bhakti kaal

hindi saahitya ka bhakti kaal 1375 io se 1700 io tak maana jaata hai. yeh hindi saahitya ka shreshth yug hai. samast hindi saahitya ke shreshth kavi aur uttam rachanaaen is yug mein praapt hoti hain.

dakshin mein aalavaar bandhu naam se kai prakhyaat bhakt hue hain. inmein se kai tathaakathit neechi jaatiyon ke bhi the. ve bahut padhe-likhe naheen the, parantu anubhavi the. aalavaaron ke pashchaat dakshin mein aachaaryon ki ek parampara chali jismein raamaanujaachaarya pramukh the.

raamaanujaachaarya ki parampara mein raamaanand hue. aapka vyaktitv asaadhaaran tha. ve us samay ke sabse bade aachaarya the. unhonne bhakti ke kshetr mein oonch-neech ka bhed tod diya. sabhi jaatiyon ke adhikaari vyaktiyon ko aapne shishya banaaya. us samay ka sootr ho gayaa:

jaati-paanti poochhe nahin koi.
hari ko bhajai so hari ka hoi.

raamaanand ne vishnu ke avataar Ram ki upaasana par bal diya. raamaanand ne aur unki shishya-mandali ne dakshin ki bhaktiganga ka uttar mein pravaah kiya. samast uttar-Bhaarat is punya-pravaah mein bahne laga. Bhaarat bhar mein us samay pahunche hue sant aur mahaatma bhakton ka aavirbhaav hua.

mahaaprabhu vallabhaachaarya ne pushti-maarg ki sthaapana ki aur vishnu ke krushnaavataar ki upaasana karne ka prachaar kiya. aapke dvaara jis leela-gaan ka upadesh hua usane deshbhar ko prabhaavit kiya. ashtachhaap ke suprasidhd kaviyon ne aapke upadeshon ko madhur kavita mein pratibinbit kiya.

iske uparaant maadhv tatha ninbaark sanpradaayon ka bhi jan-samaaj par prabhaav pada hai. saadhana-kshetr mein do anya sanpradaaya bhi us samay vidyamaan the. naathon ke yog-maarg se prabhaavit sant sanpradaaya chala jismein pramukh vyaktitv sant kabeeradaas ka hai. musalmaan kaviyon ka soofeevaad hinduon ke vishishtaadvaitavaad se bahut bhinn naheen hai. kuchh bhaavuk musalmaan kaviyon dvaara soofeevaad se rangi hui uttam rachanaaen likhi gain.

sankshep mein bhakti-yug ki chaar pramukh kaavya-dhaaraaen milti hain :

  • sagun bhakti
  • raamaashrayi shaakha aur
  • krushnaashrayi shaakha
  • nirgun bhakti
  • jnyaaanaashrayi shaakha aur
  • premaashrayi shaakha

anukram

parichay

terahaveen sadi tak dharm ke kshetr mein badi astavyastata aa gayi. janta mein siddhon aur yogiyon aadi dvaara prachalit andhavishvaas fail rahe the, shaastrajnyaaanasanpann varg mein bhi roodhiyon aur aadanbar ki pradhaanata ho chali thi. maayaavaad ke prabhaav se lokavimukhata aur nishkriyta ke bhaav samaaj mein panapane lage the. aise samay mein bhaktiaandolan ke roop mein aisa bhaaratavyaapi vishaal saanskrutik aandolan utha jisne samaaj mein utkarshavidhaayak saamaajik aur vaiyaktik moolyon ki pratishtha ki.

