bhakti

bhakti bhajan hai. kiska bhajan? brahm ka, mahaan ka. mahaan vah hai jo chetna ke staron mein moordhanya hai, yajnyaiyon mein yajnyaiya hai, poojaneeyon mein poojaneeya hai, saatvaton, satvasanpannon mein shiromani hai aur ek hota hua bhi anek ka shaasak, karmafalapradaata tatha bhakton ki aavashyakataaon ko poorn karanevaala hai.

parichay

maanav chirkaal se is ek anaadi satta (brahm) mein vishvaas karta aaya hai. bhakti saadhan tatha saadhya dvividh hai. saadhak, saadhan mein hi jab ras lene lagta hai, uske falon ki or se udaaseen ho jaata hai. yahi saadhan ka saadhya ban jaata hai. par pratyek saadhan ka apna pruthak fal bhi hai. bhakti bhi saadhak ko poorn svaadheenata, pavitrata, ekatvabhaavana tatha prabhupraapti jaise madhur fal deti hai. prabhupraapti ka arth jeev ki samaapti naheen hai, sayuja aur sakhaabhaav se prabhu mein avasthit hokar aanand ka upabhog karna hai.

aachaaryan raamaanuj, madhv, ninbaark aadik ka mat yahi hai. maharshi dayaanand likhte hain : jis prakaar agni ke paas jaakar sheet ki nivrutti tatha ushnata ka anubhav hota hai, usi prakaar prabhu ke paas pahuainchakar du:kh ki nivrutti tatha aanand ki upalabdhi hoti hai. 'parameshvar ke sameep hone se sab dosh du:kh chhootakar parameshvar ke gun, karm, svabhaav ke sadrush jeevaatma ke gun, karm aur svabhaav pavitra ho jaate hain. parameshvar ki stuti, praarthana tatha upaasana se aatma ka bal itna badhega ki parvat ke samaan du:kh praapt hone par bhi vah naheen ghabaraaega aur sabko sahan kar sakega.

isaai prabhu mein pitrubhaavana rakhate hain kyonki paashchaatya vichaarakon ke anusaar jeev ko sarvapratham prabhu ke niyaamak, shaasak evam dandadaata roop ka hi anubhav hota hai. brahmaand ka vah niyaamak hai, jeevon ka shaasak tatha unke shubhaashubh karmo ka faladaata hone ke kaaran nyaayakaari dandadaata bhi hai. yeh svaamitv ki bhaavana hai jo pitrubhaavana se thoda hatkar hai. is roop mein jeev paramaatma ki shakti se bhayabheet evam trust rahata hai par uske mahatva evam aishvarya se aakarshit bhi hota hai. apni kshudrata, vivshata evam alpajnyaata ki du:khad sthiti use sarvajnya, sarvasamarth evam mahaan prabhu ki or kheench le jaati hai. bhakti mein daasyabhaav ka praarambh svaami ke saameepyalaabh ka amogh saadhan samjha jaata hai. prabhu ki ruchi bhakt ki ruchi ban jaati hai. apni vyaktigat ichhaaon ka parityaag hone lagta hai. svaami ki seva ka saatatya svaami aur sevak ke beech ki doori ko door karanevaala hai. isse bhakt Bhagwan ke saath aatmeeyata ka anubhav karne lagta hai aur uske parivaar ka ek ang ban jaata hai. prabhu mere pita hain, main unka putr hooain, yeh bhaavana daasyabhaavana se adhik aakarshanakaari tatha prabhu ke nikat laanevaali hai. upaasana shabd ka arth hi bhakt ko Bhagwan ke nikat le jaana hai.

vaatsalyabhaav ka kshetr vyaapak hai. yeh maanavakshetr ka atikraant karke pashu evam pakshiyon ke kshetr mein bhi vyaapt hai. pitrubhaavana se bhi badhkar maatrubhaavana hai. putr pita ki or aakarshit hota hai, par saath hi darata bhi hai. maatrubhaavana mein vah dar door ho jaata hai. maata prem ki moorti hai, mamatv ki pratima hai. putr uske sameep ni:shank bhaav se chala jaata hai. yeh bhaavana vaatsalyabhaav ko janm deti hai. raamaanujeeya vaishnav sanpradaaya mein keval vaatsalya aur karmamirshr vaatsalya ko lekar, jo maarjaarakishor tatha kapikishor nyaaya dvaara samajhaae jaate hain, do dal ho gaye the¾aataikale aur badakaalai ek keval prapatti ko hi sab kuchh samajhte the. doosare prapatti ke saath karm ko bhi aavashyak maanate the.

svaami tatha pita donon ko ham shraddha ki drushti se adhik dekhte hain. maatrubhaavana mein prem badh jaata hai, par daanpatya bhaavana mein shraddha ka sthaan hi prem le leta hai. prem doori naheen naikatya chaahata hai aur daanpatyabhaavana mein yeh use praapt ho jaata hai. shrungaar, madhur athva ujjaval ras bhakti ke kshetr mein isi kaaran adhik apnaaya bhi gaya hai. vedakaal ke rishiyon se lekar madhyakaaleen bhakt santon ki hrudayabhoomi ko pavitra karta hua yeh adyaavadhi apni vyaapakata evam prabhavishnuta ko prakat kar raha hai.

bhakti kshetr ki charam saadhana sakhyabhaav mein samavasit hoti hai. jeev ishvar ka shaashvat sakha hai. prakruti roopi vruksh par donon baithe hain. jeev is vruksh ke fal chakhane lagta hai aur parinaamat: ishvar ke sakhaabhaav se pruthak ho jaata hai. jab saadhana, karta hua bhakti ke dvaara vah prabhu ki or unmukh hota hai to daasya, vaatsalya, daanpatya aadi seedhiyon ko paar karke pun: sakhaabhaav ko praapt kar leta hai. is bhaav mein na das ka dooratv hai, na putr ka sankoch hai aur na patni ka adheen bhaav hai. ishvar ka sakha jeev svaadheen hai, maryaadaaon se oopar hai aur usaka varenya bandhu hai. aachaarya vallabh ne pravaah, maryaada, shuddh athva pusht naam ke jo chaar bhed pushtimaargeeya bhakton ke kiye hain, unamein pushti ka varnan karte hue ve likhte hain : krushnadheenaatu maryaada svaadheen pushtiruchyate. sakhya bhaav ki yeh svaadheenata use bhakti kshetr mein oordhv sthaan par sthit kar deti hai.

bhakti ka taatvik vivechan vaishnav aachaaryo dvaara vishesh roop se hua hai. vaishnav sanpradaaya bhaktipradhaan sanpradaaya raha hai. shreemadbhaagavat aur shreemadbhagavadgeeta ke atirikt vaishnav bhakti par anek shlokabaddh sanhitaaon ki rachana hui. sootr shaili mein usapar naarad bhaktisootr tatha shaandilya bhaktisootr jaise anupam granth likhe gaye. paraadheenata ke samay mein bhi mahaatma roop Goswami ne bhaktirsaayan jaise amoolya granthon ka pranayan kiya. bhakti-tatv-tantr ko hrudayangam karne ke liye in granthon ka adhyayan anivaaryat: apekshit hai. aachaarya vallabh ki Bhagwat par subodhini teeka tatha Narayan bhatt ki bhakti ki paribhaasha is prakaar di gayi hai :

savai punsaan paro dharmo yato bhakti radhokshaje.
ahaitukya pratihta yayaatma sanpraseedati.. 11.2.6

bhagavaan mein heturahit, nishkaam ek nishthaayukt, anvarat prem ka naam hi bhakti hai. yahi purushon ka param dharm hai. isi se aatma prasann hoti hai. 'bhaktirsaamrutasindhu', ke anusaar bhakti ke do bhed hain: gauni tatha para. gauni bhakti saadhanaavastha tatha para bhakti siddhaavastha ki soochak hai. gauni bhakti bhi do prakaar ki hai : vaidhi tatha raagaanuga. pratham mein shaastraanumodit vidhi nishedh arthaat maryaada maarg tatha dviteeya mein raag ya prem ki pradhaanata hai. aachaarya vallabh dvaara pratipaadit vihita evam avihita naam ki dvividha bhakti bhi isi prakaar ki hai aur moksh ki saadhika hai. shaandilya ne sootrasankhya 10 mein inheen ko itara tatha mukhya naam diye hain.

shreemadbhaagavat mein navadha bhakti ka varnan hai :

shravanan keertan vishno: smaranan paadasevanam.
archanan vandanan daasyan sakhyamaatmanivedanam.. 7,5,23

naarad bhaktisootr sankhya 82 mein bhakti ke jo ekaadash bhed hain, unamein gun maahaatmya ke andar navadha bhakti ke shravan aur keertan, pooja ke andar archan, paadasevan tatha vandan aur smaran-daasya-sakhya-aatmanivedan mein inheen naamonvaali bhakti antabhurkt ho jaati hai. roopaasakti, kaantaasakti tatha vaatsalyaasakti Bhagwat ke navadha bhaktivrnan mein sthaan naheen paateen.

nigurn ya avyakt tatha sagun naam se bhi bhakti ke do bhed kiye jaate hain. geeta, Bhagwat tatha soorasaagar ne nirgun bhakti ko agamya tatha kleshakar kaha hai, parantu vaishnav bhakti ka pratham yug jo nivruttipradhaan tatha gyaan-dhyaan-paraayanata ka yug hai, nirgun bhakti se hi sambaddh hai. chitrashikhandi naam ke saat rishi isi roop mein prabhudhyaan mein magn rahate the. raaja vasu uparichr ke saath is bhakti ka doosra yug praarambh hua jismein yajnyaaanushthaan ki pravruttimoolakata tatha tapashcharya ki nivruttimoolakata drushtigochar hoti hai. teesara yug Krishna ke saath praarambh hota hai jismein avataaravaad ki pratishtha hui tatha dravyamaya yajnyaon ke sthaan par jnyaaanamaya evam bhaavamaya yajnyaon ka prachaar hua.

chaturth yug mein pratimaapoojan, devamandir nirmaan, shrungaarasajja tatha shodashopachaar (kalash-shankh-ghanti-deep-pushp aadi) paddhati ki pradhaanata hai. ismein bahirmukhi pravrutti hai. pancham yug mein Bhagwan ke naam, roop, gun, leela aur dhaam ke ateev aakarshak drushya dikhaai dete hain. ved ka yeh puraan mein parinman hai. ismein niraakaar saakaar bana, anant saant tatha sookshm sthool bana. prabhu sthaavar evam jangam donon ki aatma hai. fir jangam chetna hi kyon ? sthaavar dvaara hi usaki abhivyakti aur bhakti kyon na ki jaaya ?

vaishnav aachaarya, kavi evam saadhak sthool tak hi seemit naheen, ve sthool dvaara sookshm tak pahuainche hain. unki rachanaaeain naam dvaara naami ka bodh karaati hain. unhonne Bhagwan ke jin naamon roopon leelaaon tatha dhaamon ka varnan kiya hai, ve na keval sthool maansapindon se hi sambandhit hain, apitu usi ke samaan aadhidaivik jagat tatha aadhyaatmik kshetr se bhi sambandhit hain. raadha aur Krishna, seeta aur Ram, paarvati aur parameshvar, maaya aur brahm, prakruti aur purush, shakti aur shaktimaan, vidyut aur megh, kiran aur soorya, jyotsna aur chandra aadi sabhi paraspar ek doosare mein anusyoot hain. virhaanubhooti ko lekar bhaktikshetr mein vaishnav bhakton ne, chaahe ve dakshin ke hon ya uttar ke, jis maarmik peeda ko abhivyakt kiya hai, vah saadhak ke hrudaya par seedhe chot karti hai aur bahut der use vaheen nimgn rakhati hai. lok se kuchh samay ke liye aalok mein pahuaincha denevaali vaishnav bhakton ki yeh den kitni shlaaghaneeya hai, kitni moolyavaan hai. aur isse bhi adhik moolyavaan hai unki svargapraapti ki maanyata. mukti naheen, kyonki vah mukti ka hi utkrusht roop hai, bhakti hi apekshaneeya hai. svarg parityaaj hai, upekshaneeya hai. iske sthaan par prabhuprem hi sveekaraneeya hai. vaishnav sanpradaaya ki is den ki amit chhaap bhaarateeya hrudaya par padi hai. usane bhakti ko hi aatma ka aahaar sveekaar kiya hai.

bhakti tark par naheen, shraddha evam vishvaas par avalanbit hai. purush gyaan se bhi adhik shraddhaamaya hai. manushya jaisa vichaar karta hai, vaisa ban jaata hai, isse bhi adhik satya is kathan mein hai ki manushya ki jaisi shraddha hoti hai usi ke anukool aur anupaat mein usaka nirmaan hota hai. prerak bhaav hai, vichaar naheen. jo bhakti bhoomi se hataakar dyaava mein pravesh kara de, mitti se jyoti bana de, usaki upalabdhi ham sabke liye nissandeh maheeyasi hai. ghi ke gyaan aur karm donon arth hain. hrudaya shraddha ya bhaav ka prateek hai. bhaav ka prabhaav, vaise bhi, sarvapratham hrudaya ke spandanon mein hi lakshit hota hai.

baahari kadiyaaain