddhism in India and Role of Dr. BabaSaheb B.R. Ambedkar by Bhagwan Das, published by Dalit Today Prakashan,18/455,Indira Nagar, Lucknow (U.P.)India-226016
  • Dr. Ambedkar: A Critical Study by W.N. Kuber, published by People's Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
  • Dr Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar : Anubhav Ani Athavani by Bhaskar Laxman Bholay, A Sahitya Akademi translation award winning book, 2001, Nagpur
  • Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission by Dhananjay Keer published by Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India.
  • Economic Philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar by M.L. Kasare published by B.I. Publications Pvt. Ltd.,New Delhi, India.
  • The Legacy Of Dr. Ambedkar by D.C. Ahir published by B.R.Publishing Corporation, Delhi-110007,India. (ISBN 81-7018-603-X Code No. L00522)
  • Ajnat, Surendra: Ambedkar on Islam. Buddhist Publ., Jalandhar 1986.
  • Fernando, W. J. Basil: Demoralisation and Hope: Creating the Social Foundation for Sustaining Democracy—aA comparative study of N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783 -1872) Denmark and B. R. Ambedkar (1881-1956) India. AHRC Publication., Hong Kong 2000. (ISBN 962-8314-08-4)
  • http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_partition/index.html Pakistan or the Partition of India

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