bhakti aandolan

bhakti aandolan madh‍aayakaaleen Bhaarat ka saans‍aakrutik itihaas mein ek mahat‍aavapoorn padaav tha. is kaal mein saamaajik-dhaarmik sudhaarakon ki dhaara dvaara samaaj vibhinn tarah se Bhagwan ki bhakti ka prachaar-prasaar kiya gaya. yeh ek maun kraanti thi.

yeh abhiyaan hin‍aaduon, muslimon aur sik‍aakhon dvaara bhaarateeya up mahaadveep mein Bhagwan ki pooja ke saath jude reeti rivaajon ke liye uttaradaayi tha. udaaharan ke liye, hin‍aadoo mandiron mein keertan, dargaah mein kav‍aavaali (muslimon dvaara) aur gurudvaare mein gurabaani ka gaayan, ye sabhi madh‍aayakaaleen itihaas mein (800 - 1700) bhaarateeya bhakti aandolan se ut‍aapan‍aan hue hain.

anukram

itihaas

bhakti aandolan ka aarambh dakshin Bhaarat mein aalavaaron evam naayanaaron se hua jo kaalaantar mein (800 E se 1700 E ke beech) uttar Bhaarat sahit sampoorn dakshin Asia mein fail gaya.

is hin‍aadoo kraantikaari abhiyaan ke neta shankaraachaarya the jo ek mahaan vichaarak aur jaane maane daarshanik rahe. is abhiyaan ko chaitan‍aaya mahaaprabhu, naamadev, tukaaraam, jayadev ne aur adhik mukharata pradaan ki. is abhiyaan ki pramukh upalabdhi moorti pooja ko samaap‍aat karna raha.

bhakti aandolan ke neta raamaanand ne Ram ko Bhagwan ke roop mein lekar ise kendrit kiya. unke baare mein bahut kam jaankaari hai, paran‍aatu aisa maana jaata hai ki ve 15veen shataab‍aadi ke prathamaardh mein rahe. un‍aahonne sikhaaya ki Bhagwan Ram sarvoch‍aach Bhagwan hain aur keval unke prati prem aur samarpan ke maadh‍aayam se tatha unke pavitra naam ko baar-baar uch‍aachaarit karne se hi mukti pai jaati hai.

chaitan‍aaya mahaaprabhu ek pavitra hin‍aadoo bhikshu aur saamaajik sudhaar the tatha ve solahaveen shataab‍aadi ke dauraan Bengal mein hue. Bhagwan ke prati prem bhaav rakhane ke prabal samarthak, bhakti yog ke pravartak, chaitan‍aaya ne ish‍aavar ki aaraadhana shreekrush‍aan ke roop mein ki.

shri raamaanujaachaarya, bhaarateeya darshanashaas‍aatri the aur un‍aahein sarvaadhik mahat‍aavapoorn vaish‍aanav sant ke roop mein maan‍aayata di gayi hai. raamaanand ne uttar Bhaarat mein jo kiya vahi raamaanuj ne dakshin Bhaarat mein kiya. un‍aahonne rudhivaadi kuvichaar ki badhti aupachaarikta ke viruddh aavaaj uthaai aur prem tatha samarpan ki neenv par aadhaarit vaish‍aanav vichaaraadhaara ke nae sam‍aapradaayak ki s‍aathaapana ki. unka sarvaadhik asaadhaaran yogadaan apne maanane vaalon ke beech jaati ke bhedabhaav ko samaap‍aat karna.

baarahaveen aur terahaveen shataab‍aadi mein bhakti aandolan ke anuyaayiyon mein bhagat naamadev aur sant kabeer das shaamil hain, jin‍aahonne apni rachanaaon ke maadh‍aayam se Bhagwan ki s‍aatuti ke bhakti geeton par bal diya.

pratham sik‍aakh guru aur sik‍aakh dharm ke pravartak, guru naanak ji bhi nirgun bhakti sant the aur samaaj sudhaarak the. un‍aahonne sabhi prakaar ke jaati bhed aur dhaarmik shatruta tatha reeti rivaajon ka virodh kiya. un‍aahonne ish‍aavar ke ek roop maana tatha hin‍aadoo aur muslim dharm ki aupachaariktaaon tatha reeti rivaajon ki aalochna ki. guru naanak ka siddhaant sabhi logon ke liye tha. un‍aahonne har prakaar se samaanata ka samarthan kiya.

solahaveen aur satrahaveen shataab‍aadi mein bhi anek dhaarmik sudhaarakon ka ut‍aathaan hua. vaish‍aanav sam‍aapradaaya ke Ram ke anuyaayi tatha krush‍aan ke anuyaayi anek chhote vargon aur panthon mein bant gaye. Ram ke anuyaayiyon mein pramukh sant kavi tulaseedaas the. ve at‍aayant vidvaan the aur un‍aahonne bhaarateeya darshan tatha saahit‍aaya ka gahra adh‍aayayan kiya. unki mahaan kruti 'raamacharitmaanas' jise jan saadhaaran dvaara 'tulaseekrut raamaayan' kaha jaata hai, hin‍aadoo shraddhaaluon ke beech at‍aayant lokapriya hai. un‍aahonne logon ke beech shri Ram ki chhavi sarvav‍aayaapi, sarv shaktimaan, duniya ke s‍aavaami aur parabrahm ke saakaar roop se banaai.

krush‍aan ke anuyaayiyon ne 1585 isavi mein harivansh ke antargat raadha bal‍aalabhi panth ki s‍aathaapana ki. sooradaas ne brajabhaasha mein soor saraagar ki rachana ki, jo shri krush‍aan ke mohak roop tatha unki premika raadha ki kathaaon se paripoorn hai.

prabhaav

  • bhakti aandolan ke dvaara hindu dharm ne islaam ke prachaar, jor-jabarajasti evam raajanaitik hastakshep ka kada mukaabala kiya.
  • iska islaam par bhi prabhaav pada. (soofeevaad)

bhakti aandolan ki kuchh visheshataaen

  • yeh aandolan nyoonaadhik poore dakshini Asia (bhaarateeya upamahaadveep) mein faila hua tha.
  • yeh lambe kaal tak chala.
  • ismein samaaj ke sabhi vargon (nimn jaatiyaaain, uchch jaatiyaaain, stri-purush, sanaatani, sikh, musalmaan aadi) ka pratinidhitv raha.

bhakti aandolan ke baare mein vidvaanon ke vichaar

  • baalakrushn bhatt ke liye bhaktikaal ki upayogita anupayogita ka prashn muslim chunauti ka saamana karne se seedhe seedhe jud gaya tha. is drushtikon ke kaaran bhatt ji ne madhyakaal ke bhakt kaviyon ka kaafi kathorata se virodh kiya aur unhein hinduon ko kamjor karne ka jimmedaar bhi thaharaaya. bhakt kaviyon ki kavitaaon ke aadhaar par unke moolyaankan ke bajaay unke raajaneetik sandarbhon ke aadhaar par moolyaankan ka tareeka apnaaya gaya. bhatt ji ne meeraabaai va sooradaas jaise mahaan kaviyon par hindu jaati ke paurush paraakram ko kamjor karne ka aarop madh diya. unke mutaabik samoocha bhaktikaal muslim chunauti ke samaksh hinduon mein mulki josh' jagaane mein naakaam raha. bhakt kaviyon ke gaaye bhajanon ne hinduon ke paurush aur bal ko khatm kar diya.
  • raamachandr shukl ji ne bhakti ko paraajit, asafal evam niraash manovrutti ki den maana tha. anek anya vidvaanon ne is mat ka samarthan kiya jaise, babu gulaab rai aadi. dau॰ Ram Kumar varma ka mat bhi yahi hai - "musalmaanon ke badhte hue aatank ne hinduon ke hrudaya mein bhaya ki bhaavana utpann kar di thi is asahaayaavastha mein unke paas ishvar se praarthana karne ke atirikt anya koi saadhan naheen tha."
  • aachaarya hajaari prasaad Dwivedi ne sarvapratham is mat ka khandan kiya tatha praacheenakaal se is bhakti pravaah ka sambandh sthaapit karte hue apne mat ko spashtat: pratipaadit kiya. unhonne likha - "yeh baat atyant upahaasaaspad hai ki jab musalmaan log uttar Bhaarat ke mandir tod rahe the to usi samay apekshaakrut niraapad dakshin mein bhakt logon ne Bhagwan ki sharanaagati ki praarthana ki. musalmaanon ke atyaachaar se yadi bhakti ki dhaara ko umadna tha to pehle use sindh mein, fir use uttarabhaarat mein, prakat hona chaahiye tha, par hui vah dakshin mein."

