bhartruhari

bhartruhari ek mahaan sanskrut kavi the. sanskrut saahitya ke itihaas mein bhartruhari ek neetikaar ke roop mein prasiddh hain. inke shatakatraya (neetishtak, shrungaarashatak, vairaagyashatak) ki upadeshaatmak kahaaniyaaain bhaarateeya janamaanas ko vishesh roop se prabhaavit karti hain. pratyek shatak mein sau-sau shlok hain. baad mein inhonne guru gorakhanaath ke shishya bankar vairaagya dhaaran kar liya tha isaliye inka ek lokaprachalit naam Baba bharathari bhi hai.

anukram

jeevan charit

inke aavirbhaav kaal ke sambandh mein matabhed hai. inki jeevani vividhtaaon se bhari hai. raaja bhartruhari ne bhi apne kaavya mein apne samay ka nirdesh naheen kiya hai. ataev dantakathaaon, lokagaathaaon tatha anya saamagriyon ke aadhaar par inka jo jeevan-parichay upalabdh hai vah is prakaar hai :

paramparaanusaar bhartruhari vikramasanvat ke pravartak ke agraj maane jaate hain. vikramasanvat isavi san se 56 varsh poorv praarambh hota hai jo vikramaaditya ke praudhaavastha ka samay raha hoga. bhartruhari vikramaaditya ke agraj the, at: inka samay kuchh aur poorv raha hoga. vikramasanvat ke praarambh ke vishay mein bhi vidvaanon mein matabhed hain. kuchh log isavi san 78 aur kuchh log i0 san 544 mein iska praarambh maanate hain. ye donon mat bhi agraahya prateet hote hain. faarasi granth kalitau dimn: mein panchatantr ka ek padya 'shashidivaakar yorgrahapeedanam' ka bhaav uddhrut hai. panchatantr mein anek granthon ke padyon ka sankalan hai. sambhavat: panchatantr mein ise neetishtak se grahan kiya gaya hoga. faarasi granth 579 i0 se 581 i0 ke ek faarasi shaasak ke nimitt nirmit hua tha. isliye raaja bhartruhari anumaanat: 550 i0 se poorv ham logon ke beech aaye the. bhartruhari ujjayini ke raaja the. ye 'vikramaaditya' upaadhi dhaaran karne vaale chandragupt dviteeya ke bade bhaai the. inke pita ka naam chandrasen tha. patni ka naam pingala tha jise ve atyant prem karte the.

