bhaashaavijnyaaan ka itihaas

praacheen kaal mein bhaashaavaijnyaaanik adhyayan moolat: bhaasha ke sahi vyaakhya karne ki koshish ke roop mein tha. sabse pehle chauthi shadi isa poorv mein paanini ne sanskrut ka vyaakaran likha.

sansaar ke praay: sabhi deshon mein bhaasha-chintan hota raha hai. Bhaarat ke atirikt cheen, yoonaan, ronm, France, England, amareeka, roos, chekoslaaviya, Denmark aadi deshon mein bhaashaadhyayan ke prati atyadhik sacheshtata barati gayi hai. adhyayan ki suvidha ki drushti se bhaashaadhyayan ke itihaas ko mukhyat: do vargon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai :

(1) paurastya
(2) paashchaatya

anukram

paurastya athva bhaarateeya bhaasha-chintan

Bhaarat mein bhaashaadhyayan ki sudeergh parampara rahi hai. yahaaain bhaasha ke sabhi angon evam tattvo par sookshmaatisookshm roop se vichaar kiya gaya hai. sankshep mein bhaarateeya bhaashaashaastreeya chintan ko nimnaankit roopon mein prastut kiya ja sakta hai:

(a) praacheen bhaasha-chintan

(aa) aadhunik bhaashaashaastreeya adhyayan

praacheen bhaasha-chintan

Bhaarat ke praacheen bhaasha-chintan par nimnalikhit roopon mein vichaar karna adhik yuktisangat prateet hota hai :

(k) paaninipoorv bhaasha-chintan

(kh) paanini aur paaninikaaleen bhaashaashaastreeya chintan

(g) paanini-pashchaat bhaashaadhyayan.

paaninipoorv bhaasha-chintan

praacheenatam granth rigved mein anek baar 'vaak' ke mahattv par prakaash daala gaya hai. bhaashaashaastr mein vaak (speech)-vivechan ek atyant jatil vishay hai. 'vaak' vah mool shakti hai, jise ham saamaajik sandarbho ke maadhyam se bhaasha ke roop mein grahan karte hain. ved mein isi vaak-shakti ki adhishthaatri devi ke roop mein sarasvati ka aahvaan kiya gaya hai, jismein is baat ki kaamna ki gayi hai ki ve vaak-shakti ka paan karaakar vishv ko pusht karein. arthaat manushyon ko samyaroopen vaani-prayog ke yogya banaae. 'uchchaaran bhaasha ka praanatattv hota hai', ise sabhi bhaashaavijnyaaani sveekaar karte hain. ved mein shuddh uchchaaran ko atyant mahattvapoorn maana gaya hai. chooainki ved 'apaurusheya' hai, isliye usaka samay nishchit naheen hai.

vedo ke baad braahmanagranthon ka samay aata hai. aitareya braahman mein bhaashaavijnyaaan ke do mukhya vishyon - bhaasha-vargeekaran evam shabd-arth ka vivechan kiya gaya hai. ved-paath thoda kathin hai. uske adhyayan ko saral banaane ke liye padapaath ki rachanaakar 'ved-vaakya'ko padon mein vibhkt kiya gaya aur is kram mein sandhi, samaas, svaraaghaat jaise vishyon ka vishleshan bhi hua. yeh nishchaya hi bhaasha ka vaigyaanik adhyayan tha. padapaath' ke pashchaat praatishaakhyon evam shikshaagranthon ka nirmaan kar dhvaniyon ka vargeekaran, uchchaaran, svaraaghaat, maatra aadi atyant mahattvapoorn bhaashaavaijnyaaanik vishyon par vistaarapoorvak prakaash daala gaya. vibhinn sanhitaaon ke uchchaaran-bhedon ko surakshit rakhane evam dhvani ki sookshmataao ka vivechan karne mein kramash: praatishaakhyon aur shikshaagranthon ka apna vishisht sthaan hai.

praatishaakhyon mein ripraatishaakhya (shaunak), shuklayaju: praatishaakhya (kaatyaayan), maitraayani praatishaakhya aadi pramukh hain aur shikshaagranthon (dhvanishaastron) ke nirmaataaon me yaajnyaavalkya, vyaas, vasishth aadi vikhyaat hain. isi kram mein upanishdon ki charcha bhi apekshit hai - visheshakar taittireeya upanishd ki. ismein akshar, athva varn, svar, maatra, bal aadi bhaasheeya tattvon par bhi chintan kiya gaya hai.

vaidik shabdon ka jo kosh taiyaar kiya gaya, use 'nighantu' ki sanjnyaa di gayi. iska nirmaan-kaal 800 E. poo. ke aaspaas maana jaata hai. 'nighantu'mein sangruheet vaidik shabdon ka arth-vivechan kiya gaya 'nirukt'mein. niruktakaar yaask ne arth ke saath-shaath shabd-bhed, shabd-arth ka sambandh jaise vishyon par bhi vichaar kiya.

paanini aur paaninikaaleen bhaashaashaastreeya chintan

paanini aur unki ashtaadhyaayi

sansaar ke bhaashaavijnyaaaniyon mein paanini (450ipoo) ka sthaan sarvopari hai. na keval paurastya vidvaanon ne, apitu paashchaatya vidvaanon ne bhi paanini ki shreshtata muktakanth se sveekaar kar li hai. isa ke lagbhag paanch sau varsh poorv aisa vilkshn bhaashaavijnyaaani utpann hua tha, yeh prasang vishv ko prerit karne ke saath hi chakit karne wala bhi raha hai.

paanini ka apratim bhaashaavaijnyaaanik granth, aath adhyaayon mein vibhkt rahane ke kaaran, ashtaadhyaayi kahalaata hai. aathon adhyaayon mein chaar-chaar paad hain. sampoorn granth sootr roop mein rachit hai aur kul sootron ki sankhya lagbhag chaar sahasr (3997) hai. prasiddh chaudah maaheshvar sootr hi ashtaadhyaayi ke moolaadhaar maane gaye hain. ashtaadhyaayi ke aath adhyaayon mein sanjnyaa (subant), kriya (tin at), samaas, kaarak, sandhi, krut aur taddhit pratyaya, svar-dhvani-vikaar aur pad ka vivechan kiya gaya hai. parishisht mein ganapaath evam dhaatupaath dekar granth ki upaadeyata aur badha di gayi hai. 'ashtaadhyaayi'ki pramukh visheshataaeain hain :

(1) vaakya ko bhaasha ki mool ikaai maanana.

(2) dhvani-utpaadan-prakriya ka varnan evam dhvaniyon ka vargeekaran.

(3) subant evam ti ant ke roop mein saral aur sateek pad-vibhaag.

(4) vyutpatti - prakruti aur pratyaya ke aadhaar par shabdon ka vivechan.

paanini ke anya granth hain - unaadisootr, lingaanushaasan aur paanineeya shiksha. paaninikaaleen (kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar uttarakaaleen) mein kaatyaayan evam patanjali vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. kaatyaayan ne kaartik mein paanini ke sootron ka vishleshan to kiya hi, anek doshon ki or bhi sanket kiya. bhaashaavaijnyaaanik drushti se un sanketon ka bhi bada mahattv hai, kyonki samay-parivrttan tatha bhaasha-vikaas ke saath bhaasha-sambandhi niyamon mein bhi parivrttan ki apeksha hua karti hai.

patanyajali aur unka mahaabhaashya

abatak sampoorn sansaar mein mahaabhaashyakaar ke roop mein pratishthit hone ka shreya keval patanyajali ko hai.

patanyajali (150ipoo) kaatyaayan ke samakaaleen the athva naheen, yeh abhi bhi vivaad ka vishay bana hua hai. parantu, itna nishchit hai ki mahaabhaashya likhne ke mool mein kaatyaneeya vaartiko ki prerana kaam karti rahi hai. kaaran yeh ki mahaabhaashya ka adhikaansh bhaag kaatyaayan dvaara uthaayi gayi shankaaon ke samaadhaan se sambaddh hain. patanyajali ka mukhya uddeshya un paanineeya sootron ko doshamukt siddh karne ka raha hai, jo kaatyaayan ki drushti mein ya to doshamukt the athva bahut upaadeya naheen the. iske atirikt, unhone ashtaadhyaayi ke kathin sootron ka bhaashya bhi prastut kiya hai, jo atyant spasht aur vistrut hai. mahaabhaashya mein kul 1689 sootron ki vyaakhya ki gayi hai. yadyapi mahaabhaashya ka aadhaar ashtaadhyaayi hi rahi hai, tathaapi ismein patanyajali ne janabhaasha ka jaisa vistrut vivechan kiya hai, vaisa anyatr durlabh hai. unka bhaashaavishyak adhyayan to gahan evam vyaapak tha hi, bhaasha-vishleshan ki kshamata bhi unamein vilkshan thi. sanskrut, praakrut aur apabhransh in teenon prakaar ki bhaashaaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue unhonne bhaasha ko ek vyavasthit svaroop pradaan kiya. bhaasha-chintan ke kshetr mein unka yeh vishisht avadaan maana jaata hai.

paanini, kaatyaayan evam patanyajali ko munitraya ke roop mein saadar smaran kiya jaata hai. in teenon mahaan bhaashaachintako ko kabhi bhi bhulaaya naheen ja sakta. ye teenon bhaashaashaastri vishv-vishrut ho chuke hain aur jabatak bhaasha-vishleshan hota rahega, unka ullekh apekshit samjha jaaega

paanini-pashchaat ka bhaashaadhyayan

ashtaadhyaayi ki teeka evam usaki maulik vyaakhya ki drushti se kramash: kaashika evam kaumudi granthon ka vishisht mahattv hai. kaumudi granthon mein siddhaant kaumudi (bhattoji dikshit) evam laghukaumudi prasiddh hain.

mantanamishr prasiddh bhaashaachintak the. inhonne 'sfotasiddhi'naamak granth ki rachana ki. aap aadi jagadguru shankaraachaarya ke samakaaleen the. par, kuchh log shankaraachaarya ka samay 782-820 E. maanate hain. aisa maanana uchit naheen prateet hota. mandan mishr or shankaraachaarya isse pehle hue the.

bhaashaavijnyaaan ko bhrurtahari ki den : vaakyapadeeya ka mahattv paanini-patanyajali-pashchaat ke bhaashaashaastriyo mein vaakyapadeeyakaar bhrurtahari (saatavi shataabdi) ka sthaan atyuchch hai. na keval praacheen bhaashaashaastr ki drushti se bhrurtahari mahaan hai, apitu aadhunik bhaashaavijnyaaani bhi unke chintan se atyadhik prabhaavit hain. teen kaando - brahmakaand, vaakyakaand aur padakaand mein vibhkt vaakyapadeeya bhaashaavijnyaaan ka ek utkrusht granth hai. atyant sankshep mein is granth ki visheshataao par nimnaankit roopon mein prakaash daala ja sakta hai :

(1) bhaasha ki ikaai vaakya hi hota hai, chaahe usaka astitv ek varn ke roop mein kyon na ho.

(2) vaashakti vishv-vyavahaar ka sarvapramukh aadhaar hai.

(3) vaak-prayog ek manovaigyaanik kriya hota hai, jismein vakta aur shrota donon ka hona aavashyak hai. jnyaaatavya hai ki gaardeenar, jesparsan evam chaumsaki prabhruti adhik charchit aadhunik bhaashaavijnyaaani bhi iska poorn samarthan karte hain.

(4) har varn mein us ke atirikt bhi kinyachit varnaansh sammilit rahata hai. Amreeki bhaashaavijnyaaan ne bhi prayog dvaara ise siddh karne ka safal prayaas kiya hai. bhautik vigyaan bhi yahi batalaata hai.

(5) dhvani utpaadan, uchchaaran, dhvani-grahan, sfot aadi ka vistrut vivechan bhartruhari ne kiya hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke ye pramukh vishay hain.

(6) bhartruhari arthagrahan mein lok prasiddh ko hi mahattv dete hain. patanyajali ke baad inhonne hi is par vishd roop se vichaar kiya hai.

(7) bhartruhari ne shisht bhaasha ke saath-saath lok bhaasha ke adhyayan par bhi bahut bal diya hai. yahi pravruti aaj sampoorn vishv me dikhaai padti hai. is prakaar, bhartruhari ke bhaasha siddhaant atyant vyaapak athach poorn vaigyaanik hain.

kaund bhatt evam naagesh bhatt

bhartruhari ke baad ke bhaashaachintakon mein kaunadabhatt (1500i) aur naagesh bhatt (1670i) pramukh hain. naagesh ne apne 'shabdendushekhar', 'paribhaashendushekhar', 'sfotavaad' evam 'vaiyaakaran siddhaant-manjoosha' granthon ka bada hi sookshm vivechan kiya hai.

praacheen evam madhyakaal mein paashchaatya bhaashaavijnyaaan

Bhaarat ki tulana mein Europe mein bhaashaavishyak adhyayan bahut der se praarambh hua aur usamein vah poornata aur gambheerta na thi jo bhaarateeya shikshaagranthon, praatishaakhyon aur paanineeya vyaakaran mein thi. pashchimi duniya ke liye bhaashaavishyak praacheenatam ullekh old testaameint mein book ov jenisis (Book of Genesis) ke doosare adhyaaya mein pashuon ke naamakaran ke sambandh mein milta hai.

yoonaani itihaasakaar herodotas (paaainchavi shataabdi i0 poo0) ne misr ke raaja sanmetikaus (Psammetichos) dvaara sansaar ki bhaasha gyaat karne ke liye do navajaat shishuon par prayog karne ka ullekh kiya hai. yoonaan mein praacheenatam bhaashaavaijnyaaanik vivechan pleto (425-348 47 i0 poo0) ke samvaad mein milta hai, jo mukhyataya oohaapohaatmak hai.

arastoo (384-322, 21 i0 poo0) paashchaatya bhaashaavijnyaaan ke pita kahe jaate hain. unhonne bhaasha ki utapatti aur prakruti ke sambandh mein apne guroo pleto se bhinn vichaar vyakt kiye. unke anusaar bhaasha samjhaute (thesis) aur parampara (Synthesis) ka parinaam hai. unhonne bhaasha ko yaadruchhik kaha hai. arastoo ka yeh mat aaj bhi sarvamaanya hai. gaaya ko "gaaya" isaliye naheen kaha jaata hai ki is shabd se is vishesh chaupaae jaanavar ka bodh hona anivaarya hai, balki isaliye kaha jaata hai ki kabhi ukt pashu ka bodh karaane ke liye is shabd ka yaadruchhik prayog kar liya gaya tha, jise maanyata mil gayi aur jo parampara se chala aa raha hai unhonne shabdon ke teen bhed "sanjnyaa", "kriya", "nipaat" kiya.

yoonaan mein bhaasha ka adhyayan keval daarshanikon tak hi seemit raha. unhonne apni bhaasha ke atirikt doosari bhaashaaon mein koi ruchi naheen dikhaai. sikandar ki senaaon ne yoonaan se lekar Bhaarat ki uttari seema tak ke vistrut pradesh ko padaakraant kiya, kintu unke vivranon mein un pradeshon ki boliyon ka kaheen ullekh naheen milta hai. yoonaan mein bhaasha vishyak kuchh ullekhaniya kaarya bhi hue.

  • aristaarkas (Aristarchus) ne homar ki kavita ki bhaasha ka vishleshan kiya.
  • apolonias diskolas (Appollonios Dyskolos) ne greek vaakyaprakriya par prakaash daala.
  • dionisos thraiks (Dionysios Thrax) ne ek prabhaavashaali vyaakaran likha.

iske saath hi kuchh shabdakosh aise bhi milte hai jinmein greek aur laitin ke atirikt Asia maainar mein boli jaanevaali bhaashaaon ke anek shabdon ka samaavesh kiya gaya hai. yoonaaniyon ne bhaasha ko tatvameemaansa ki drushti se parakha hai. unke dvaara prastut bhaashaavishleshan ko daarshanik vyaakaran ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. yoonaaniyon ki tarah romanon ne bhi vyaakaran aur kosh banaae.

  • vaaro (116-27 i0 poo0) ne 26 khandon mein laitin vyaakaran racha.
  • priskian (512-60) ne 20 khando mein laitin vyaakaran racha.

madhyayug mein isaai mishnariyon ko auron ki bhaashaaeain seekhani padi. janta ko janta ki bhaasha mein upadesh dena prachaar ke liye anivaarya tha. falasvaroop parabhaasha seekhane ki vyaavahaarik paddhatiyaaain nikleen. mishnariyon ne anek bhaashaaon ke vyaakaran tatha kosh banaae. par greek laitin vyaakaran ke dhaaainchon mein rache jaane ke kaaran ye apoorn tatha anupayukt the. usi yug mein sainikon aur upaniveshon ne shaasakeeya varg ke logon ne sthaaneeya bhaashaaon ka vishleshan shuroo kiya. saath hi vyaapaar vistaar ke kaaran anekaanek bhaashaaon se Europeeyon ka parichay badha. 17veen shataabdi mein (1647 E) frainsis lodavik (Francis Lodwick) tatha revareind kev dek (Rev. Cave Deck) jaise vidvaanon ne "A kauman raaiting" tatha "yoonivrsal kairektar" jaise granth likhe the, jisse unke 'svanavijnyaaan' ke gyaan ka parichay milta hai. lodavik ne ek aashulipi ka aavishkaar kiya tha, jo angreji aur dach dono ke liye 1650 i0 ke lagbhag vyavahrut ki gayi thi. madhyakaal mein sabhi gyaat bhaashaaon ke sarvekshan ka prayatn hua. ataev anek bahubhaashi kosh tatha bahubhaashi sangrah nikle. 18veen shataabdi mein pallaas (P.S. Pallas) ki vishvabhaashaaon ki tulanaatmak shabdaavali mein 285 shabd aise hain jo 272 bhaashaaon mein milte hain. edelung (Adelung) ki maaithredeteej (Mithridates) mein 500 bhaashaaon mein "ish praarthana" hai.

is prakaar 18veen shati ke poorv bhaashaavishyak prachur saamagri ekatr ho chuki thi. kintu vishleshan tatha prastuteekaran k paddhatiyaaain vahi puraani theen. inmein sarvapratham jarman vidvaan laaibanits (Leibnitz) ne parishkaar kiya. inhonne hi sambhavat: sarvapratham yeh bataaya ki "yooreshiyaai" bhaashaaon ka ek hi praagaitihaasik uts hai. is prakaar 18veen shati mein tulaatmak aitihaasik bhaashaavijnyaaan ki bhoomika bani, jo 19veen shati mein jaakar viksit hui.

sankshep mein, 19veen shataabdi se poorv Europeeya bhaashaaon ka jo adhyayan kiya gaya, vah bhaashaavaijnyaaanik ki apeksha taarkik adhik, roopaatmak (Formal) ki apeksha sankalpanaatmak adhik aur varnanaatmak ki apeksha vidhyaatma (Prescriptive) adhik tha.

19veen shati (aitihaasik tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan)

unneesaveen shati aitihaasik tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ka yug tha| iske praarambh ka shreya sanskrut bhaasha se paashchaatyon ke parichay ko hai. tulanaatmak bhaasha vigyaan ka sootrapaat ek prakaar se us samay hua jab 2 fravari 1786 ko sar William jons ne kalakatte mein yeh ghoshana ki ki sanskrut bhaasha ki sanrachana adbhut hai, vah greek se adhik poorn, laitin se adhik samruddh aur donon se hi adhik parishkrut hai. fir bhi iska donon se ghanishth sambandh hai. unhonne dekha ki sanskrut ki ek or greek aur laitin tatha doosari aur gautheek, kelti se itni adhik samaanata hai ki nishchaya hi in sab ka ek hi strot raha hoga. yeh paarivaarik dhaarana is nae vigyaan ke mool mein hai.

is disha mein pehla suvyavasthit kaarya Denmark vaasi raask (1787-1832) ka hai. raask ne bhaashaaon ki samagr sanrachana ki tulana par adhik bal diya aur kaha ki keval shabdaavali ka saamya aagat shabdon ke kaaran bhi ho sakta hai. inhonne svanon ke saamya ko bhi paarivaarik sambandh nirdhaaran ka mahatvapoorn ang maana. is dhaarana ko suvyavasthit pushti di yaakov greem (1785-1863) ne, jinke svan niyam bhaasha vigyaan mein prasiddh hain. in svan niyamon mein Bhaarat-Europeeya bhaasha se praagjarmaneeya mein, tadanantar uchchajarmaneeya mein honevaale vyavasthit vyanjan svan parivrtanon ki vyaakhya hai. isi beech sanskrut ke adhikaadhik parichay se paarivaarik tulana ka kram adhikaadhik gahra hota gaya. baup (1791-1867) ne sanskrut, avesta greek, laitin, lithueni, gauthik, jarman, praacheen slaav kelti aur albaani bhaashaaon ka tulanaatmak vyaakaran prakaashit kiya. raask aur grim ne svan parivrtanon par prakaash daala, baup ne mukhyat: roopaprakriya ka aadhaar grahan kiya.

raask, grim aur baup ke pashchaat maiksamoolar (1823-1900) aur shlaaikhar (1823-68) ke naam vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hain. maiksoomoolar ki mahatvapoorn kruti "lessons in di saayans ov laingvej" (1861) hai. shlaaikhar ne Bhaarat-Europeeya parivaar ki bhaashaaon ka ek suvyavasthit sarvaageen tulanaatmak vyaakaran prastut kiya| shlaaikhar ne tulanaatmak bhaasha vigyaan ke saiddhaantik paksh par bhi vishesh kaarya kiya. inke anusaar yadi do bhaashaaon mein samaan parivartan paae jaate hain, to ye donon bhaashaaeain kisi kaal mein ek saath rahi hongi. is prakaar unhonne tulanaatmak aadhaar par aadibhaasha (Ursprache) ki punarrachana (Reconstruction) ke liye maarg prashast kiya. punarrachana ke atirikt bhaashaavijnyaaan ko inki ek aur mukhya den bhaashaaon ka praroopasoochak vargeekaran hai. in dinon bhaashaavijnyaaan ke kshetr mein aanevaali ameriki vidvaanon mein hivtani (1827-1894) agrani hain. inhonne bhaasha ke vikaas aur bhaasha ke adhyayan par pustakein likheen. 1876 mein prakaashit inak sanskrut vyaakaran apne kshetr ka adviteeya granth hai. shlaaikhar ke turant baad fik (1833-1916) ne 1868 mein sarvapratham Bhaarat-Europeeya bhaashaaon ka tulanaatmak shabdakosh prakaashit kiya, jismein aadi bhaasha ke punarrachit roop bhi diye gaye the.

kuchh samay baad vidvaanon ka dhyaan grim niyam ki kuchh ansagatiyon par gaya. Denmark vaasi vaarnar ne 1875 mein ek aisi asangati ko niymabaddh apavaad ke roop mein sthaapit kiya. yeh asangati thi Bhaarat-Europeeya p, t, k ka jarmaneeya mein saghosh ban jaana. vaarnar ne greek aur sanskrut ki tulana se iska apavaad dhooaindh nikaala jo vaarnar niyam ke naam se prachalit hai. aise apavaadon ki sthaapana se vidvaanon ke ek sanpradaaya ko unke apne vishvaason mein pushti mili. ye navya vaiyaakaran (Jung grammatiker) kahalaate hain. inke mat se svan niyamon ka koi apavaad naheen hota. svan parivartan aakasmik aur avyavasthit naheen hai, pratyut niyat aur suvyavasthit hain. asangati is kaaran milti hai ki ham unki prakriya ko poori tarah samajh naheen paae hain, kyoki bhaasha ke namoonon ki kami hai. kuchh asangatiyon ke mool mein saadrushya hai, jiski poorvaachaaryo ne upeksha ki thi. is prakaar ye navya vaiyaakaran bade vyavasthaavaadi the.

aitihaasik tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan par 20veen sadi mein bhi kaarya hua hai. Bhaarat Europeeya parivaar par brugamain aur delabruk evam harman hurt (Hermann Hirt) ke tulanaatmak vyaakaran mahatvapoorn granth hain. meie (Meillet) ka Bhaarat-Europeeya bhaashaaon ke tulanaatmak adhyayan ki bhoomika naamak granth sanaatan mahatva ka kaha ja sakta hai. hitaait naamak praacheen bhaasha ka pata lagne ke baad Bhaarat-Europeeya bhaasha vigyaan par naye sire se kaarya praarambh hua. Bhaarat yooropeeyetar parivaaron par aitihaasik tulanaatmak kaarya ho raha hai. greenabarg ka afreeki bhaashaaon ka vargeekaran anukaraneeya hai. iski adhunaatan shaakha bhaasha kaalakram vigyaan (Giotto chronology ya Lixico statistics) hai, jiske antargat tulanaatmak paddhati se us samay ke niroopan ka prayaas kiya jaata hai jab kisi bhaashaaparivaar ke do sadasya pruthak pruthak hue the. Amreeki maanav vigyaani mauris svedish is prakriya ke janmadaata hain. yeh paddhati radio rasaayan dvaara li gayi hai.

beesaveen shati (varnanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan)

beesaveen shati ka bhaashaavijnyaaan mukhyat: varnanaatmak athva sanrachanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan kaha ja sakta hai. ise aadhunik roop denevaalon mein pramukh baudein (Baudouin de courtenay), henari sveet aur sosur (Saussure) hain. Swiss bhaashaavaijnyaaanik sosur (1857-1913) dvaara pratipaadit siddhaanton se bhi poorv hanbolt (Humboldt) ne pratipaadit kiya tha ki bhaashaavishesh ka adhyayan kisi anya bhaasha se tulana kiye bina usi bhaasha ke aantarik avayavon ke aadhaar par hona chaahiye. sosur ne sarvapratham bhaasha ki pravruti par prakaash daalte hue sanketit (Signified) aur sanketan (Signifier) ke sambandh ko vastu na maankar prakaarya maana aur use bhaashaai chinh (Linguistic Sign) se abhihit kiya. chinh yaadruchhik hai arthaat 'sanketit' ka 'sanketak' se koi tarkasangat sambandh naheen hai. vruksh ke liye 'ped' kehne mein koi tark naheen hai; 'p', 'A', 'd', svanon mein kuchh aisa nahi hai ki vah vruksh ka hi sanketak ho, yeh keval parampara ke kaaran hai. iske atirikt chinh ka moolya bhaasha mein prayukt poori shabdaavali (anya sabhi chihnon) ke pariprekshya mein hota hai, arthaat unke virodh se hota hai. bhaasha ka inheen virodhon ki prakaaryata par nirbhar rahana varnanaatmak bhaasha vigyaan ka aadhaarastanbh hai. in (svanim, roopim, arthim aadi) ki satta virodh ke siddhaant par hi aashrit hai.

sosoor ne bhaasha ke do prayogon pairol (vaak) aur laang (bhaasha) mein bhi bhed kiya. pratham bhaasha ka jeevit roop hai, hamaara bhaashanauchchaar pairol hai. kintu dviteeya bhaavaanayan (Abstraction) ki prakriya se udbhoot ek amoort bhaavana hai. aapki hindi, hamaari hindi, sabhi ki hindi vyaktigat star par uchchaaran, shabdaprayogaadi ke bhed se bhinn hai: fir bhi hindi bhaasha jaisi amoort dhaarana laang hai jo bhaavaanayan prakriya ka parinaam hai aur jo in anek vaiyaktik bhedon se pare aur saamaanyakrut hain. yeh saakaalik hai (Synchronic) hai.

sosur ka mahatva sanrachanatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan mein kraantikaari maana ja sakta hai. baad mein Europe ke anek school kopenahegen, praaha (praag), London tatha America ke bhaashaavaijnyaaanik sanpradaaya inke kuchh mool siddhaanto ko lekar viksit hue hain.

praaha sampradaaya (school)

Europe mein sosur ki prerana se viksit ek sanpradaaya praah school ke naam se prasiddh hai. iske pravartak roosi vidvaan trubejakoya (Trubetzkoy, 1890-1938) the. bad mein iske mukhya prachaarak roman yaukobasan (1896-1982) bane. is school ki siddhaant pradarshika pustak trabejakoaa likhit (Grundzige der Phonologie), svanaprakriya ke siddhaant (1936) hai| is school mein svanaprakriya (Phonology) par vishesh bal diya jaata hai. inke yahaaain yeh shabd ek vishesh vistrut arth mein prayukt hota hai. iske antargat bhaashan svanon ke prakaarya ka sarvaangeen adhyayan aa jaata hai aur isi kaaran ye log prakaaryavaadi (Functionalists) kahalaate hain. is sanpradaaya ki mahatta bhaashaasanrachana ki nirdhaarak paddhati mein hai jismein vichaar kiya jaata hai ki svan ikaaiyaaain vishisht bhaasha sambandhi vyavasthaaon mein kis prakaar sanghatit hoti hai. yeh paddhati virodh par aashrit hai. svanaatmak antar jab arthaatmak antar ko bhi prakat karte hain, virodhaatmak arthaat svanimaatmak (Phonematic) maane jaate hain. udaaharan ke liye hindi 'kaal' aur 'gaal' shabdon ko lein. inmein svanaatmak antar svanimaatmak hai. parinaamasvaroop 'k' aur 'g' do pruthak pruthak svanim hain. yahaaain yeh dhyaan dena chaahiye ki k aur g svat: svanim nahi hai, ye svanim keval is kaaran hain ki arth ke anusaar ye virodhaatmak hain. svan svat: svanim ko nirdhaarit naheen karte| svanimtv ki nirdhaarak hai in svanon ki virodhaatmak prakaaryata. is prakaar, svanim 'k, g' (k, g) svanon ke samaan vaastavik naheen hai. ye keval amoort bhaav ya virodhaatmak prakaaryon ke yog hain.

yeh virodh is sanpradaaya mein bade vistaar ke saath varnit hua hai. iske anek pratiroop yugm, jaise dvipaashrvik, bahupaarshvik aanupaatik, vilgati aadi paribhaashit kiye gaye hain. nivaishamyeekaran (Neutralization), aarkeesvanim (Archiphoneme), sahasanbadh (Correlation), aadi tekanikl shabd isi school ke hain. France ke Andre maartine (Andres Martinet) ne is virodh ki mahatta ka aitihaasik svanavikaas mein bhi prayog kiya aur kaalakramik svanaprakriya ki neenv daali. kaalakram se utpann anek svanaparivrtan bhaasha ki svanasanghatana mein bhi antar upasthit karte hain. ye prakaaryaatmak parivartan kahalaate hain. ye prakaaryaatmak parivartan bhi vyavastha se aate hain aur saamanjasya (harmony) athva laaghav (economy) ki disha mein hote hain. is prakaar praaha school aitihaasik vikaason ki bhi tarkasangat vyaakhya mein safal hua hai.

kopenahegen sampradaaya (school)

inheen dinon Europe mein ek anya sanpradaaya chal nikla. yeh 'kopenahegen school', 'denish school', athva 'glaasemetiks' kai naam se prasiddh hai. iske prarvatak helmaslev (Hjelmslev) (san 1899) hain aur inki siddhaant darshika hai Omkring Sprogteorienx Grundloeggelse, 1943 angreji anuvaad hvitfeeld dvaara Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, 1953. yeh sanpradaaya adhiktar siddhaanton ke vivechan mein seemit raha. par abhi in siddhaanton ka bhaashaavishesh par prayog atyalp maatra mein hua hai| is sanpradaaya ki mahatta ismein hai ki yeh shuddh roopavaadi hai. bhaasha ko yeh bhi sosur ki bhaaainti moolyon ki vyavastha maanata hai, kintu bhaashaavishleshan mein bhaavetar tatvon ka tatha bhaashaavijnyaaanetar vijnyaaanon ka, jaise bhautiki, shareeraprakriyaavijnyaaan, samaajashaastr aadi ka aashray nahi lena chaahata. vishleshan paddhati shuddh bhaashaaparak honi chaahiye swayam mein samarth aur swayam mein poorn. is sanpradaaya mein abhivyakti aur aashay pratyek ke do do bhed kiye gaye roop aur saar bhaashetar tatv hai. roop shuddh bhaashaaparak tatv hai jo saar tatvon ki sanghatana vyavastha ke roop mein hai. is prakaar abhivyakti banti hai aur abhivyakti ke roop mein sanrachana vyavastha, jaise, svanim, roopim aadi hai. isi prakaar aashay ke saar ke antargat shabdaarth hain aur roop mein arthasanghatana hai|

London sampradaaya (school)

henari sveet iske aadhaarastanbh kahe ja sakte hai. iska vishesh parivrdhan London vishvavidyaalaya ke bhaasha vigyaan tatha svanavijnyaaan ke vidvaan professor farth dvaara hua hai. yeh school arth ko bhi maanyata deta hai. iske anusaar bhaasha ek saarthak kriya hai aur arthaprasang ke mahatva ko bhi sveekaar kiya gaya hai. is school mein dhvanyaatmak vivechan ke saath hi saath raagaatmak (prosodic) tatvon ki charcha hoti hai. raagaatmak vishleshan ameriki svanim vaigyaanik vishleshan se bhinn hai aur iska kshetr kaheen adhik vistrut hai. raagaatmak vishleshan bahuvyavasthaajanit hai, jab ki svanim vigyaan ekavyavasthaajanit hai. farth ne jis raagaatmak svanaprakriya ka pravartan kiya use aage badhaanevaalon mein mukhya hein raubins, laayans (Lyons), helide aur dikshan. jahaaain tak svanavijnyaaan ka sambandh hai, London school ke antargat sveet ke baad Daniel jons ka kaarya vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai.

Amreeki sampradaaya (school)

yadyapi 'praahaaskool' aur 'kopenahegan school' jaise shabdon ke vajan par Amreeki school naamakaran uchit naheen hoga, kyonki yahaaain keval ek paddhati par kaam naheen hua; fir bhi suvidha ke liye ameriki school kaha gaya hai.

amareeka mein sanrachanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ke pravartakon mein boaaj (1858-1942), saipeer (1884-1939) tatha bloomafeeld (1887-1949) ke naam aate hain. inmein pehle do moolat: maanavavijnyaaani the tatha bhaashaavishleshan unke liye vyaavahaarik aavashyakta thi. unhonne Amreeki jangali jaatiyon ki bhaashaaon ke varnan ka prayaas kiya hai. bloomafeeld nissandeh aitihaasik tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ke achhe jnyaaata the aur jarmaneeya bhaashaaon par unka poorn adhikaar tha. bloomafeeld Amreeki bhaashaavijnyaaan ke preranaastrot rahe hain aur aap ki pustak bhaasha (laingvej) bade aadar ke saath padhi-padhaai jaati hai.

bloomafeeld ki mahatta ismein hai ki inhonne bhaashaavijnyaaan ko vigyaan ki koti mein sthaapit kiya aur vyaakaran tatha bhaashaai vivechan ko sahi artho mein vigyaan ka roop diya. inka aagrah raha hai ki bhaasha ka vishleshan vargeekaran tatha prastuteekaran vaigyaanik reeti se hona chaahiye. arth ka bhaashaavishleshan se koi pratyaksh sambandh naheen hai. manovijnyaaan darshan aadi ka aashray naheen lena chaahiye, na atkalein lagaani chaahiye aur na shithil, aspasht shabdaavali mein tathyon ko prakat karna chaahiye. svan niyamon ki atootata mein inka vishvaas tha.

kintu bloomafeeld ne vishleshan paddhati par koi vishesh prakaash naheen daala. yeh kami unki agali peedhi ke vidvaanon ne poori ki. paaik ne "svanivijnyaaan" mein aur naaida ne roopaprakriya (Morphology) mein vishleshan paddhati ka vistaar se vivechan kiya hai. paaik ne taigmemik paddhati nikaali jo ki roopaprakriya aur vaakyaprakriya donon mein ek samaan prayukt hone se spruhaneeya ho gayi hai. is paddhati par anekaanek bhaashaaon ke vishleshan aur vivran prastut kiye gaye hain aur sarvatr yeh safal rahi hai. inheen ke samakaaleen jailig hairis (Zellig Harris) ne bhi sanrachanaatmak paddhati par apni pustak likhi. isi samay vels ne avyavahit avayav (Ic. Immediate constituent) ki paddhati se vaakyon ka vishleshan karna shuroo kiya, jise anek bhaashaavidon ne apnaaya. fir hairis ke shishya chaumaski (Chomsky) ne ek nitaant ganiteeya evam tarkasangat paddhati nikaali. yeh hai roopaantaran-janan (traansafaurmeshan jainaretiv) paddhati| yeh adhunaatan paddhati hai aur bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ko sarvaadhik priya ho chali hai. ab hairis ne avyavahit avayav paddhati aur roopaantaran vishleshan paddhati ki kamiyon ko dekhte hue sootr avayav (S. C-String constituent) ka siddhaant prastut kiya hai| yeh vishleshan paddhati aur roopaantaran paddhati ke beech ka raasta hai. yeh pratyek vaakya mein se ek 'maulik vaakya' (elementary sentence) pruthak kar deti hai| avyavahit avayav vishleshan paddhati mein is tarah 'maulik vaakya' ka pruthakkaran naheen hota jab ki roopaantaran vishleshan paddhati mein poore vaakya ko alag alag 'maulik vaakyon' aur unke 'anulagnak shabdon' (Adjuncts) mein pruthak kar diya jaata hai.

svanimik, roopimik aur vaakya star par bhaasha ka vishleshan prastut karne ka mahatvapoorn kaarya jitna pustakein likhkar kiya gaya hai, usase kaheen adhik bhaashaavijnyaaan se sambandhit Amreeki patrapatrikaaon mein prakaashit lekhon se hua hai. inke lekhakon mein se kuchh hain : block, hairis, hauket, smith, tregar, vels aadi.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain