bhaaskaraachaarya


bhaaskaraachaarya ya bhaashkar dviteeya (1114 – 1185) praacheen Bhaarat ke ek prasiddh ganitjnya evam jyotishi the. inke dvaara rachit mukhya granth siddhaant shiromani hai jismein leelaavati, beejaganit, grahaganit tatha golaadhyaaya naamak chaar bhaag hain. ye chaar bhaag kramash: ankaganit, beejaganit, grahon ki gati se sambandhit ganit tatha gole se sambandhit hain. aadhunik yug mein dharati ki gurutvaakarshan shakti (padaarthon ko apni or kheenchne ki shakti) ki khoj ka shreya nyootan ko diya jaata hai. kintu bahut kam log jaante hain ki gurutvaakarshan ka rahasya nyootan se bhi kai sadiyon pehle bhaaskaraachaarya ne ujaagar kar diya tha. bhaaskaraachaarya ne apne 'siddhaantashiromani' granth mein pruthvi ke gurutvaakarshan ke baare mein likha hai ki 'pruthvi aakaasheeya padaarthon ko vishisht shakti se apni or kheenchati hai. is kaaran aakaasheeya pind pruthvi par girte hain'. unhone karanakautoohal naamak ek doosare granth ki bhi rachana ki thi. ye apne samay ke suprasiddh ganitjnya the. kathit roop se yeh ujjain ki vedhashaala ke adhyaksh bhi the. unhein madhyakaaleen Bhaarat ka sarvashreshth ganitjnya maana jaata hai.

inka janm 1114 i0 mein, vijjadavid naamak gaaainv mein hua tha jo sahayaadri pahaadiyon mein sthit hain. unhonne ganit ka gyaan apne sant pita se praapt kiya. baad mein brahmagupt ki pustakon se aisi prerana mili ki saara jeevan unhonne ganit ke liye samarpit kar diya.

krutiyaaain

bhaaskar ek maulik vichaarak bhi the. vah pratham ganitjnya the jinhonein poore aatmavishvaas ke saath kaha tha ki koi sankhya jab shoonya se vibhkt ki jaati hai to anant ho jaati hai. kisi sankhya aur anant ka jod bhi annat hota hai.

khagolavid ke roop mein bhaaskar apni taatkaalik gati ki avadhaarana ke liye prasiddh hain. isse khagol vaigyaaniko ko grahon ki gati ka sahi-sahi pata lagaane mein madad milti hai.

beejaganit mein bhaaskar brahmagupt ko apna guru maanate the aur unhonne jyaadaatar unke kaam ko hi badhaaya. beejaganit ke sameekaran ko hal karne mein unhonne chakravaal ka tareeka apnaaya. vah unka ek mahatvapoorn yogadaan hai. chhah shataabdiyon ke pashchaat yooropiyn ganitjnyaon jaise geloyas, yoolar aur lagaraanj ne is tareeke ki fir se khoj ki aur `inavars saaiklik' kah kar pukaara. kisi golaardh ka kshetr aur aayatan nishchit karne ke liye samaakalan ganit dvaara nikaalne ka varnan bhi pehli baar is pustak mein milta hai. ismein trikonamiti ke kuchh mahatvapoorn sootr, prameya tatha kramachaya aur sanchaya ka vivran milta hai.

bhaaskar ko avakal ganit ka sansthaapak kah sakte hain. unhonne iski avadhaarana aaijaik nyootan aur gotafraaid laibneej se kai shataabdeeyon pehle ki thi. ye donon pashchim mein is vishay ke sansthaapak maane jaate hain. jise aaj avakal gunaank aur rols ka prameya kehte hain, uske udaaharan bhi diye hain.

san 1150 i0 mein inhonne siddhaant shiromani naamak pustak, sanskrut shlokon mein, chaar bhaagon mein likhi hai, jo kram se is prakaar hai:

  1. paateeganitaadhyaaya ya leelaavati,
  2. beejaganitaadhyaaya,
  3. grahaganitaadhyaaya, tatha
  4. golaadhyaaya

inmein se pratham do svatantr granth hain aur antim do "siddhaant shiromani" ke naam se prasiddh hain. iske alaava karanakutoohal aur vaasanaabhaashya (siddhaantashiromani ka bhaashya) tatha bhaaskar vyavahaar aur bhaaskar vivaah patal naamak do chhote jyotish granth inheen ke likhe hue hain. inke siddhaant shiromani se hi bhaarateeya jyotish shaastr ka samyak tatv jaana ja sakta hai. sarvapratham inhonne hi ankaganiteeya kriyaaon ka aparimeya raashiyon mein prayog kiya. ganit ko inki sarvottam den chakreeya vidhi dvaara aavishkrut, anishchit ekaghaateeya aur varg sameekaran ke vyaapak hal hain. bhaaskaraachaarya ke granth ki anyaanya naveenataaon mein triprashnaadhikaar ki nai reetiyaaain, udayaantar kaal ka spasht vivechan aadi hai.

bhaaskarachaarya ko anant tatha kalan ke kuchh sootron ka bhi gyaan tha. inke atirikt inhonne kisi falan ke avakal ko "taatkaalik gati" ka naam diya aur siddh kiya ki

d (jya q) = (kotijya q) . dq
(shabdon mein, bimbaardhasya kotijya gunastrijyaahaar: falan dorjyaayoraantaram )

nyootan ke janm ke aath sau varsh poorv hi inhonne apne golaadhyaaya naamak granth mein 'maadhyakarshanatatv' ke naam se gurutvaakarshan ke niyamon ki vivechana ki hai. ye pratham vyakti hain, jinhonne dashamlav pranaali ki kramik roop se vyaakhya ki hai. inke granthon ki kai teekaaeain ho chuki hain tatha deshi aur videshi bahut si bhaashaaon mein inke anuvaad ho chuke hain.

69 varsh ki aayu mein unhonne apni dviteeya pustak karanakutoohal likhi. is pustak mein khagol vigyaan ki ganana hai. yadyapi yeh kruti pratham pustak ki tarah prasiddh naheen hai, fir bhi panchaang aadi banaane ke samay avashya dekha jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain