bhagat Singh

bhagat Singh
ਭaaਗaaਤ ਸaaਿaaੰaaਘ
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Bhagat Singh 1929 140x190
janmasthal : gaaainv baavali, jila laayalapur, Punjab (ab Pakistan mein)
mrutyusthal: Lahore jail, Punjab (ab Pakistan mein)
aandolan: bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam
pramukh sangathan: naujavaan Bhaarat sabha, Hindustan soshalist Republican aisosiyeshan, Abhinav Bhaarat


bhagat Singh (janm: 17 ya 28 sitmbar 1907[a] , mrutyu: 23 March 1931) Bhaarat ke ek pramukh svatantrata senaani the. bhagatasinh ne desh ki aajaadi ke liye jis saahas ke saath shaktishaali british sarkaar ka mukaabala kiya, vah aaj ke yuvakon ke liye ek bahut bade aadarsh hai. inhonne kendreeya sansad (sentral assembly) mein bam feinkakar bhi bhaagane se mana kar diya. jiske falasvaroop inhein 23 March 1931 ko inke do anya saathiyon, raajaguru tatha sukhadev ke saath faaainsi par lataka diya gaya. saare desh ne unke balidaan ko badi gambheerata se yaad kiya. pehle Lahore mein saandars-vadh aur uske baad Delhi ki kendreeya assembly mein chandrashekhar aajaad va party ke anya sadasyon ke saath bam-visfot karke british saamraajya ke viruddh khule vidroh ko bulandi pradaan ki. in sabhi bam dhamaako ke liye unhonne veer saavarakar ke kraantidl Abhinav Bhaarat ki bhi sahaayata li aur isi dal se bam banaane ke gur seekhe.

sukhadev, raajaguru tatha bhagat Singh ke latakaaye jaane ki khabar - Lahore se prakaashit the tribyun ke mukhya prushth par.

hindi ke prakhar chintak raamavilaas sharma ne apni pustak svaadheenata sangraam: badalate pariprekshya mein unke baare mein tippani ki hai:

"aisa kam hota hai ki ek kraantikaari doosare kraantikaari ki chhavi ka varnan kare aur donon hi shaheed ho jaayein. raamaprasaad bismil 19 December 1927 ko shaheed hue, usase pehle May 1927 mein bhagatasinh ne kirti mein 'kaakori ke veeron se parichay' lekh likha. unhonne bismil ke baare mein likha - 'aise naujavaan kahaaain se mil sakte hain? aap yuddh vidya mein bade kushal hain aur aaj unhein faaainsi ka dand milne ka kaaran bhi bahut had tak yahi hai. is veer ko faaainsi ka dand mila aur aap hains diye. aisa nirbheek veer, aisa sundar javaan, aisa yogya va uchchakoti ka lekhak aur nirbhaya yoddha milna kathin hai.' san 1922 se 1927 tak raamaprasaad bismil ne ek lambi vaichaarik yaatra poori ki. unke aage ki kadi the bhagatasinh."[4]

anukram

janm aur parivesh

bhagat Singh ka janm[5] 27 September 1907 mein hua tha. unke pita ka naam sardaar kishn Singh aur maata ka naam vidyaavati Kaur tha. yeh ek sikh parivaar tha | amrutasar mein 13 April 1919 ko hue jaliyaaainvaala baag hatyaakaand ne bhagat Singh ki soch par gahra prabhaav daala tha. Lahore ke national kaulej ki padhaai chhodkar bhagat Singh ne Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke liye naujavaan Bhaarat sabha ki sthaapana ki thi. kaakori kaand mein Ram prasaad 'bismil' sahit 4 kraantikaariyon ko faaainsi va 16 anya ko kaaraavaas ki sajaaon se bhagat Singh itne adhik udvign hue ki pandit chandrashekhar aajaad ke saath unki party Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan se jud gaye aur use ek naya naam diya Hindustan soshalist Republican association. is sangathan ka uddeshya seva, tyaag aur peeda jhel sakane vaale navayuvak taiyaar karna tha. bhagat Singh ne raajaguru ke saath milkar 17 December 1928 ko Lahore mein sahaayak police adheekshak rahe angrej adhikaari je0 pee0 saandars ko maara tha. is kaarravaai mein kraantikaari chandrashekhar aajaad ne unki poori sahaayata ki thi. kraantikaari saathi batukeshvar datt ke saath milkar bhagat Singh ne vartamaan nai Delhi sthit british Bhaarat ki tatkaaleen sentral esembali ke sabhaagaar sansad bhavan mein 8 April 1929 ko angrej sarkaar ko jagaane ke liye bam aur parche feinke the. bam feinkane ke baad vaheen par donon ne apni giraftaari bhi di.