bhakti aandolan ke pramukh sant

  • alavar (lagbhag 2ri shataabdi se 8veen shataabdi tak; dakshin Bhaarat mein)
  • nayanaar (lagbhag 5veen shataabdi se 10vi shataabdi tak; dakshin Bhaarat mein)
  • baasav (12veen shati)
  • ekanaath - geeta par bhaashya likha ; vithoba ke bhakt
  • nimbakaachaarya (13veen shataabdi)
  • purandar (15veen shati; Karnataka)
  • sooradaas (1483 - 1563 ; ballabhaachaarya ke shishya the)
  • haridaas (1478 - 1573 ; mahaan sangeetakaar jihone Bhagwan vishnu ke gun gaaye)

parichay

svaami maadhavaachaarya (sanvat‌ 1254-1333) ne 'braahm sampradaaya' naam se dvaitavaadi vaishnav sampradaaya chalaaya jiski or logon ka jhukaav hua. iske saath hi dvaitaadvaitavaad (sanakaadi sampradaaya) ke sansthaapak nimbaarkaachaarya ne vishnu ke doosare avataar Krishna ki pratishtha vishnu ke sthaan par ki tatha lakshmi ke sthaan par raadha ko rakh kar desh ke poorv bhaag mein prachalit Krishna-raadha (jayadev, vidyaapati) ki prem kathaaon ko naveen roop evam utsaah pradaan kiya. vallabhaachaarya ji ne bhi Krishna bhakti ke prasaar ka kaarya kiya. jagat‌aaprasiddh sooradaas bhi is sampradaaya ki prasiddhi ke mukhya kaaran kahe ja sakte hain. sooradaas ne vallabhaachaarya ji se deeksha lekar Krishna ki premaleelaaon evam baal kreedaaon ko bhakti ke rang mein rang kar prastut kiya. maadhuryabhaav ki in leelaaon ne janta ko bahut rasamagn kiya.

is tarah do mukhya sampradaaya sagun bhakti ke antargat apne poore utkarsh par is kaal mein vidyamaan the - raamabhakti shaakha; krushnabhakti shaakha.

iske atirikt bhi do shaakhaaeain prachalit huin - premamaarg (soofi) tatha nirgunamaarg shaakha.

sagun dhaara ke is vikaas kram ke samaanaantar hi baahar se aae hue musalmaan soofi sant bhi apne vichaaron ko saamaanya janta mein faila rahe the. musalmaanon ke is lambe pravaas ke kaaran bhaarateeya tatha muslim sanskruti ka aadaan-pradaan hona svaabhaavik tha. fir in soofi santon ne bhi apne vichaaron ko janasaadhaaran mein vyaapt karne ki, apne maton ko bhaarateeya aakhyaanon mein, bhaarateeya parivesh mein, yaheen ki bhaasha-shaili lekar prastut karne ka safal prayaas kiya. inke maton mein kattarata ka kaheen bhi aabhaas naheen tha. inka mukhya siddhaant prem tattv tha. yadyapi prem ke maadhyam se ishvar ko paane ke liye kiye jaane vaale prayaas (vidhi) mein kuchh antar avashya tha tathaapi inke prem tattv ke pratipaadan evam prasaar shaili ne logon ko aakarshit kiya. inhonne ekeshvaravaad ka pratipaadan bhi kiya jise kuchh logon ne advaitavaad hi maan liya, jo ki uchit naheen hai. hajrat nijaamuddeen chishti, saleem chishti aadi anek santon ne hindu-musalmaan sabka aadar praapt kiya. is soofi mat mein bhi chaar dhaaraaeain mukhyat: chaleen-

(1) chishti sampradaaya
(2) kaadari sampradaaya
(3) suharaavardi sampradaaya
(4) nakshabandiya sampradaaya.

jaayasi, kutuban, manjhan aadi prasiddh (saahityakaar) kaviyon ne hindi saahitya ko amoolya saahitya ratn bheint kiye. nirgunajnyaaanaashrayi shaakha par bhi inka prabhaav pada tatha hindu-musalmaanon ke bhed ko mitaane ki baatein kahi jaane lageen. aachaarya shukl ne bhi inhein 'hindu aur musalmaan hrudaya ko aamne saamane karke ajanabeepan mitaane wala' kaha.

raamaanand ji uttar Bhaarat mein raamabhakti ko lekar aae the. unke siddhaanton mein is bhakti ka svaroop do prakaar ka tha - Ram ka nirgun roop; Ram ka avataari roop. ye donon mat ek saath hi the. nirgun roop mein Ram ka naam to hota par use 'dasharath-sut' ki katha se sambaddh naheen kiya jaata. raamaanand ne dekha ki Bhagwan ki sharan mein aane ke uparaant chhooaa-chhoot, jaaaint-paaaint aadi ka koi bandhan naheen rah jaata at: sanskrut ke pandit aur uchch braahman kulod‌aabhoot hone ke pashchaat bhi unhonne desh-bhaasha mein kavita likhi aur sabko (braahman se lekar nimnajaati vaalon tak ko) Ram-naam ka upadesh diya. kabeer inheen ke shishya the. kabeer, raidaas, dhanna, sena, peepa aadi inke shishyon ne is mat ko prasiddh kiya. raamanaam ke mantra ko lekar chalne vaale akkhad-fakkad santon ne bhed-bhaav bhula kar sabko premapoorvak gale lagaane ki baat kahi. vaidik karmakaand ke dvaara faile hue aadanbaron evam baahya vidhi-vidhaanon ke tyaag par bal dete hue Ram naam ka prem, shraddha se smaran karne ki saral paddhati aur sahaj samaadhi ka prasaar kiya. kabeer mein teen pramukh dhaaraaeain samaahit dikhaai deti hain -

(1) uttarapoorv ke naathapanth aur sahajayaan ka mishrit roop
(2) pashchim ka soofi matavaad aur
(3) dakshin ka vedaantabhaavit vaishnavadharm

hathayog ka kuchh prabhaav in par avashya hai parantu mukhyat: prem tattv par hi bal diya gaya hai. saamaajik sudhaar ke kshetr mein in santon ka mahattvapoorn yog raha hai. in santon ke saahitya mein hamein tatkaaleen yug ki saamaajik, dhaarmik, raajanaitik samast sthitiyon ke darshan ho jaate hain. dhaarmik drushti se bhi inka yog bahut hai. sahaj prem ki bhaasha par bal dene ke kaaran logon ka in par bhi bahut jhukaav raha. kabeer ki mrutyu ke kuchh samay baad ismein bhi sampradaaya ki sthaapana ho gayi. anya shaakhaaon ke samaan iska mahatva bhi bhaktikaal ko poorn banaane mein hai.

ye chaaron shaakhaaeain bhaktikaal ya madhyakaal ke poorv bhaag mein apne utkarsh mein theen. in chaaron hi shaakhaaon ne hindi saahitya ko bade-bade vyaktitv pradaan kiye jaise - soor, tulasi, kabeer aadi. apne bhaktibhaav ki charam utkrushtata ke liye bhi ye janta ke man-maanas par aadhiptya kar sake. aaj bhi ye shraddha evam aadar se dekhe jaate hain. yadyapi kaalaantar mein in sampradaayon mein bhi anaitikta ke tattvon ke pravesh ke kaaran shuddhata naheen rah gayi thi tatha inka patan bhi dheere-dheere ho gaya tha tathaapi jo ad‌aabhut maniyaaain is kaal mein praapt huin, ve kisi bhi anya kaal mein praapt naheen ho sakeen, yeh nissandeh kaha ja sakta hai. bhaktikaal mein har prakaar se kala samruddhi hui, naveen vaataavaran ka janm hua, jan-jan mein bhakti, prem aur shraddha ke srot foot pade, aisa kaal vastut: saahityetihaas ka "svarnakaal" kahalaane yogya hai.

sampradaayon se mukt roop mein bhi bhakti ka prachaar tha. meera, rasakhaan, raheem ka naam utani hi shraddha se liya jaata hai jitna ki kisi sampradaayabaddh sant kavi ka. is tarah kaha ja sakta hai ki janta mein sampradaaya se bhi adhik shuddh bhakti-bhaav ki mahatta thi. aikaantik bhakti ne samashtigt roop dhaaran kiya aur jan-jan ke hrudaya ko aaplaavit kar diya.

tulasi ki mrutyu (1680 E.) ke kuchh samay baad hi reetikaal ke aagaman ke chinh dikhaai dene lage the. Ram ke maryaadaavaadi roop ka saamaanyeekaran karke usamein bhi laukik leelaaon ka samaavesh kar diya gaya. Krishna ki prem bhakti (moolak) jaagrut karne waali leelaaon mein se Krishna ki shrrungaarik leelaaon ko grahan karke usaka ashleel chitran hone laga tha. yeh sthiti reetikaal mein apne ghoratam roop mein pahuainch gayi thi. iseeliye kaha gaya tha "raadhika kanhaai sumarin ko bahaano hai." raamabhakti ka jo roop tulasi ne ankit kiya tha, yadyapi vah dhoomil naheen hua tathaapi raajaaon ke aashray mein rahane vaale kaviyon ne shrrungaarikta ke vaataavaran mein use vismrut kar diya tha. is tarah dheere-dheere E.1680-90 ke aaspaas bhaktikaal samaapt ho gaya.

kaalaantar mein yadyapi janta mein bhaktibhaav vidyamaan rahe tathaapi na to is (tulasi aadi ke samaan) ko mahaan vibhooti paida ho saki aur na koi bahut adhik lokapriya granth hi likha ja saka.

bhakti yug ka yeh aandolan bahut bada aandolan tha evam aisa aandolan Bhaarat ne isse pehle kabhi naheen dekha tha. is saahitya ne janta ke hrudaya mein shraddha, bhakti, vishvaas, jijeevisha jaagrut ki, saahas, ullaas, prem bhaav pradaan kiya, apni maatrubhoomi, iski sanskruti ka viraat evam utsaahavardhak chitr prastut kiya, logon ke hrudaya mein deshaprem bhi prakaarantar se isi kaaran jaagrut hua.

bhaktiyug mein is tarah mukhyat: bhaktiprak saahitya ki rachana hui parantu yeh bhi poornataya naheen kaha ja sakta ki kisi anya prakaar ka saahitya us kaal mein tha hi naheen. yeh Akbar ka shaasan kaal tha tatha uske darbaar mein anek kavi the. abdurraheem khaanakhaana aadi ki raajaprasastiprak kuchh kavitaaeain milti hain. Akbar ne saahitya ki paaramparik dhaara ko bhi protsaahan diya tha at: kaavya ka vah roop bhi krupaaraam ki "hittarangini" beerabal ke futakar dohon aadi mein upalabdh hota hai. iske atirikt neeti parak dohe aadi likhe gaye.

ek aur mahaan kavi aachaarya keshav ko shukl ji ne bhaktikaal ke futakar kaviyon mein rakha hai. yeh kaarya unhonne keshav ke rachanaakaal ke aadhaar par kiya hai. keshav ki alankaar, chhand, ras ke lakshanon - udaaharanon ko prastut karne waali teen mahattvapoorn rachanaaon - kavipriya, rasikpriya tatha raamachandrika ko bhakti se bhinn maan kar bhi unhein is yug ke futakar kaviyon mein shukl ji ne rakha hai parantu yeh uchit naheen hai. keshav ka aachaaryattv poore reetikaal ko gaurav pradaan karta hai. reeti - lakshan -udaaharan ke nirdhaaran ki parampara bhi sarvapratham unheen mein dikhaai deti hai chaahein reetikaal mein is nirdhaaran ke liye keshav ko reetikaal se pruthak karna anuchit hai at: unhein bhaktiyug mein rakhana uchit naheen hai.

bhaktikaal mein lalit kalaaon ka utkarsh dikhaai deta hai. shreekrushn-raadha ki vibhinn leelaaon ke chitr is kaal mein milte hain, komal evam saras bhaavon ko abhivyakt karne waali anek moorttiyaaain is kaal mein milti hai. moortikla ka bahut vikaas is yug mein bahut adhik hua tha. vaastukala, chitrakala mein muslim (Irani) shaili ka samanvaya bhaarateeya shaili mein hua falat: meharaabein, gumbad aadi ka prayog adhik dikhaai dene laga. madhyakaal mein raajasthaani shaili adhik lokapriya thi. maanaveeya chitron ke atirikt praakrutik drushyon ka ankan, darabaari jeevan ke vividh prasang bhi bhitti chitr is yug mein praapt hote hain. 'kutubameenaar', 'adhaai din ka jhaunpada' aadi aitihaasik vaastukala ke apratim namoone hain.

is tarah saahitya ke saath lalit kalaaon ka vikaas bhi bahut adhik hua tha. sangeet ke kshetr mein bahut pragati hui. krushnaleelaaon ka gaayan, saakhi, ramaini, pad ko raag nibddh karne ki jaisi yojana is kaal mein hai vaisi anyatr praapya naheen hai. soor aur tulasi saahitya mein anek raag-raaganiyon ka varnan aata hai.

nishkarshat: kah sakte hain ki bhakti ke ud‌aabhav evam vikaas ke samay jo kuchh bhi bhaarateeya saahitya, bhaarateeya sanskruti tatha itihaas ko praapt hua, vah swayam mein ad‌aabhut, anupam evam durlabh hai. antat: hajaari prasaad Dwivedi ji ke shabdon mein kah sakte hai -

samooche bhaarateeya itihaas mein yeh apne 'g ka akela saahitya hai. isi ka naam bhakti saahitya hai. yeh ek nai duniya hai. bhakti ka yeh naya itihaas manushya jeevan ke ek nishchit lakshya aur aadarsh ko lekar chala. yeh lakshya hai bhagavad‌abhakti, aadarsh hai shuddh saatvik jeevan aur saadhan hai Bhagwan ke nirmal charitra aur saras leelaaon ka gaan.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain