bhavabhooti

bhavabhooti, sanskrut ke mahaan kavi evam sarvashreshth naatakakaar the. unke naatak, kaalidaas ke naatakon ke samatulya maane jaate hain. bhavabhooti ne apne sambandh mein mahaaveeracharit‌ ki prastaavana mein likha hai. ye Vidarbh desh ke 'padmapur' naamak sthaan ke nivaasi shri bhattagopaal ke putr the. inke pita ka naam neelakanth aur maata ka naam jatukarni tha. inhonne apna ullekh 'bhattashreekanth pachhalaanchhani bhavabhootirnaam' se kiya hai. inke guru ka naam 'jnyaaananidhi' tha. maalateemaadhaav ki puraatan prati mein praapt 'bhatt shri kumaaril shishyen virchit mind prakaranam‌' tatha 'bhatt shri kumaaril prasaadaatpraapt vaagvaibhavasya umbekaachaaryasyeyan kruti' is ullekh se gyaat hota hai ki shreekanth ke guru kumaaril the jinka 'jnyaaananidhi' bhi naam tha aur bhavabhooti hi meemaansak umbekaachaarya the jinka ullekh darshan granthon mein praapt hota hai aur inhonne kumaaril ke shlokavaartik ki teeka bhi ki thi. sanskrut saahitya mein mahaan‌ daarshanik aur naatakakaar hone ke naate ye adviteeya hain. paanditya aur vidgdhata ka yeh anupam yog sanskrut saahitya mein durlabh hai.

shankaradigvijya se gyaat hota hai ki umbek, mandan sureshvar, ek hi vyakti ke naam the. bhavabhooti ka ek naam 'umbek' praapt hota hai at: naatakakaar bhavabhooti, meemaansak umbek aur advaitamat mein Dixit sureshvaraachaarya ek hi hain, aisa kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai.

raajatarangini ke ullekh se inka samay ek prakaar se nishchit sa hai. ye kaanyakubj ke naresh yashovarman ke sabhaapandit the, jinhein lalitaaditya ne paraajit kiya tha. 'gaudavaho' ke nirmaata vaakyapatiraaj bhi usi darbaar mein the at: inka samay aathaveen shataabdi ka poorvaardh siddh hota hai.

anukram

parichay

bhavabhooti, padmapur mein ek deshasth braahman parivaar mein paida hue the. padmapur Maharashtra ke gondiya jile mein Maharashtra aur Madhya Pradesh ki seema par sthit hai.

apne baare mein sanskrut kaviyon ka maun ek parampara ban chuka hai, par bhavabhooti ne is paramparaagat maun ko toda hai aur apne teenon naatakon ki prastaavana mein apna parichay prastut kiya hai. 'mahaaveeracharit' ka yeh ullekha—

'asti dakshinaapathe padmapur naam nagaram. tatr kechittaittireeyaa: kaashyapaashcharanagurav: panktipaavanaa: panyachaagnayo dhrutavrataa: somapeethin udumbaranaamaano brahmavaadin: prativsanti. tadaamushyaayanasya tatrabhavato vaajapeyayaajino mahaakave: panyacham: sugruheetanaamno bhattagopaalasya pautr: pavitrakeerterneelakanthasyaatmasambhav: shreekandapadalaanyahan: padavaakyapramaanajnyao bhavabhootaanaam jaatukarneeputr:.....'

(anuvaad : 'dakshinaapath mein padmapur naam ka nagar hai. vahaaain kuchh braahmajnyaaani braahman rahate hain, jo taittireeya shaakha se jude hain, kashyapagotri hain, apni shaakha mein shreshth, panktipaavan, panchaagni ke upaasak, vrati, somayaajnyaik hain evam udumbar upaadhi dhaaran karte hain. isi vansh mein vaajapeya yagya karanevaale prasiddh mahaakavi hue. usi parampara mein paaainchavein bhavabhooti hain jo svanaamadhanya bhattagopaal ke pautr hain aur pavitra keerti vaale neelakanth ke putr hain. inki maata ka naam jaatukarni hai aur ye shreekanth padavi praapt, pad, vaakya aur pramaan ke jnyaaata hain.')

'shreekanth padalaanyahan: bhavabhartinaam' is ullekh se yeh prakat hota hai ki shreekanth kavi ki upaadhi thi aur bhavabhooti naam tha. kintu kuchh teekaakaaron ka yeh vishvaas hai ki kavi ka naam neelakanth tha aur bhavabhooti upaadhi thi, jo unhein kuchh vishesh padon ki rachana ki prashansa mein mili thi. is paksh ki pushti mein 'mahaaveeracharit' evam 'uttararaamacharit' ke teekaakar veer raaghava1 ne is vaakya ki vyaakhya is prakaar prastut ki hai—

"shreekanthapadan laanyahanan naam yasya s:. 'laanyahano naam-lakshmano:' iti ratnamaala. pitrukrutanaamedam...bhavabhootirnaam 'saamba punaatu bhavabhootipvitramoorti:.' iti shlokarachana santushten raajnyaa bhavabhootiriti khyaapit:."

is vyaakhya ke anusaar 'shreekanth', bhavabhooti ka naam tha, kyonki 'laanyahan' shabd naam ka parichaayak hai. 'saamba punaatu bhavabhootipvitramoorti:'—ashiv ki bhasm se pavitra nigrahavaali maata paarvati tumhein pavitra karein—ais shlok ki rachana se prasann hokar raaja ne unhein 'bhavabhooti' padavi se sammaanit kiya.

jagaddhar 'maalati maadhav' ki teeka mein ' naamna shreekanth:; prasiddhaya bhavabhootirityarth:' tatha tripuraari ne bhi isi naatak ki teeka mein 'bhavabhootirit vyavahaare tasyedan naamaantaram' kehkar isi mat ka pratipaadan kiya hai ki shreekanth ka naam tha aur bhavabhooti prasiddhi tatha vyavahaar ka naam tha.