inhonein sundar aur rasapoorn bhaasha mein neeti, vairaagya tatha shrrungaar jaise goodh vishyon par shatak-kaavya likhe hain. is shatakatraya ke atirikt, vaakyapadeeya naamak ek uchch shreni ka vyaakaran granth bhi inke naam par prasiddh hai. kuchh log bhattikaavya ke rachayita bhatti se bhi unka aikya maanate hain. aisa kaha jaata hai ki naathapanth ke vairaagya naamak upapanth ke ye hi pravartak the. cheeni yaatri itsing ke anusaar inhonne bauddh-dharm grahan kiya tha parantu anya sootron ke anusaar ye advait vedaantaachaarya the. cheeni yaatri itsing ke yaatra vivran se yeh gyaat hota hai ki 651 isvi mein bhartruhari naamak ek vaiyaakaran ki mrutyu huyi thi. is prakaar inka saataveen shataabdi ka prateet hota hai parantu bhaarateeya puraanon mein inke sambandh mein ullekh hone se sanket milta hai ki itsing dvaara varnit bhartruhari koi anya rahe honge. bhrutahari ji ki ek yeh bhi katha padhne ko mili hai ki inke ek aur raani anangasena thi jisko raaja bahut pyaar karte the.usaka raaja ke ghode ke charavaahe chandrachood se bhi pyaar tha aur senaapati se bhi tha.us senaapati ka nagaravadhoo roopalekha ke ghar bhi aana jaana tha.raaja bhi us roopalekha ke yahaaain chandrachood kochavaan ke saath bagghi mein baithakar jaate the.is tarah chandrachood aur senaapati donon ka hi raani anangasena aur roopalekha se pyaar ka sambandh tha.yeh baat yogi gorakhanaath ji ko pata chali to unhonne hi kisi braahman ke saath amarafal bheja. raaja ne vo amarafal raani anangasena ko diya.raani ne vo amarafal chandrachood ko diya.chandrachood jab us amarafal ko liya aur jab vo raaja bhartahari ko roopalekha ke yahaaain le gaya.tab raaja jab madahosh ho gaya tab chandrachood ne uske saath pyaar kar ke vo amarafal roopalekha ko yeh kehkar de diya ki vo usako khaayegi to amar ho jaayegi aur usaka chirkaal tak yauvan bana rahega. vahi fal roopalekha ne raaja ko de diya ki vo usako khaaenge to amar ho jaayeinge.vo khud ke jeevan se ghruna karti thi. us fal ko dekh raaja krodhit ho gaye.poochhane par roopalekha ne chandrachood ka naam bataaya ki useene usako amarafal diya tha.jab chandrachood ne ko raaja talavaar nikaal kar sach poochha to usane raani anangasena ke saath apne sambandh kaboole aur senaapati ka bhi bhed bataaya. us din amaavasya ki raat thi.raaja aagababoola hokar nangi talavaar liye shor karta hua anagasena ke aavaas ki taraf badh chala.anagasena ne raaja ke krodh se darakar sach maan liya.lekin usi amaavasya ki raat raani ne aatmadaah kar liya.sais chandrachood ko desh nikaala diya gaya aur senaapati ko mrutyudand diya gaya. ab raaja udaas rahate the.pingala ne hi unako aakhet ke liye bheja tha.fir aakhet ke samay ek sainik maara gaya to usaki patni usaki deh ke saath sati ho gayi. raaja soch mein pad gaya.ek naari thi anagasena.ek naari hai roopalekha.aur ek naari hai us sainik ki patni. kya hai naari?? ab pigla waali baat aati hai jab raaja ki maut ka jhootha samaachaar sunate hi raani marne ko taiyaar ho jaati hai. jab gorakhanaath ji mrut hirn ko jeevit kar dete hai tab vo raajapaat se bahut oobe hue hote hai. gorakhanaath ji ek shart rakhate hain ki vo raani pingala ko maata kehkar mahal se bhiksha laaen to hi ve unako apna shishya banaayege.raani pigla bahut pativruta thi. bhagava dhaaran karke raajamahal ke dwaar aakar raaja bhrutahari aavaaj lagaate hai:-alakh niranjan.maata pingala bhikshaam dehi. pingala raani ki aaainkhon se jal dhaara bah niklati hai. kaafi vaartaalaap ke baad raani bhiksha paatr mein daal deti hai. iske baad gorakhanaath ji unako shishya banaakar apne saath le jaate hain.

kinvadantiyaaain

inke jeevan se sambandhit kuchh kinvadantiyaaain is prakaar hai -

ek baar raaja bhartruhari apni patni pingala ke saath jungle mein shikaar khelne ke liye gaye hue the. vahaaain kaafi samay tak bhatakate rahane ke baad bhi unhein koi shikaar naheen mila. niraash pati-patni jab ghar laut rahe the, tabhi raaste mein unhein hirnon ka ek jhund dikhaai diya. jiske aage ek mrug chal raha tha. bhartruhari ne us par prahaar karna chaaha tabhi pingala ne unhein rokate hue anurodh kiya ki mahaaraaj, yeh mrugaraaj 7 sau hirniyon ka pati aur paalanakarta hai. isaliye aap usaka shikaar na karein. bhartruhari ne patni ki baat naheen maani aur hirn ko maar daala jisse vah maranaasann hokar bhoomi par gir pada. praan chhodte-chhodte hirn ne raaja bhartruhari se kaha- tumane yeh theek naheen kiya. ab jo main kehta hooain usaka paalan karo. meri mrutyu ke baad mere seeng shrrungeebaaba ko, mere netr chanchal naari ko, meri tvacha saadhu-santon ko, mere pair bhaagane vaale choron ko aur mere shareer ki mitti paapi raaja ko de do. hirn ki karunaamayi baatein sunakar bhartruhari ka hrudaya dravit ho utha. hirn ka kalevar ghode par laad kar vah maarg mein chalne lage. raaste mein unki mulaakaat Baba gorakhanaath se hui. bhartruhari ne is ghatna se avagat karaate hue unase hirn ko jeevit karne ki praarthana ki. is par Baba gorakhanaath ne kaha- main ek shart par ise jeevanadaan de sakta hooain ki iske jeevit ho jaane par tumhein mera shishya banana padega. raaja ne gorakhanaath ki baat maan li.

bhartruhari ne vairaagya kyon grahan kiya yeh batalaane waali anya kinvadantiyaan bhi hain jo unhein raaja tatha vikramaaditya ka jyeshth bhraata batalaati hain. inke granthon se gyaat hota hai ki inhein aisi priytama se niraasha hui thi jise ye bahut prem karte the. neeti-shatak ke praarambhik shlok mein bhi niraash prem ki jhalak milti hai. aisa kaha jaata hai ki unhonne prem mein dhokha khaane par vairaagya jeevan grahan kar liya tha, jiska vivran is prakaar hai. is anushruti ke anusaar ek baar raaja bhartruhari ke darbaar mein ek saadhu aaya tatha raaja ke prati shraddha pradarshit karte hue unhein ek amar fal pradaan kiya. is fal ko khaakar raaja ya koi bhi vyakti amar ko sakta tha. raaja ne is fal ko apni priya raani pingala ko khaane ke liye de diya, kintu raani ne use swayam na khaakar apne ek priya senaanaayak ko de diya jiska sambandh raajanartiki se tha. usane bhi fal ko swayam na khaakar use us raajanartiki ko de diya. is prakaar yeh amar fal raajanartiki ke paas pahuainch gaya. fal ko paakar us raajanartiki ne ise raaja ko dene ka vichaar kiya. vah raajadarabaar mein pahuainchi tatha raaja ko fal arpit kar diya. raani pingala ko diya hua fal raajanartiki se paakar raaja aashcharyachakit rah gaye tatha ise uske paas pahuainchane ka vruttaant poochha. raajanartiki ne sankshep mein raaja ko sab kuchh batala diya. is ghatna ka raaja ke oopar atyant gahra prabhaav pada tatha unhonne sansaar ki nashvarata ko jaanakar sannyaas lene ka nishchaya kar liya aur apne chhote bhaai vikram ko raajya ka uttaraadhikaari banaakar van mein tapasya karne chale gaye. inke teenon hi shatak utkrushtatam sanskrut kaavya hain. inke anek padya vyaktigat anubhooti se anupraanit hain tatha unamein aatm-darshan ka tattv poornaroopen parilkshit hota hai.

bhavishya puraan se gyaat hota hai ki raaja vikramaaditya ka samay atyant sukh aur samruddhi ka tha. us samay unke raajya mein jayant naam ka ek braahman rahata tha. ghor tapasya ke parinaam svaroop use indr ke yahaaain se ek fal ki praapti hui thi jiski visheshata yeh thi ki koi bhi vyakti use kha lene ke uparaant amar ho sakta tha. fal ko paakar braahman apne ghar chala aaya tatha use raaja bhartruhari ko dene ka nishchaya kiya aur unhein de diya. ek anya anushruti ke anusaar bhartruhari vikramaaditya ke bade bhaai tatha Bhaarat ke prasiddh samraat the. ve maalava ki rajdhani ujjayini mein nyaaya poorvak shaasan karte the. unki ek raani thi jiska naam pingala bataaya jaata hai. raaja usase atyant prem karte the, jabki vah mahaaraaja se atyant kapatapoorn vyavahaar karti thi. yadyapi inke chhote bhaai vikramaaditya ne raaja bhartruhari ko anek baar sachesht kiya tha tathaapi raaja ne uske prem jaal mein fainse hone ke kaaran uske kriya-kalaapon par dhyaan naheen diya tha. us anushruti ke aadhaar par yeh sanket milta hai ki bhartruhari maalava ke nivaasi tatha vikramaaditya ke bade bhaai the.

kaavya shaili

bhartruhari sanskrut muktakakaavya parampara ke agrani kavi hain. inheen teen shatakon ke kaaran unhein ek safal aur uttam kavi maana jaata hai. inki bhaasha saral, manoram, madhur aur pravaahamayi hai. bhaavaabhivyakti itni sashakt hai ki vah paathak ke hrudaya aur man donon ko prabhaavit karti hai. unke shatakon mein chhandon ki vividhta hai. bhaav aur vishay ke anukool chhand ka prayog, vishay ke anurup udaaharan aadi se unki sooktiyaaain jan-jan mein prachalit rahi hain aur samay-samay par jeevan mein maargadarshan aur prerana deti rahi hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • bharathari

baahari kadiyaaain