bhakti aandolan ka aarambh dakshin ke aalavaar santon dvaara dasveen sadi ke lagbhag hua. vahaaain shankaraachaarya ke advaitamat aur maayaavaad ke virodh mein chaar vaishnav sanpradaaya khade hue. in chaaron sanpradaayon ne uttar Bhaarat mein vishnu ke avataaron ka prachaaraprasaar kiya. inmein se ek ke pravartak raamaanujaachaarya the, jinki shishyaparanpara mein aanevaale raamaanand ne (pandrahaveen sadi) uttar Bhaarat mein raamabhakti ka prachaar kiya. raamaanand ke Ram brahm ke sthaanaapann the jo raakshason ka vinaash aur apni leela ka vistaar karne ke liye sansaar mein avateern hote hain. bhakti ke kshetr mein raamaanand ne ooainchaneech ka bhedabhaav mitaane par vishesh bal diya. Ram ke sagun aur nirgun do roopon ko maananevaale do bhakton - kabeer aur tulasi ko inhonne prabhaavit kiya. vishnusvaami ke shuddhaadvait mat ka aadhaar lekar isi samay ballabhaachaarya ne apna pushtimaarg chalaaya. baarahaveen se solahaveen sadi tak poore desh mein puraanasammat krushnacharit‌ ke aadhaar par kai sanpradaaya pratishthit hue, jinmein sabse jyaada prabhaavashaali vallabh ka pushtimaarg tha. unhonne shaankar mat ke viruddh brahm ke sagun roop ko hi vaastavik kaha. unke mat se yeh sansaar mithya ya maaya ka prasaar naheen hai balki brahm ka hi prasaar hai, at: satya hai. unhonne Krishna ko brahm ka avataar maana aur usaki praapti ke liye bhakt ka poorn aatmasamarpan aavashyak batalaaya. bhagavaan‌ ke anugrah ya pushti ke dvaara hi bhakti sulabh ho sakti hai. is sanpradaaya mein upaasana ke liye gopeejanavallabh, leelaapurushottam Krishna ka madhur roop sveekrut hua. is prakaar uttar Bhaarat mein vishnu ke Ram aur Krishna avataaron pratishtha hui.

yadyapi bhakti ka srot dakshin se aaya tathaapi uttar Bhaarat ki nai paristhitiyon mein usane ek naya roop bhi grahan kiya. musalmaanon ke is desh mein bas jaane par ek aise bhaktimaarg ki aavashyakta thi jo hindu aur musalmaan donon ko graahya ho. iske atirikt nimn varg ke liye bhi adhik maanya mat vahi ho sakta tha jo unheen ke varg ke purush dvaara pravartit ho. Maharashtra ke sant naamadev ne 14veen shataabdi mein isi prakaar ke bhaktimt ka saamaanya janta mein prachaar kiya jismein bhagavaan‌ ke sagun aur nirgun donon roop gruheet the. kabeer ke santamat ke ye poorvapurush hain. doosari or soofi kaviyon ne hinduon ki lokakathaaon ka aadhaar lekar ishvar ke premamaya roop ka prachaar kiya.

is prakaar in vibhinn maton ka aadhaar lekar hindi mein nirgun aur sagun ke naam se bhaktikaavya ki do shaakhaaeain saath saath chaleen. nirgunamat ke do upavibhaag hue - jnyaaanaashrayi aur premaashrayi. pehle ke pratinidhi kabeer aur doosare ke jaayasi hain. sagunamat bhi do upadhaaraaon mein pravaahit hua - raamabhakti aur krushnabhakti. pehle ke pratinidhi tulasi hain aur doosare ke sooradaas.

bhaktikaavya ki in vibhinn pranaliyon ki apni alag alag visheshataaeain hain par kuchh aadhaarbhoot baaton ka sannivesh sab mein hai. prem ki saamaanya bhoomika sabhi ne sveekaar ki. bhaktibhaav ke star par manushyamaatr ki samaanata sabko maanya hai. prem aur karuna se yukt avataar ki kalpana to sagun bhakton ka aadhaar hi hai par nirgunopaasak kabeer bhi ane Ram ko priya, pita aur svaami aadi ke roop mein smaran karte hain. gyaan ki tulana mein sabhi bhakton ne bhaktibhaav ko gaurav diya hai. sabhi bhakt kaviyon ne lokabhaasha ka maadhyam sveekaar kiya hai.

jnyaaanashrayi shaakha ke pramukh kavi kabeer par taatkaalik vibhinn dhaarmik pravruttiyon aur daarshanik maton ka sammilit prabhaav hai. unki rachanaaon mein dharmasudhaarak aur samaajasudhaarak ka roop vishesh prakhar hai. unhonne aacharan ki shuddhata par bal diya. baahyaadanbar, roodhiyon aur andhavishvaason par unhonne teevr kashaaghaat kiya. manushya ki kshamata ka udghosh kar unhonne nimnashreni ki janta mein aatmagaurav ka bhaav jagaaya. is shaakha ke anya kavi raidaas, daadoo hain.

apni vyaktigat dhaarmik anubhooti aur saamaajik aalochna dvaara kabeer aadi santon ne janta ko vichaar ke star par prabhaavit kiya tha. soofi santon ne apne premaakhyaanon dvaara lokamaanas ko bhaavana ke star par prabhaavit karne ka prayatn kiya. jnyaaanamaargi sant kaviyon ki vaani muktakabaddh hai, premamaargi kaviyon ki premabhaavana lokaprachalit aakhyaanon ka aadhaar lekar prabandhakaavya ke roop mein khpaayit hui hai. soofi ishvar ko anant prem aur saundarya ka bhandaar maanate hain. unke anusaar ishvar ko jeev prem ke maarg se hi upalabdh kar sakta hai. saadhaana ke maarg mein aanevaali baadhaaon ko vah guru ya peer ki sahaayata se saahasapoorvak paar karke apne paramapriya ka saakshaatkaar karta hai. soofiyon ne chaahe apne mat ke prachaar ke liye apne kathaakaavya ki rachana ki ho par saahityik drushti se unka moolya isliye hai ki usamein prem aur usase prerit anya sanvegon ki vyanjana sahajabodhya laukik bhoomi par hui hai. unke dvaara vyanjit prem ishvaronmukh hai par saamaanyat: yeh prem laukik bhoomi par hi sankraman karta hai. paramapriya ke saundarya, premakreeda aur premi ke virhodveg aadi ka varnan unhonne itni tanmayata se kiya hai aur unke kaavya ka maanaveeya aadhaar itna pusht hai ki aadhyaatmik prateekon aur roopakon ke baavajood unki rachanaaeain premasamarpit kathaakaavya ki shreshth krutiyaaain ban gayi hain. unke kaavya ka poora vaataavaran lokajeevan ka aur gaarhasthik hai. premaakhyaanakon ki shaili faarasi ke masanavi kaavya jaisi hai.

is dhaara ke sarvapramukh kavi jaayasi hain jinka "padamaavat' apni maarmik premavyanjana, kathaaras aur sahaj kalaavinyaas ke kaaran vishesh prashansit hua hai. inki anya rachanaaon mein "akharaavat' aur "aakhiri kalaam' aadi hain, jinmein soofi sanpradaayasangat baatein hain1 is dhaara ke anya kavi hain kutaban, manjhan, usamaan, shekh, nabi aur nooramuhammad aadi.

jnyaaanamaargi shaakha ke kaviyon mein vichaar ki pradhaanata hai to soofiyon ki rachanaaon mein prem ka ekaantik roop vyakt hua hai. sagun dhaara ke kaviyon ne vichaaraatmak shushkata aur prem ki ekaangita doorakar jeevan ke sahaj ullaasamaya aur vyaapak roop ki pratishtha ki. krushnabhaktishaakha ke kaviyon ne aanandasvaroop leelaapurushottam Krishna ke madhur roop ki pratishtha kar jeevan ke prati gahan raag ko sfoort kiya. in kaviyon mein soorasaagar ke rachayita mahaakavi sooradaas shreshthatam hain jinhonne Krishna ke madhur vyaktitv ka anek maarmik roopon mein saakshaatkaar kiya. ye prem aur saundarya ke nisrgasiddh gaayak hain. Krishna ke baalaroop ki jaisi vimohak, sajeev aur bahuvidh kalpana inhonne ki hai vah apna saani naheen rakhati. Krishna aur gopiyon ke svachhand premaprasangon dvaara soor ne maanaveeya raag ka bada hi nishhal aur sahaj roop udghaatit kiya hai. yeh prem apne sahaj parivesh mein sahayogi bhaavavruttiyon se sanprukt hokar vishesh arthavaan‌ ho gaya hai. Krishna ke prati unka sambandh mukhyat: sakhyabhaav ka hai. aaraadhya ke prati unka sahaj samarpan bhaavana ki gahari se gahari bhoomikaaon ko sparsh karanevaala hai. sooradaas vallabhaachaarya ke shishya the. vallabh ke putr bitthalanaath ne krushnaleelaagaan ke liye ashtachhaap ke naam se aath kaviyon ka nirvaachan kiya tha. sooradaas is mandal ke sarvotkrusht kavi hain. anya vishisht kavi nandadaas aur paramaanandadaas hain. nandadaas ki kalaachetana apekshaakrut vishesh mukhar hai.

madhyayug mein krushnabhakti ka vyaapak prachaar hua aur vallabhaachaarya ke pushtimaarg ke atirikt anya bhi kai sanpradaaya sthaapit hue, jinhonne krushnakaavya ko prabhaavit kiya. hitharivansh (raadhaavallabhi sanpr.), haridaas (tatti sanpr.), gadaadhar bhatt aur sooradaas madanamohan (gaudeeya sanpr.) aadi anek kaviyon ne vibhinn maton ke anusaar krushnaprem ki maarmik kalpanaaeain keen. meera ki bhakti daanpatyabhaav ki thi jo apne svat:sfoort komal aur karun premasangeet se aandotil karti hain. narottamadaas, rasakhaan, senaapati aadi is dhaara ke anya anek pratibhaashaali kavi hue jinhonne hindi kaavya ko samruddh kiya. yeh saara krushnakaavya muktak ya kathaashrit muktak hai. sangeetaatmakata iska ek vishisht gun hai.