'uttararaamacharit' ke teekaakaar ghanashyaam ke shabd 'bhavaat shivaat bhooti: bhasm sampad yasya ishvarenaiv jaati dvijroopen vibhootirdatta'—aki swayam bhav (Shiv) ne kavi ko apni 'bhooti' pradaan ki, at: use 'bhavabhooti' pukaara gaya, - isi mat ki pushti karte hain.

rachanaaeain

bhavabhooti dvaara rachit teen naatak praapt hote hain -

mahaaveeracharit

jismein Ramvivaah se lekar raajyaabhishek tak ki katha nibddh ki gayi hai. kavi ne katha mein kai kaalpanik parivartan kiye hain jinse chirparichit raamakatha mein rochakata aa gayi hai. yeh veerarasapradhaan naatak hai.

uttararaamacharit

sanskrut saahitya mein karun ras ki maarmik abhivyanjana mein yeh naatak sarvotkrusht hai. ismein saat ankon mein Ram ke uttar jeevan ko, jo Abhishek ke baad aarambh hota hai, chitrit kiya gaya hai jismein seetaanirvaasan ki katha mukhya hai. antar yeh hai ki raamaayan mein jahaaain is katha ka paryavasaan (seeta ka antardhaan) shokapoorn hai, vahaaain is naatak ki samaapti Ram seeta ke sukhad milan se ki gayi hai.

maalateemaadhav

yeh 10 ankon ka prakaran hai jismein maalati aur maadhav ki kalpanaaprasoot premakatha hai. yuvaavastha ke unmaadak prem ka ismein utkrusht varnan hai. ismein sthaan sthaan par prakruti ka vishesh varnanachitr praapt hota hai.

bhaasha-shaili

bhaasha aur shaili ke prayog mein inki vichkshanata adviteeya hai. saral aur klisht, samaasasankul gaadhbandh aur samaasarahit donon prakaar ki shailiyon ka inhonne utkrusht prayog kiya hai-kaheen madhur padaavali aur kaheen vikt gaadhbandh. saath hi unki bhaasha avsar or vyakti ke anuroop hoti hai. unki shaili mein vaachyaarth ki pradhaanata hai kintu vyarth ka vaagaadanbar naheen. prakruti ke ghor aur prachand roop ki or kavi ka dhyaan adhik hai. saath hi arth ke anuroop dhvani utpann karne mein kavi ka naipunya pade-pade vyanjit hota hai.

yeh ek naatak hi kavi ki pratima aur paanditya ki abhivyakti ke liye alan hai. inhonne kaha hai - 'eko ras: karun ev' (karoonaras hi ekamaatr ras hai). is naatak mein anek rason ka roop dhaaran karke karun ras sahrudayon ke hrudaya par apna prabhaav chhod jaata hai. apne naatak mein prem ke jis uchch aur aadarsh roop ki kavi ne pratishtha ki hai vah avastha ke saath dhalata naheen aur bhi poorn tatha udaatt roop praapt karta hai. sambhavat: yahi kaaran hai ki kavi ne naari ke baahya saundarya ke varnan ki or vishesh dhyaan naheen diya hai aur uske ant:saundarya ko hi udghaatit kiya hai. prem ki is pavitrata ke saath vishvaas ki mahima, hrudaya ki mahatta, bhaasha k gambheerta aur bhaavon ke tarangaayit kreedaavilaas mein yeh naatak saahitya mein 'eko ras: karun ev' ke samaan ek hi hai.

paanditya aur pratibha ke ghani bhavabhooti ke naatakon mein shaastron ka vyaapak gyaan, bhaasha ki praudhta, bhaav ki garima aur nireekshan ki sookshmata ke kaaran sarasata ke sthaan par gaanbheerya aur udaattata vishesh praapt hoti hai. sambhavat: in kaaranon se us samay kavi ki rachanaaeain adhik lokapriya na ho sakeen aur unke naatakon ka us samay kisi raajasabha mein abhinay na ho saka. ujjayini mein mahaakaalayaatra ke avsar par ekatr puravaasiyon ke samaksh ki unke naatakon ka abhinay hua aur tadanantar ve yashovarma ke raajya mein samaadrut hue. maalateemaadhav ki prastaavana mein unki garvokti 'ye naam kechidih na: prathayantyavajnyaaam‌' (jo kuchh log meri avajnyaa kar rahe hain...) sambhavat: unheen duraalochakon ke prati hai jinse ye niraadrut hote rahe.

baahari kadiyaaain