kraantikaari gatividhiyaaain

us samay bhagat Singh kareeb baarah varsh ke the jab jaliyaaainvaala baag hatyaakaand hua tha. iski soochana milte hi bhagat Singh apne school se 12 meal paidal chalakar jaliyaaainvaala baag pahuainch gaye. is umr mein bhagat Singh apne chaachaaon ki kraantikaari kitaabein padh kar sochate the ki inka raasta sahi hai ki naheen ? Gandhi ji ka asahayog aandolan chhidne ke baad ve gaandhi ji ke ahinsaatmak tareekon aur kraantikaariyon ke hinsak aandolan mein se apne liye raasta chunane lage. gaandhi ji ke asahayog aandolan ko radd kar dene ke kaaran desh ke tamaam navayuvakon ki bhaaainti unamein bhi rosh hua aur antat: unhonne desh ki svatantrata ke liye kraanti ka maarg apanaana anuchit naheen samjha. unhonne julooson mein bhaag lena praarambh kiya tatha kai kraantikaari dalon ke sadasya bane. yeh sarvavidit hai ki apni yuva umr se bhagat Singh gadar aandolan se gahra prabhaavit tha aur vah karataar Singh saraabha ko apne naayak ke roop mein maanata tha. unke dal ke pramukh kraantikaariyon mein chandrashekhar aajaad, bhagavateecharan vhora, sukhadev, raajaguru ityaadi the. kaakori kaand mein 4 kraantikaariyon ko faaainsi va 16 anya ko kaaraavaas ki sajaaon se bhagat Singh itne adhik udvign hue ki unhonne 1928 mein apni party naujavaan Bhaarat sabha ka Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan mein vilay kar diya aur use ek naya naam diya Hindustan soshalist Republican association.

laala ji ki mrutyu ka pratishodh

saundars ki hatya ke baad echaesaaarae dvaara lagaae gaye parache

1928 mein Simon commission ke bahishkaar ke liye bhayaanak pradarshan hue. in pradarshanon me bhaag lene vaalon par angreji shaasan ne laathi chaarj bhi kiya. isi laathi chaarj se aahat hokar laala laajapat rai ki mrutyu ho gayi. ab inse raha na gaya. ek gupt yojana ke tahat inhonne police suparintendent Scott ko maarane ki yojana sochi. sochi gayi yojana ke anusaar bhagat Singh aur raajaguru Lahore kotavaali ke saamane vyast mudra mein tahalane lage. udhar jayagopaal apni cycle ko lekar aise baith gaye jaise ki vo khraab ho gayi ho. gopaal ke ishaare par donon sachet ho gaye. udhar chandrashekhar aajaad paas ke dee0 e0 vee0 school ki chahaaradeevaari ke paas chhipkar ghatna ko anjaam dene mein rakshak ka kaam kar rahe the.

17 December 1928 ko kareeb sava chaar baje, e0 esa0 pee0 saundars ke aate hi raajaguru ne ek goli seedhi uske sar mein maari jiske turant baad vah hosh kho baithe. iske baad bhagat Singh ne 3-4 goli daag kar uske marne ka poora intajaam kar diya. ye donon jaise hi bhaag rahe the ki ek sipaahi chanan Singh ne inka peechha karna shuroo kar diya. chandrashekhar aajaad ne use saavdhaan kiya - "aage badhe to goli maar dooainga." naheen maanane par aajaad ne use goli maar di. is tarah in logon ne laala laajapat rai ki maut ka badla le liya.

esembali mein bam feinkana

bhagat Singh yadyapi raktapaat ke pakshadhar naheen the parantu ve kaarl maarks ke siddhaanton se poori tarah prabhaavit the. yahi naheen, ve samaajavaad ke pakke poshak bhi the. isi kaaran se unhein pooainjeepatiyon ki majadooron ke prati shoshan ki neeti pasand naheen aati thi. us samay chooainki aaingrej hi sarvesarva the tatha bahut kam bhaarateeya udyogapati unnati kar paaye the, at: aaingrejon ke majadooron ke prati atyaachaar se unka virodh svaabhaavik tha. majadoor virodhi aisi neetiyon ko british sansad mein paarit na hone dena unke dal ka nirnaya tha. sabhi chaahate the ki aaingrejon ko pata chalana chaahiye ki hindustaani jaag chuke hain aur unke hrudaya mein aisi neetiyon ke prati aakrosh hai. aisa karne ke liye hi unhonne Delhi ki kendreeya esembali mein bam feinkane ki yojana banaayi thi.

bhagat Singh chaahate the ki ismein koi khoon kharaaba na ho aur aaingrejon tak unki 'aavaaj' bhi pahuainche. haalaaainki praarambh mein unke dal ke sab log aisa naheen sochate the par ant mein sarvasammati se bhagat Singh tatha batukeshvar datt ka naam chuna gaya. nirdhaarit kaaryakram ke anusaar 8 April 1929 ko kendreeya assembly mein in donon ne ek aise sthaan par bam feinka jahaaain koi maujood na tha, anyatha use chot lag sakti thi. poora haal dhueain se bhar gaya. bhagat Singh chaahate to bhaag bhi sakte the par unhonne pehle hi soch rakha tha ki unhein dand sveekaar hai chaahein vah faaainsi hi kyon na ho; at: unhonne bhaagane se mana kar diya. us samay ve donon khaaki kameej tatha nikr pahane hue the. bam fatne ke baad unhonne "inkalaab-jindaabaad, saamraajyavaad-murdaabaad!" ka naara[6] lagaaya aur apne saath laaye hue parche hava mein uchhaal diye. iske kuchh hi der baad police aa gayi aur donon ko girftaar kar liya gaya.

jail ke din

sindh se prakaashit bismil ki aatmakatha ka pratham prushth. yahi pustak bhagatasinh ko Lahore jail mein bheji gayi thi.

jail mein bhagat Singh ne kareeb 2 saal rahe. is dauraan ve lekh likhkar apne kraantikaari vichaar vyakt karte rahe. jail mein rahate hue unka adhyayan baraabar jaari raha. unke us dauraan likhe gaye lekh va sage sambandhiyon ko likhe gaye patra aaj bhi unke vichaaron ke darpan hain. apne lekhon mein unhonne kai tarah se pooainjeepatiyon ko apna shatru bataaya hai. unhonne likha ki majadooron ka shoshan karne wala chaahein ek bhaarateeya hi kyon na ho, vah unka shatru hai. unhonne jail mein angreji mein ek lekh bhi likha jiska sheershak tha main naastik kyon hooain? jail mein bhagat Singh va unke saathiyon ne 64 dinon tak bhookh hadataal ki. unke ek saathi yateendranaath das ne to bhookh hadtaal mein apne praan hi tyaag diye the.

faaainsi

bhagat Singh ka mrutyu pramaan patra

23 March 1931 ko shaam mein kareeb 7 bajkar 33 minute par bhagat Singh tatha inke do saathiyon sukhadev va raajaguru ko faaainsi de di gayi. faaainsi par jaane se pehle ve lenin ki jeevani padh rahe the aur jab unase unki aakhri ichha poochhi gayi to unhonne kaha ki vah lenin ki jeevani padh rahe the aur unhein vah poori karne ka samay diya jaae.[7] kaha jaata hai ki jail ke adhikaariyon ne jab unhein yeh soochana di ki unke faaainsi ka vakt aa gaya hai to unhonne kaha tha- "thahariye! pehle ek kraantikaari doosare se mil to le." fir ek minute baad kitaab chhat ki or uchhaal kar bole - "theek hai ab chalo."

faaainsi par jaate samay ve teenon masti se ga rahe the -

mera raing de basanti chola, mera raing de;
mera raing de basanti chola. maaya raing de basanti chola..

faaainsi ke baad kaheen koi aandolan na bhadak jaaye iske dar se angrejon ne pehle inke mrut shareer ke tukade kiye fir ise boriyon mein bharakar firojapur ki or le gaye jahaaain ghi ke badle mitti ka tel daalkar hi inko jalaaya jaane laga. gaaainv ke logon ne aag jalati dekhi to kareeb aaye. isse darakar angrejon ne inki laash ke adhajale tukadon ko sataluj nadi mein feinka aur bhaag gaye. jab gaaainv vaale paas aaye tab unhonne inke mrut shareer ke tukado kon ekatrit kar vidhivt daah sanskaar kiya. aur bhagat Singh hamesha ke liye amar ho gaye. iske baad log angrejon ke saath-saath gaandhi ko bhi inki maut ka jimmevaar samajhne lage. is kaaran jab gaandhi Congress ke Lahore adhiveshan mein hissa lene ja rahe the to logon ne kaale jhandon ke saath gaandheeji ka svaagat kiya. ekaadh jagh par gaandhi par hamla bhi hua, kintu saadi vardi mein unke saath chal rahi police ne bacha liya.

vyaktitv

jail ke dinon mein unke likhe khaton va lekhon se unke vichaaron ka andaaja lagta hai. unhonne bhaarateeya samaaj mein lipi (punjabi ki gurumukhi va shaahamukhi tatha hindi aur arabi evam urdoo ke sandarbh mein vishesh roop se), jaati aur dharm ke kaaran aayi dooriyon par du:kh vyakt kiya tha. unhonne samaaj ke kamjor varg par kisi bhaarateeya ke prahaar ko bhi usi sakhti se socha jitna ki kisi angrej ke dvaara kiye gaye atyaachaar ko.

bhagat Singh ko hindi, urdoo, punjabi tatha angreji ke alaava baangla bhi aati thi jo unhonne batukeshvar datt se seekhi thi. unka vishvaas tha ki unki shahaadat se bhaarateeya janta aur udvign ho jaayegi aur aisa unke jinda rahane se shaayad hi ho paaye. isi kaaran unhonne maut ki saja sunaane ke baad bhi maafeenaama likhne se saaf mana kar diya tha. pan0 Ram prasaad 'bismil' ne apni aatmakatha mein jo-jo disha-nirdesh diye the, bhagat Singh ne unka aksharash: paalan kiya[8]. unhonne angrej sarkaar ko ek patra bhi likha, jismein kaha gaya tha ki unhein angreji sarkaar ke khilaaf bhaarateeyon ke yuddh ka prateek ek yuddhabandi samjha jaaye tatha faaainsi dene ke bajaay goli se uda diya jaaye.[9] faaainsi ke pehle 3 March ko apne bhaai kulataar ko bheje ek patra mein bhagat Singh ne likha tha -

unhein yeh fikr hai haradam, nayi tarj-A-jfa kya hai?
hamein yeh shauk hai dekhein, sitm ki intaha kya hai?

dahar se kyon khfa rahein, charkh ka kya gila karein.
saara jahaaain adoo sahi, aao! mukaabala karein..

in josheeli panktiyon se unke shaurya ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai. chandrashekhar aajaad se pehli mulaakaat ke samay jalati hui momabati par haath rakhakar unhonne kasam khaayi thi ki unki jindagi desh par hi kurbaan hogi aur unhonne apni vah kasam poori kar dikhaayi.

khyaati aur sammaan

husaineevaala mein teenon shaheedon ka smaarak

unki mrutyu ki khabar ko Lahore ke dainik tribyoon tatha New York ke ek patra daily varkar ne chhaapa. iske baad bhi kai maarksavaadi patron mein un par lekh chhape, par chooainki Bhaarat mein un dinon maarksavaadi patron ke aane par pratibndh laga tha isaliye bhaarateeya buddhijeeviyon ko iski khabar naheen thi. deshbhar mein unki shahaadat ko yaad kiya gaya.

dakshin Bhaarat mein periyaar ne unke lekh "main naastik kyon hooain?" par apne saaptaahik patra kudai aarasoo ke 22-29 March 1931 ke ank mein tamil mein sampaadakeeya likha. ismein bhagatasinh ki prashansa ki gayi thi tatha unki shahaadat ko gaandheevaad ke upar vijay ke roop mein dekha gaya tha.

aaj bhi Bhaarat aur Pakistan ki janta bhagat Singh ko aajaadi ke deevaane ke roop mein dekhti hai jisne apni javaani sahit saari jindagi desh ke liye samarpit kar di.

unke jeevan ne kai hindi filmon ke charitron ko prerit kiya. kuchh filmein to unke naam se banaai gayeen jaise - the leejeind of bhagat Singh. manoj Kumar ki san 1965 mein bani film shaheed bhagat Singh ke jeevan par banaayeen gayi ab tak ki sarvashreshth praamaanik film maani jaati hai.


inhein bhi dekhein

tippaniyaaain

  1. The date of Singh's birth is subject to dispute. Commonly thought to be born on either 27[1] or 28[2] September 1907, some biographers believe that the evidence points to 19 October 1907.[3]

sandarbh

  1. "Bhagat Singh". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1913029/Bhagat-Singh.
  2. "Bhagat Singh's sister passes away on his 107th birthday". The Times of India. http://m.timesofindia.com/india/Bhagat-Singhs-sister-passes-away-on-his-107th-birthday/articleshow/43811962.cms.
  3. Sanyal et al. (2006), pp. 19, 26
  4. raamavilaas, sharma (1992) (Hindi mein) svaadheenata sangraam: badalate pariprekshya (1 san॰) Delhi: hindi maadhyam kaaryaanvayan nideshaalaya Delhi vishvavidyaalaya pa॰ 99-107
  5. svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-563
  6. svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-565
  7. Chinmohan Sehanavis. "Impact of Lenin on Bhagat Singh's Life". Mainstream Weekly. http://www.mainstreamweekly.net/article351.html. abhigman tithi: 28 October 2011.
  8. svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth-566
  9. amar shaheed ko naman raashtreeya abhilekhaagaar nai Delhi prakaashan 2002 prushth 92 par abhyudaya mein 25 March 1931 ko (faaainsi ke do din baad) prakaashit ek samaachaar