krushnakaavya ne bhagavaan‌ ke madhur roop ka udghaatan kiya par usamein jeevan ki anekaroopata naheen thi, jeevan ki vividhta aur vistaar ki maarmik yojana raamakaavya mein hui. krushnabhaktikaavya mein jeevan ke maadhurya paksh ka sfoortiprad sangeet tha, raamakaavya mein jeevan ka neetipksh aur samaajabodh adhik mukharit hua. ek ne svachhand raagatatv ko mahatva diya to doosare ne maryaadit lokachetana par vishesh bal diya. ek ne Bhagwan ki lokaranjanakaari saundaryapratima ka sangathan kiya to doosare ne uske shakti, sheel aur saundaryamaya lokamangalakaari roop ko prakaashit kiya. raamakaavya ka sarvotkrusht vaibhav "raamacharitmaanas' ke rachayita tulaseedaas ke kaavya mein prakat hua jo vidyaavid griyrsan ki drushti mein buddhadev ke baad ke sabse bade jananaayak the. par kaavya ki drushti se tulasi ka mahatva bhagavaan‌ ke ek aise roop ki parikalpana mein hai jo maanaveeya saamarthya aur audaatya ki uchchatam bhoomi par adhishthit hai. tulasi ke kaavya ki ek badi visheshata unki bahumukhi samanvayabhaavana hai jo dharm, samaaj aur saahitya sabhi kshetron mein sakriya hai. unka kaavya lokonmukh hai. usamein jeevan ki visteernata ke saath gaharaai bhi hai. unka mahaakaavya raamacharitmaanas Ram ke sampoorn jeevan ke maadhyam se vyakti aur lokajeevan ke vibhinn pakshon ka udghaatan karta hai. usamein bhagavaan‌ Ram ke lokamangalakaari roop ki pratishtha hai. unka saahitya saamaajik aur vaiyaktik kartavya ke uchch aadarshon mein aastha drudh karanevaala hai. tulasi ki "vinyapatrika' mein aaraadhya ke prati, jo kavi ke aadarshon ka sajeev pratiroop hai, unka nirantar aur nishhal samarpanabhaav, kaavyaatmak aatmaabhivyakti ka utkrusht drushtaant hai. kaavyaabhivyakti ke vibhinn roopon par unka samaan adhikaar hai. apne samay mein prachalit sabhi kaavyashailiyon ka unhonne safal prayog kiya. prabandh aur muktak ki saahityik shailiyon ke atirikt lokaprachalit avadhi aur brajabhaasha donon ke vyavahaar mein ve samaan roop se samarth hain. tulasi ke atirikt raamakaavya ke anya rachayitaaon mein agradaas, naabhaadaas, praanachand chauhaan aur hrudayaraam aadi ullekhya hain.

aaj ki drushti se is sampoorn bhaktikaavya ka mahatva usak dhaarmikta se adhik lokajeevanagat maanaveeya anubhootiyon aur bhaavon ke kaaran hai. isi vichaar se bhaktikaal ko hindi kaavya ka svarn yug kaha ja sakta hai.

krushnaashrayi shaakha

is gun ki is shaakha ka sarvaadhik prachaar hua hai. vibhinn sanpradaayon ke antargat uchch koti ke kavi hue hain. inmein vallabhaachaarya ke pushti-sanpradaaya ke antargat ashtachhaap ke sooradaas kumbhanadaas rasakhaan jaise mahaan kavi hue hain. vaatsalya evam shrrungaar ke sarvottam bhakt-kavi sooradaas ke padon ka paravarti hindi saahitya par sarvaadhik prabhaav pada hai. is shaakha ke kaviyon ne praay: muktak kaavya hi likha hai. Bhagwan shreekrushn ka baal evam kishor roop hi in kaviyon ko aakarshit kar paaya hai isliye inke kaavyon mein shreekrushn ke aishvarya ki apeksha maadhurya ka hi praadhaanya raha hai. praay: sab kavi gaayak the isliye kavita aur sangeet ka adbhut sundar samanvaya in kaviyon ki rachanaaon mein milta hai. geeti-kaavya ki jo parampara jayadev aur vidyaapati dvaara pallavit hui thi usaka charam-vikaas in kaviyon dvaara hua hai. nar-naari ki saadhaaran prem-leelaaon ko raadha-Krishna ki alaukik premaleela dvaara vyanjit karke unhonne jan-maanas ko rasaaplaavit kar diya. aanand ki ek lahar desh bhar mein daud gayi. is shaakha ke pramukh kavi the sooradaas, nandadaas, meera baai, hitharivansh, haridaas, rasakhaan, narottamadaas vagairah. raheem bhi isi samay hue.

Krishna-kaavya-dhaara ki visheshataaeain

Krishna-kaavya-dhaara ke mukhya pravartak hain- shri vallabhaachaarya. unhonne nimbaark, madhv aur vishnusvaami ke aadarshon ko saamane rakhakar shreekrushn ka prachaar kiya. shri vallabhaachaarya dvaara prachaarit pushtimaarg mein Dixit hokar sooradaas aadi ashtachhaap ke kaviyon ne Krishna-bhakti-saahitya ki rachana ki. vallabhaachaarya ne pushtimaarg ka prachaar-prasaar kiya. jiska arth hai- Bhagwan shreekrushn ki bhakti se unki krupa aur anugrah ki praapti karna.

Krishna-kaavya-dhaara ki pramukh visheshataaeain nimnalikhit hain -

  • 1. shreekrushn-saahitya ka mukhya vishay Krishna ki leelaaon ka gaan karna hai. vallabhaachaarya ke siddhaanto se prabhaavit hokar is shaakha ke kaviyon ne Krishna ki baal-leelaaon ka hi adhik varn kiya hai. sooradaas ismein pramukh hai.
  • 2. is shaakha mein vaatsalya evam maadhurya bhaav ka hi praadhaanya hai. vaatsalya bhaav ke antargat Krishna ki baal-leelaaon, cheshtaaon tatha maaain yashoda ke hrrudaya ki jhaaainki milti hai. maadhurya bhaav ke antargat gopi-leela mukhya hai. sooradaas ke baare mein aachaarya raamachandr shukl ne likha hai- vaatsalya ke kshetr mein jitna adhik uddhaatan soor ne apni band aaainkhon se kiya, itna kisi or kavi ne naheen. in kshetron ka to ve kona-kona jhaaaink aaye.
  • 3. is dhaara ke kaviyon ne Bhagwan Krishna ki upaasana maadhurya evam sakhya bhaav se ki hai. iseeliye ismein maryaada ka chitran naheen milta.
  • 4. shreekrushn kaavya mein mukt rachanaaeain hi adhik pai jaati hain. kaavya-rachana ke adhikaanshat: unhonne pad hi chune hain.
  • 5. is kaavya mein geeti-kaavya ki manohaarini chhata hai. iska kaaran hai- Krishna-kaaya ki sangeetaatmakta. Krishna-kaavya mein raag-raaginiyon ka sundar upayog hua hai
  • 6. shreekrushn kaavya mein vishay ki ekta hone ke kaaran bhaavon mein adhiktar ekaroopata pai jaati hai.
  • 7. shreekrushn ko Bhagwan maankar padon ki vinyaavali dvaara pooja jaane ke kaaran ismein bhaavukata ki teevrata adhik pai jaati hai.
  • 8. is kaavya-dhaara mein upama, roopak tatha utpreksha alankaaron ka prayog kiya gaya hai.
  • 9. Krishna-kaavya-dhaara ki bhaasha braj hai. brajabhaasha ki komalakaant padaavali ka prayog ismein hua hai. yeh madhur aur saras hai.
  • 10. is kaavya mein rasamayi uktiyon ke liye tatha saakaar ishvar ke pratipaadan ke liye bhramarageet likhne ki parampara praapt hoti hai.
  • 11. shreekrushn-kaavya svatantr prem-pradhaan kaavya hai. inhonne premalakshana bhakti ko apnaaya hai. isliye ismein maryaada ki avhelna ki gayi hai.
  • 12. Krishna-kaavya vyangyaatmak hai. ismein upaalanbh ki pradhaanata hai. soor ka bhramarageet iska sundar udaaharan hai.
  • 13. shreekrushn kaavya mein lok-jeevan ke prati upeksha ki bhaavana pai jaati hai. iska mukhya kaaran hai- Krishna ke lokaranjak roop ki pradhaanata.
  • 14. shri Krishna-kaavya-dhaara mein gyaan aur karm ke sthaan par bhakti ko pradhaanata di gayi hai. ismein aatm-chintan ki apeksha aatm-samarpan ka mahatva hai.
  • 15. prakruti-varnan bhi is dhaara mein milta hai. graamya-prakruti ke sundar chitr ismein hain.

raamaashrayi shaakha

krushnabhakti shaakha ke antargat leela-purushottam ka gaan raha to raamabhakti shaakha ke pramukh kavi tulaseedaas ne maryaada-purushottam ka dhyaan karna chaaha. isliye aapne raamachandr ko aaraadhya maana aur 'raamacharit maanas' dvaara Ram-katha ko ghar-ghar mein pahuncha diya. tulaseedaas hindi saahitya ke shreshth kavi maane jaate hain. samanvayavaadi tulaseedaas mein lokanaayak ke sab gun maujood the. aapki paavan aur madhur vaani ne janta ke tamaam staron ko raamamaya kar diya. us samay prachalit tamaam bhaashaaon aur chhandon mein aapne raamakatha likh di. jan-samaaj ke utthaan mein aapne sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya hai. is shaakha mein anya koi kavi tulaseedaas ke sam. na ullekhaneeya naheen hai tathaapi agradaas, naabhaadaas tatha praan chand chauhaan bhi is shreni mein aate hain.

raamabhakti shaakha ki pravruttiyaaain raamakaavya dhaara ka pravartan vaishnav sanpradaaya ke svaami raamaanand se sveekaar kiya ja sakta hai . yadyapi raamakaavya ka aadhaar sanskrut saahitya mein upalabdh Ram-kaavya aur naatak rahein hain . is kaavya dhaara ke avlokan se iski nimn visheshataaeain dikhaai padti hain :-

Ram ka svaroop : raamaanujaachaarya ki shishya parampara mein shri raamaanand ke anuyaayi sabhi raamabhakt kavi vishnu ke avataar dasharath-putr Ram ke upaasak hain . avataaravaad mein vishvaas hai . unke Ram parabrahm svaroop hain . unamein sheel, shakti aur saundarya ka samanvaya hai . saundarya mein ve tribhuvan ko lajaavan haare hain . shakti se ve dushton ka daman aur bhakton ki raksha karte hain tatha gunon se sansaar ko aachaar ki shiksha dete hain . ve maryaadaapurushottam aur lokarakshak hain . bhakti ka svaroop : inki bhakti mein sevak-sevya bhaav hai . ve daasya bhaav se Ram ki aaraadhana karte hain . ve swayam ko kshudraatikshudr tatha Bhagwan ko mahaan batalaate hain . tulaseedaas ne likha hai : sevak-sevya bhaav bin bhav na tariya uragaari . Ram-kaavya mein gyaan, karm aur bhakti ki pruthak-pruthak mahatta spasht karte hue bhakti ko utkrusht bataaya gaya hai . tulasi das ne bhakti aur gyaan mein abhed maana hai : bhagatahin jnyaaanahin nahin kuchh bheda . yadyapi ve gyaan ko kathin maarg tatha bhakti ko saral aur sahaj maarg sveekaar karte hain . iske atirikt tulasi ki bhakti ka roop vaidhi raha hai ,vah vedashaastr ki maryaada ke anukool hai . lok-mangal ki bhaavana : raamabhakti saahitya mein Ram ke lok-rakshak roop ki sthaapana hui hai . tulasi ke Ram maryaadaapurushottam tatha aadarshon ke sansthaapak hain . is kaavya dhaara mein aadarsh paatron ki sarjana hui hai . Ram aadarsh putr aur aadarsh raaja hain, seeta aadarsh patni hain to bharat aur Lakshman aadarsh bhaai hain . kaushalya aadarsh maata hai, hanumaan aadarsh sevak hain . is prakaar raamacharitmaanas mein tulasi ne aadarsh gruhasth, aadarsh samaaj aur aadarsh raajya ki kalpana ki hai . aadarsh ki pratishtha se hi tulasi lokanaayak kavi ban gaye hain aur unka kaavya lokamangal ki bhaavana se otaprot hai . samanvaya bhaavana : tulasi ka maanas samanvaya ki viraat cheshta hai . aachaarya hajaari prasaad Dwivedi ke shabdon mein - unka saara kaavya samanvaya ki viraat cheshta hai . lok aur shaastr ka samanvaya, gaarhasthya aur vairaagya ka samanvaya, bhakti aur gyaan ka samanvaya, bhaasha aur sanskrut ka samanvaya, nirgun aur sagun ka samanvaya, paanditya aur apaanditya ka samanvaya raamacharitmaanas mein shuru se aakhir tak samanvaya ka kaavya hai . ham kah sakte hain ki tulasi aadi raamabhakt kaviyon ne samaaj, bhakti aur saahitya sabhi kshetron mein samanvayavaad ka prachaar kiya hai . Ram bhakt kaviyon ki bhaarateeya sanskruti mein poorn aastha rahi . pauraanikta inka aadhaar hai aur varnaashram vyavastha ke poshak hain . lokahit ke saath-saath inki bhakti svaant: sukhaaya thi . saamaajik tatv ki pradhaanata rahi . kaavya shailiyaaain : raamakaavya mein kaavya ki praaya: sabhi shailiyaaain drushtigochar hoti hain . tulaseedaas ne apne yug ki praaya: sabhi kaavya-shailiyon ko apnaaya hai . veeragaathaakaal ki chhappaya paddhati, vidyaapati aur soor ki geetipddhati, gang aadi bhaat kaviyon ki kavitt-savaiya paddhati, jaayasi ki doha paddhati, sabhi ka safalataapoorvak prayog inki rachanaaon mein milta hai . raamaayan mahaanaatak ( praanachand chauhaan) aur hanumananaatak (hdayaraam) mein samvaad paddhati aur keshav ki raamachandrika mein reeti-paddhati ka anusaran hai . ras : raamakaavya mein nav rason ka prayog hai . Ram ka jeevan itna vistrut va vividh hai ki usamein praaya: sabhi rason ki abhivyakti sahaj hi ho jaati hai . tulasi ke maanas evam keshav ki raamachandrika mein sabhi ras dekhe ja sakte hain . raamabhakti ke rasik sanpradaaya ke kaavya mein shrrungaar ras ko pramukhata mili hai . mukhya ras yadyapi shaant ras hi raha . bhaasha : raamakaavya mein mukhyat: avadhi bhaasha prayukt hui hai . kintu brajabhaasha bhi is kaavya ka shrrungaar bani hai . in donon bhaashaaon ke pravaah mein anya bhaashaaon ke bhi shabd aa gaye hain . bundeli, Bhojpuri, faarasi tatha arabi shabdon ke prayog yatr-tatr milte hain . raamacharitmaanas ki avadhi premakaavya ki avadhi bhaasha ki apeksha adhik saahityik hai . chhand : raamakaavya ki rachana adhiktar doha-chaupaai mein hui hai . doha chaupaai prabandhaatmak kaavyon ke liye utkrusht chhand hain . iske atirikt kundaliya, chhappaya, kavitt , soratha , tomar ,tribhangi aadi chhandon ka prayog hua hai . alankaar : raamabhakt kavi vidvaan pandit hain . inhonne alankaaron ki upeksha naheen ki . tulasi ke kaavya mein alankaaron ka sahaj aur svaabhaavik prayog milta hai . utpreksha, roopak aur upama ka prayog maanas mein adhik hai .

jnyaaanaashrayi shaakha

is shaakha ke bhakt-kavi nirgunavaadi the aur naam ki upaasana karte the. guru ko ve bahut sammaan dete the aur jaati-paaainti ke bhedon ko asveekaar karte the. vaiyaktik saadhana par ve bal dete the. mithya aadanbaron aur roodhiyon ka ve virodh karte the. lagbhag sab sant apadh the parantu anubhav ki drushti se samrudhd the. praay: sab satsangi the aur unki bhaasha mein kai boliyon ka mishran paaya jaata hai isliye is bhaasha ko 'sadhukkadi' kaha gaya hai. saadhaaran janta par in santon ki vaani ka zabardast prabhaav pada hai. in santon mein pramukh kabeeradaas the. anya mukhya sant-kaviyon ke naam hain - naanak, raidaas, daadoodayaal, sundaradaas tatha malookadaas.

profesar mahaaveer saran jain ne nirgun bhakti ke svaroop ke baare mein prashn uthaae hain tatha pratipaadit kiya hai ki santon ki nirgun bhakti ka apna svaroop hai jisko vedaant darshan ke sandarbh mein vyaakhyaayit naheen kiya ja sakta. unke shabd hain:

bhak‍aati ya upaasana ke liye gunon ki sat‍aata aavash‍aayak hai. brahm ke sagun s‍aavaroop ko aadhaar banaakar to bhak‍aati / upaasana ki ja sakti hai kin‍aatu jo nirgun evam niraakaar hai usaki bhak‍aati kis prakaar sam‍aabhav hai ? nirgun ke gunon ka aakh‍aayaan kis prakaar kiya ja sakta hai ? gunaateet mein gunon ka pravaah kis prakaar maana ja sakta hai ? jo niraalam‍aab hai, usako aalam‍aaban kis prakaar banaaya ja sakta hai. jo aroop hai, uske roop ki kal‍aapana kis prakaar sam‍aabhav hai. jo raagaateet hai, uske prati raagon ka arpan kis prakaar kiya ja sakta hai ? roopaateet se milne ki ut‍aakantha ka k‍aya auchit‍aaya ho sakta hai. jo naam se bhi ateet hai, uske naam ka jap kis prakaar kiya ja sakta hai.

shaas‍aatreeya drush‍aati se uparyuk‍aat sabhi prash‍aan 'nirgun-bhak‍aati' ke s‍aavaroop ko taal thonkakar chunauti dete hue prateet hote hain. kabeer aadi santon ki daarshanik vivechana karte samay aachaarya raamachan‍aadr shukl ne yeh maan‍aayata s‍aathaapit ki hai ki un‍aahonne niraakaar ish‍aavar ke liye bhaarateeya vedaan‍aat ka pal‍aala pakada hai.is sam‍aaban‍aadh mein jab ham shaankar advaitavaad evam santon ki nirgun bhak‍aati ke tulanaat‍aamak pakshon par vichaar karte hain to uparyuk‍aat maan‍aayata ki seemaayein s‍aapash‍aat ho jaati hain:

  • (k) shaankar advaitavaad mein bhak‍aati ko saadhan ke roop mein s‍aaveekaar kiya gaya hai, kin‍aatu use saadh‍aaya nahi maana gaya hai. santon ne (soofiyon ne bhi) bhak‍aati ko saadh‍aaya maana hai.
  • (kh) shaankar advaitavaad mein muk‍aati ke prat‍aayaksh saadhan ke roop mein 'gyaan' ko grahan kiya gaya hai. vahaaain muk‍aati ke liye bhak‍aati ka grahan aparihaarya naheen hai. vahaaain bhak‍aati ke mahat‍aav ki seema pratipaadit hai. vahaaain bhak‍aati ka mahat‍aav keval is drush‍aati se hai ki vah an‍aat:karan ke maalin‍aaya ka prakshaalan karne mein samarth siddh hoti hai. bhak‍aati aat‍aam-saakshaat‍aakaar naheen kara sakti, vah keval aat‍aam saakshaat‍aakaar ke liye uchit bhoomika ka nirmaan kar sakti hai. santon ne apna charam laksh‍aaya aat‍aam saakshaat‍aakaar ya bhagavad‌-darshan maana hai tatha bhak‍aati ke grahan ko aparihaarya roop mein s‍aaveekaar kiya hai k‍aayonki santon ki drush‍aati mein bhak‍aati hi aat‍aam-saakshaat‍aakaar ya bhagavad‌adarshan karaati hai.

premaashrayi shaakha

musalamaand soofi kaviyon ki is samay ki kaavya-dhaara ko premamaargi maana gaya hai kyonki prem se ishvar praapt hote hain aisi unki maanyata thi. ishvar ki tarah prem bhi sarvavyaapi tatv hai aur ishvar ka jeev ke saath prem ka hi sambandh ho sakta hai, yeh unki rachanaaon ka mool tatv hai. unhonne premagaathaaen likhi hain. ye premagaathaaen faarasi ki masanaviyon ki shaili par rachi gayi hain. in gaathaaon ki bhaasha avadhi hai aur inmein doha-chaupaai chhandon ka prayog hua hai. musalmaan hote hue bhi unhonne hindu-jeevan se sambandhit kathaaen likhi hain. khandan-mandan mein na padkar in fakeer kaviyon ne bhautik prem ke maadhyam se ishvareeya prem ka varnan kiya hai. ishvar ko maashook maana gaya hai aur praay: pratyek gaatha mein koi Rajkumar kisi Rajkumari ko praapt karne ke liye naanaavidh kashton ka saamana karta hai, vividh kasautiyon se paar hota hai aur tab jaakar maashook ko praapt kar sakta hai. in kaviyon mein malik muhammad jaayasi pramukh hain. aapka 'padmaavat' mahaakaavya is shaili ki sarvashreshth rachana hai. anya kaviyon mein pramukh hain - manjhan, kutuban aur usamaan.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain