bhaashaavijnyaaan

bhaashaavijnyaaan bhaasha ke adhyayan ki vah shaakha hai jismein bhaasha ki utpatti, svaroop, vikaas aadi ka vaigyaanik evam vishleshanaatmak adhyayan kiya jaata hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke adhyayeta 'bhaashaavijnyaaani' kahalaate hain. bhaashaavijnyaaan, vyaakaran se bhinn hai. vyaakaran mein kisi bhaasha ka kaaryaatmak adhyayan (functional description) kiya jaata hai jabki bhaashaavijnyaaani iske aage jaakar bhaasha ka atyant vyaapak adhyayan karta hai. adhyayan ke anek vishyon mein se aajkal bhaasha-vigyaan ko vishesh mahattv diya ja raha hai.

anukram

bhaasha vigyaan ke anek naam

bhaasha-sambandhi is adhyayan ko Europe mein aaj tak anek naamon aur sanjnyaaaon se abhihit kiya jaata raha hai. sarvapratham is adhyayan ko filolauji (Philology) shabd ke aage visheshan ke roop mein ek shabd joda gaya- (Comparative) tab ise ''kampairetiv filolauji'' (Comparative Philology) kah kar pukaara gaya. unneesaveen shataabdi tak vyaakaran tatha bhaasha-vishyak adhyayan ko praay: ek hi samjha jaata tha. at: ise vidvaanon ne 'kampairetiv graamar' naam bhi diya. France mein isko laingisteek (Linguistique) naam diya gaya. France mein bhaasha sambandhi kaarya adhik hone ke kaaran unneesaveen sadi mein sampoorn Europe mein hi "Linguistique" athva "Linguistics" naam hi prachalit raha hai. iske atirikt 'science of laingvej', 'glautoleji' (Glottology) aadi anya naam bhi is vishay ko prakat karne ke liye kaam mein aaye. aaj in sabhi naamon mein se ''lingvistiks'', ''filolauji'' (Philology) maatr hi prayog mein laae jaate hain.

bhaaratavarsh mein in sabhi Europeeya naamon ke atirikt hindi bhaasha mein jo naam prayog mein laae jaate hain ve is prakaar hain- ''bhaasha-shaastr'', ''bhaasha-tattv'', ''bhaasha-vigyaan'', tatha ''tulanaatmak bhaasha-vigyaan'' aadi. in sabhi naamon mein se sarv prachalit naam ''bhaasha-vigyaan'' hai. in naam mein praacheen aur naveen sabhi naamon ka samaahaar-sa hua jaan padta hai. at: yahi naam is shaastr ke liye sarvatha upayukt prateet hota hai.

itihaas

apne vartamaan svaroop mein bhaasha vigyaan pashchimi vidvaanon ke mastishk ki den kaha jaata hai. ati praacheen kaal se hi bhaasha-sambandhi adhyayan ki pravrutti sanskrut-saahitya mein pai jaati hai. 'shiksha' naamak vedaang mein bhaasha sambandhi sookshm charcha upalabdh hoti hai. dhvaniyon ke uchchaaran- avayav, sthaan, prayatn aadi ka in granthon mein vistrut varnan upalabdh hai. 'praatishaakhya' evam nirookt mein shabdon ki vyutpatti, dhaatu, upasarg-pratyaya aadi vishyon par vaigyaanik vishleshan bhaasha ka vaigyaanik adhyayan kaha ja sakta hai. bhartruhari ke granth 'vaakya padeeya' ke antargat 'shabd' ke svaroop ka sookshm, gahan evam vyaapak chintan upalabdh hota hai. vahaaain shabd ko 'brahm' ke roop mein pariklpit kiya gaya hai aur usaki 'akshar' sanjnyaa bataai gayi hai. prakaaraantar se yeh ek bhaasha-adhyayan samabandhi granth hi hai.

sanskrut-saahitya mein darshan evam saahityashaastreeya granthon mein bhi hamein 'shabd' 'arth', 'ras' 'bhaav' ke sookshm vivechan ke antargat bhaasha vaigyaanik charchaaon ke hi sanket praapt hote hain' sanskrut-saahitya mein yatr-tatr upalabdh hone waali bhaasha-vichaar-vishyak saamagri hi nishchit roop se vartamaan bhaasha-vigyaan ki aadhaarashila kahi ja sakti hai.

aadhunik vishay ke roop mein bhaasha-vigyaan ka sootrapaat Europe mein san 1786 i0 mein sar William jons naamak vidvaan dvaara kiya gaya maana jaata hai. sanskrut bhaasha ke adhyayan ke prasang mein sar William jons ne hi sarvapratham sanskrut, greek aur laitin bhaasha ka tulanaatmak adhyayan karte hue is sambhaavana ko vyakt kiya tha ki sanbhavat: in teenon bhaashaaon ke mool mein koi ek bhaasha roop hi aadhaar bana hua hai. at: in teenon bhaashaaon (sanskrut, greek aur laitin) ke beech ek sookshm sambandh sootr avashya vidyamaan hai. bhaashaaon ka is prakaar ka tulanaatmak adhyayan hi aadhunaki bhaasha-vigyaan ke kshetr ka pehla kadam bana.

saamaanya parichay

''bhaasha-vigyaan'' naam mein do padon ka prayog hua hai. ''bhaasha'' tatha ''vigyaan''. bhaasha-vigyaan ko samajhne se poorv in donon shabdon se parichit hona aavashyak prateet hota hai.

'bhaasha' shabd sanskrut ki ''bhaash'' dhaatu se nishpann hua hai. jiska arth hai-vyakt vaak (vyaktaayaan vaachi). 'vigyaan' shabd mein 'vi' upasarg tatha 'jnyaa' dhaatu se 'lyut' (an) pratyaya lagaane par banta hai. saamaanya roop se 'bhaasha' ka arth hai 'bol chaal ki bhaasha ya boli' tatha 'vigyaan' ka arth hai 'vishesh gyaan', kintu 'bhaasha-vigyaan' shabd mein prayukt in donon padon ka spasht aur vyaapak arth samajh lene par hi ham is naam ki saaragarbhitaako jaanane mein safal honge. at: ham yahaaain in donon padon ke vistrut arth ko spasht karne ka prayaas karte hain.

bhaashaa:maanav ek saamaajik praani hai. samaaj mein apne bhaavon aur vichaaron ko ek doosare tak pahunchaane ki aavashyakta chirkaal se anubhav ki jaati rahi hai. is prakaar bhaasha ka astittv maanav samaaj mein ati praacheen siddh hota hai. maanav ke sampoorn gyaan-vigyaan ka prakaashan karne ke liye, sabhyata aur sanskruti ke itihaas ko jaanane ke liye bhaasha ek mahattvapoorn saadhan ka kaarya karti hai. hamaare poorvapurushon se sabhi saadhaaran aur asaadhaaran anubhav ham bhaasha ke maadhyam se hi jaan sake hain. hamaare sabhi sadgranthon aur shaastron se milne wala gyaan bhaasha par hi nirbhar hai. mahaakavi dandi ne apne mahaan granth 'kaavyaadarsh' mein bhaasha ki mahatta soochit karte hue likha hai:-

idadhatam: krutsnan jaayet bhuvanatrayam.
yadi shabdaahnayan jyottiraasansaaran na deepyate..

arthaat yeh sampoorn bhuvan andhakaarapoorn ho jaata, yadi sansaar mein shabd-svaroop jyoti arthaat bhaasha ka prakaash na hota. spasht hi hai ki yeh kathan maanav bhaasha ko lakshya karke hi kaha gaya hai. pashu-pakshi bhaavon ko prakat karne ke liye jin dhvaniyon ka aashray lete hain ve unke bhaavon ka vahan karne ke kaaran unke liye bhaasha ho sakti hain kintu maanav ke liye aspasht hone ke kaaran vidvaanon ne use 'avyakt vaak' kaha hai, jo bhaasha-vigyaan ki drushti se koi mahattv naheen rakhati. kyonki 'avyakt vaak' mein shabd aur arth donon hi aspasht bane rahate hain. manushya bhi kabhi-kabhi apne bhaavon ko prakat karne ke liye ang-bhangima, bhroo-sanchaalan, haath-paaainv-mukhaakruti aadi ke sanketon ka prayog karte hain parantu vah bhaasha ke roop mein hote hue bhi 'vyakt vaak' naheen hai. maanav bhaasha ki sabse badi visheshata yeh hoti hai ki vah 'vyakt vaak' arthaat shabd aur arth ki spashtata liye hue hoti hai. mahaabhaashya ke rachayita patanjali ke anusaar 'vyakt vaak' ka arth bhaasha ke varnanaatmak hone se hi hai.

yeh satya hai ki kabhi-kabhi sanketon aur angabhangimaaon ki sahaayata se bhi hamaare bhaav aur vichaaron ka preshan badi saralata se ho jaata hai. is prakaar ve cheshtaaeain bhaasha ke prateek ban jaati hain kintu maanav bhaavon ko prakat karne ka sabse upayukt saadhan vah varnanaatmak bhaasha hai jise 'vyakt vaak' ki sanjnyaa pradaan ki gayi hai. is mein vibhinn arthon ko prakat karne ke liye kuchh nishchit uchcharit ya kathit dhvaniyon ka aashray liya jaata hai. at: bhaasha ham un shabdon ke samooh ko kehte hain jo vibhinn arthon ke sanketon se sampann hote hain. jinke dvaara ham apne manobhaav saralata se doosaron ke prati prakat kar sakte hain. is prakaar bhaasha ki paribhaasha karte hue ham use maanav-samaaj mein vichaaron aur bhaavon ka aadaan-pradaan karne ke liye apnaaya jaane wala ek maadhyam kah sakte hain jo maanav ke uchchaaran avayavon se prayatnapoorvak ni:srut ki gayi dhvaniyon ka saarthak aadhaar liye rahata hai. vo dhvani-samooh shabd ka roop tab lete hain jab ve kisi arth se jud jaate hain. sampoorn dhvani-vyaapaar arthaat shabd-samooh apne arth ke saath ek 'yaadruchhik' sambandh par aadhaarit hota hai. 'yaadruchhik' ka arth hai poornataya kalpit. sankshep mein vibhinn arthon mein vyakt kiye gaye mukh se uchcharit us shabd samooh ko ham bhaasha kehte hain jiske dvaara ham apne bhaav aur vichaar doosaron tak pahuainchaate hain.

bhaasha-vigyaan ke adhyayan ke laabh

bhaasha-vigyaan ke adhyayan se hamein anek laabh hote hain, jaise-

1. apni chir-parichit bhaasha ke vishay mein jijnyaaasa ki trupti ya shankaaon ka nirmoolan.

2. aitihaasik tatha praagaitihaasik sanskruti ka parichay.

3. kisi jaati ya sampoorn maanavata ke maanasik vikaas ka parichay.

4. praacheen saahitya ka arth, uchchaaran evam prayog sambandhi anek samasyaaon ka samaadhaan.

5. vishv ke liye ek bhaasha ka vikaas.

6. videshi bhaashaaon ko seekhane mein sahaayata.

7. anuvaad karne waali tatha swayam type karne waali evam isi prakaar ki masheenon ke vikaas aur nirmaan mein sahaayata.

8. bhaasha, lipi aadi mein saralata, shuddhata aadi ki drushti se parivartan-parivrddhan mein sahaayata.

in sabhi laabhon ki drushti se aaj ke yug mein bhaasha-vigyaan ko ek atyant upayogi vishay maana ja raha hai aur uske adhyayan ke kshetr mein nitya naveen vikaas ho raha hai.

bhaashaavijnyaaan : kala hai ya vigyaan?

bhaasha ek praakrutik vastu hai jo maanav ko ishvareeya varadaan ke roop mein mili hui hai. bhaasha ka nirmaan manushya ke mukh se svaabhaavik roop mein ni:srut dhvaniyon (varnon) ke dvaara hota hai. bhaasha ka saamaanya gyaan iske bolne aur sunane vaale sabhi ko ho jaata hai. yahi bhaasha ka saamaanya gyaan kahalaata hai. iske aage, bhaasha kab bani, kaise bani ? iska praarambhik evam praacheen svaroop kya tha ? ismein kab-kab, kya-kya parivartan hue aur un parivrtanon ke kya kaaran hain ? athva kul milaakar bhaasha kaise viksit hui ? us vikaas ke kya kaaran hain ? kaun si bhaasha kis doosari bhaasha se kitni samaanata ya vishmata rakhati hai ? yeh sab bhaasha ka vishesh gyaan ya 'bhaasha-vigyaan' kaha jaaega. isi bhaasha-vigyaan ke vishesh roop arthaat bhaasha vigyaan ko aaj adhyayan ka ek mahattvapoorn vishay maan liya gaya hai.

bhaasha-vigyaan jab adhyayan ke vishyon mein badi-badi kakshaaon ke paathyakramon ke antargat sammilit kiya gaya to sarvapratham yeh ek svaabhaavik prashn utpann hua ki bhaasha-vigyaan ko kala ke antargat gina jaae ya vigyaan mein. arthaat bhaasha-vigyaan kala hai athva vigyaan hai. adhyayan ki prakriya evam nishkarshon ko lekar nishchaya kiya jaane laga ki vastut: use bhautik vigyaan, evam rasaayan vigyaan aadi ki bhaaainti vishuddh vigyaan maana jaae athva chitr, sangeet, moorti, kaavya aadi kalaaon ki bhaaainti kala ke roop mein sveekaar kiya jaae.

bhaasha-vigyaan kala naheen hai

kala ka sambandh maanav-jaati vastuon ya vishyon se hota hai. yahi kaaran hai ki kala vyakti pradhaan ya poornat: vaiyaktik hoti hai. vyakti saapeksh hone ke saath-saath kisi desh vishesh aur kaal-vishesh ka bhi kala par prabhaav rahata hai. iska abhipraaya yeh hai ki kisi kaal mein kala ke prati jo moolya rahate hain unamein kaalaantar mein naye-naye parivartan upasthit ho jaate hain tatha ve kisi doosare desh mein bhi maan liye jaaeain, yeh bhi aavashyak naheen hai. ek vyakti ko kisi vastu mein uchch kalaatmak abhivyakti lag rahi hai. kintu doosare ko vah is prakaar ki na lag rahi ho. at: kala ki dhaarana pratyek vyakti ki bhinn-bhinn hua karti hai.

kala ka sambandh maanav hrudaya ki raagaatmik vrutti se hota hai. usamein vyakti ki saundaryaanubhooti ka put mila rahata hai. kala ka uddeshya bhi saundaryaanubhooti karaana, ya aanand pradaan karna hai, kisi vastu ka taatvik vishleshan karna naheen. kala ke svaroop ki in sabhi visheshataaon ki kasauti par parakhane se gyaat hota hai ki bhaasha-vigyaan kala naheen hai. kyonki usaka sambandh hrudaya ki sarasata-vrutti se na hokar buddhi ki tattvagraahi drushti se hota hai. bhaasha-vigyaan ka uddeshya saundaryaanubhooti karaana ya manoranjan karaana bhi naheen hai. vah to hamaare bauddhik chintan ko prakhar banaata hai. bhaasha ke astitv ka taattvik moolyaankan karta hai. usaka drushtikon buddhivaadi hai. bhaasha-vigyaan ke nishkarsh kisi vyakti, raashtra ya kaal ke aadhaar par parivrtit naheen hote hain tatha bhaasha-vigyaan ke adhyayan ka mool aadhaar jo bhaasha hai vah maanavakrut padaarth naheen hai. at: bhaasha-vigyaan ko ham kala ke kshetr mein naheen gin sakte. bhaasha-vigyaan ki upayogita ismein hai ki vah bhaasha sikhaane ki kala ka gyaan karaata hai. isi kaaran sveet ne vyaakaran ko bhaasha ko kala tatha vigyaan donon kaha hai. bhaasha ka shuddh uchchaaran, prabhaavashaali prayog kala ki koti mein rakhe ja sakte hain.

bhaashaavijnyaaan : vigyaan hai

bhaasha-vigyaan ko kala ki seema mein naheen rakha ja sakta, yeh nishchaya ho jaane par yeh prashn uthata hai ki kya bhaasha-vigyaan, bhautik-shaastr, rasaayan-vigyaan aadi vishyon ki bhaaainti poornat: vigyaan hai ?

anek vidvaanon ki dhaarana mein bhaasha-vigyaan vishuddh vigyaan naheen hai. unki dhaarana ke anusaar abhi bhaasha-vigyaan ke sabhi prayog poornata ko praapt naheen hue hain aur uske nishkarshon ko iseeliye antim nishkarsh naheen kaha ja sakta. iske saath hi bhaasha-vigyaan ke sabhi nishkarsh vigyaan ki bhaaainti saarvabhaumik aur saarvakaalik bhi naheen hai.

jis prakaar ganit shaastr mein 2 + 2 = 4 saarvakaalik, viklparahit nishkarsh hai jo sarvatr sveekaar kiya jaata hai, bhaasha-vigyaan ke paas is prakaar ke vikalp-rahit nirvivaad nishkarsh naheen hai. vigyaan mein tathyon ka sankalan aur vishleshan hota hai aur dhvani ke niyam adhikaanshat: viklparahit hi hain, at: kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar bhaasha-vigyaan ko maanaviki (kala) evam vigyaan ke madhya mein rakha ja sakta hai.

vichaar karne par ham dekhte hain ki vigyaan ki aaj ki durat pragati mein pratyek vishesh gyaan apne aagaami gyaan ke saamane puraana aur avaijnyaaanik siddh hota ja raha hai. nitya naveen aavishkaaron ke aaj ke yug mein vaigyaanik drushti nitya sookshm se sookshmatar aur naveen se navyatar hoti chali ja rahi hai. aaj ke viksit gyaan-kshetr ko dekhte hue kai vaigyaanik maanyataaeain puraani aur feeki pad gayi hai. nyootan ka prakaash siddhaant bhi ab sandeh ki drushti se dekha jaane laga hai. isse yeh siddh hota ho jaata hai ki nootan gyaan ke prakaash mein puraatan gyaan bhi vigyaan ke kshetr se baahar kar diya jaata hai.

at: vishuddh gyaan ki drushti se vichaar karne par bhaasha-vigyaan ko ham vigyaan ke hi seema-kshetr mein paate hain. bhaasha-vigyaan nishchaya hi ek vigyaan hai jiske antargat ham bhaasha ka vishesh gyaan praapt karte hain. yeh sahi hai ki abhi tak bhaasha-vigyaan ka vaigyaanik star par poornat: vikaas naheen ho paaya hai. yahi kaaran hai ki prasiddh grim-niyam ke aage chal kar graasamaan aur varnar ko usamein sudhaar karna pada hai. ukt sudhaaron se poorv grim ka dhvani niyam nishchit niyam hi maana jaata tha aur sudhaaron ke baad bhi vah nishchit niyam hi maana jaata hai. is prakaar naye gyaan ke prakaash mein puraane siddhaanton ka khandan hone se vigyaan ka koi virodh naheen hai. vaastav mein yahi shuddh vigyaan hai.

san 1930 ke baad jahaaain varnanaatmak bhaasha-vigyaan ko pun: mahattv praapt hua, vahaaain tab se lekar aaj tak drut gati mein vikaas hua hai. jab se dhvani ke kshetr mein yantron ki sahaayata se naye-naye pareekshan praarambh hue hain tatha praapt nishkarsh poori tarah niyamit hone lage hain, tab se hi bhaasha-vigyaan dheere-dheere pragati karta hua vigyaan ki shreni mein maana jaane laga hai.

vigyaan ki ek badi visheshata hai usaka prayogaatmak hona. ameriki vidvaan baloom feeld (san 1933 i0) ke baad ameriki bhaasha vijnyaaaniyon ne dhvani-vigyaan evam roop-vigyaan aadi ke saath bhaasha-vigyaan ki ek naveen paddhati ke roop mein praayogik bhaasha-vigyaan ka badi teevrata ke saath vikaas kiya hai. is paddhati ke antargat bhaasha-vigyaan prayogashaalaaon ka vishay banta ja raha hai aur uske liye anek yantron ka avishkaar ho gaya hai. yeh dekh kar nishchit roop mein is vishay ko vigyaan hi kaha jaaega, ismein tanik bhi sandeh naheen hai.

aajkal jabki samaaj-vigyaan, manovijnyaaan aadi shaastreeya vishyon ke liye jahaaain vigyaan shabd ka prayog karne ki parampara chal padi hai tab shuddh kaaran-kaarya parampara par aadhaarit bhaasha-vigyaan ko vigyaan kehna kisi bhi drushti se anuchit naheen thaharaaya ja sakta.

bhaasha-vigyaan ki paribhaasha

dau॰ shyaamasundar das ne apne granth bhaasha rahasya mein likha hai-

“abhaasha-vigyaan bhaasha ki utpatti, usaki banaavat, uske vikaas tatha uske hraas ki vaigyaanik vyaakhya karta hai.”

mangal Dave shaastri (tulanaatmak bhaashaashaastr) ke shabdon mein-

”abhaasha-vigyaan us vigyaan ko kehte hain jismein (k) saamaanya roop se maanavi bhaasha (kh) kisi vishesh bhaasha ki rachana aur itihaas ka aur antat: (g) bhaashaaon ya praadeshik bhaashaaon ke vargon ki paarasparik samaanataaon aur visheshataaon ka tulanaatmak vichaar kiya jaata hai.”

dau॰ bholaanaath tivaari ke 'bhaasha-vigyaan' granth mein yeh paribhaasha is prakaar di gayi hai-

“ajis vigyaan ke antargat varnanaatmak, aitihaasik aur tulanaatmak adhyayan ke sahaare bhaasha ki utpatti, gathan, prakruti evam vikaas aadi ki samyak vyaakhya karte hue, in sabhi ke vishay mein siddhaanton ka nirdhaaran ho, use bhaasha vigyaan kehte hain.”

oopar di gayi sabhi paribhaashaaon par vichaar karne se gyaat hota hai ki unamein paraspar koi antar naheen hai. dau॰ shyaamasundar das ki paribhaasha mein jahaaain keval bhaashaavijnyaaan par hi drushti kendrit rahi hai vaheeain mangaladev shaastri evam bholaanaath tivaari ne apni paribhaashaaon mein bhaasha vigyaan ke adhyayan ke prakaaron ko bhi samaahit kar liya hai. paribhaasha vah achhi hoti hai jo sankshipt ho aur spasht ho. is prakaar ham bhaasha-vigyaan ki ek naveen paribhaasha is prakaar de sakte hain- “ajis adhyayan ke dvaara maanaveeya bhaashaaon ka sookshm aur vishleshanaatmak adhyayan kiya jaae, use bhaasha-vigyaan kaha jaata hai.”

doosare shabdon mein bhaasha-vigyaan vah hai jismein maanaveeya bhaashaaon ka sookshm aur vyaapak vaigyaanik adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

vyaakaran aur bhaasha-vigyaan mein antar

  • (k) vyaakaran shaastr mein kisi bhaasha vishesh ke niyam bataae jaate hain at: usaka drushtikon ek bhaasha par kendrit rahata hai kintu bhaasha-vigyaan mein tulana ke liye anya bhaashaaon ke niyam, adhyayan ka aadhaar banaae jaate hain. is prakaar vyaakaran ka kshetr seemit hai aur bhaasha-vigyaan ka vyaapak.
  • (kh) vyaakaran varnan-pradhaan hai. vah kisi bhaasha ke niyam tatha saadhu roop saamane rakh deta hai. vyaakaran bhaasha ke vyaavahaarik paksh ka sanket karta hai uske kaaran va itihaas ki koi vivechana naheen karta. sanskrut ki gam dhaatu (gat:) se hindi mein gaya bana hai. parantu 'jaana', 'jaata' aadi shabd 'ya' dhaatu se bane hain. isi kaaran gaya shabd ko bhi isi ke saath jod diya gaya hai. vyaakaran ki drushti se kabhi 'ek dash' shuddh shabd raha hoga parantu kaalaantar mein 'dvaadash' ki nakal par 'ekaadash' ka prachalan ho gaya. vyaakaran to prachalit roop batala kar chup ho jaaega par bhaasha-vigyaan isse bhi aage jaaega, vah bataaega ki iske peechhe munda aadi aaspaas ki bhaashaaon ka prabhaav hai. is prakaar bhaasha-vigyaan vyaakaran ka bhi vyaakaran hai.
  • (g) bhaasha-vigyaan jahaaain bhaasha ke vikaas ka kaaran samajhaata hai vahaaain vyaakaran prachalit shabd ko 'saadhu prayog' kehkar bhaasha-vigyaan ka anugaman karta jaata hai. is prakaar vyaakaran bhaasha vigyaan ka anugaami hai. bhaasha-vigyaan mein dhvani-vichaar ke antargat hindi ke adhikaansh shabd vyanjanaant maane jaane lage hain jaise 'Ram' shabd ka uchchaaran 'Ram' na hokar raam hai kintu vyaakaran abheetak akaaraant maanata chala aa raha hai.
  • (gh) bhaasha-vigyaan mein bhaasha ke jo parivartan usaka vikaas maane jaate hain ve vyaakaran mein usaki bhrashtata kahe jaate hain. yahi kaaran hai ki sanskrut ke baad praakrut (= bigdi hui) aadi naam diye gaye. bhaasha-vigyaan 'dharm' shabd ke 'dhamm' ya 'dharam' ho jaane ko usaka vikaas kehta hai aur vyaakaran use vikaar kehta hai.

saahitya aur bhaasha-vigyaan

bhaasha ke prachalit vartamaan svaroop ko chhod kar shesh saari adhyayan saamagri bhaasha-vigyaan ko saahitya se hi upalabdh hoti hai. yadi aaj hamaare saamane sanskrut, greek aur avesta saahitya na hota to bhaasha-vigyaan kabhi yeh jaanane mein safal na hota ki ye teenon bhaashaaeain kisi ek mool bhaasha se nikli hain. isi prakaar aadikaal se lekar aadhunik kaal tak ka hindi saahitya hamaare saamane na hota to bhaasha-vigyaan hindi bhaasha ke aitihaasik vikaas ka adhyayan kis prakaar kar paata.

bhaasha-vigyaan kisi prakaar se bhi bhaasha ka adhyayan kare use pag-pag par saahitya ki sahaayata leni padti hai. bundelakhand ke natakhat baalakon ke munh se yeh sun kar-

ona maasi dham
baap padhe na ham

vyaakaran kehta hai ki yeh kya bala hai, praacheen saahitya ka adhyayan hi use batalaaega ki shaakataayan ke pratham sootr 'ooain nam: siddham' ka hi yeh bigda hua roop hai.

saahitya bhi bhaasha-vigyaan ki sahaayata se apni anek samasyaaon ka samaadhaan khojane mein safal ho jaata hai. dau॰ vaasudev sharan Agrawal ne bhaasha-vigyaan ke siddhaanton ke aadhaar par jaayaseekrut 'padmaavat' ke bahut se shabdon ko unke mool roopon se jod kar unke arthon ko spasht kiya hai. saath hi shuddh paath ke nirdhaaran mein bhi isse paryaapt sahaayata li hai. at: saahitya aur bhaasha-vigyaan donon ek doosare ke sahaayak hain.

manovijnyaaan aur bhaasha-vigyaan

bhaasha hamaare bhaavon-vichaaron arthaat man ka pratibimb hoti hai at: bhaasha ki sahaayata se bahut se samasyaaon ko sulajhaaya ja sakta hai. vishesh roop se arthavijnyaaan to manovijnyaaan par poori tarah se aadhaarit hai. vaakya-vigyaan ke adhyayan mein bhi manovijnyaaan se paryaapt sahaayata milti hai. kabhi-kabhi dhvani-parivartan ka kaaran jaanane ke liye bhi manovijnyaaan hamaari sahaayata karta hai. bhaasha ki utpatti tatha praarambhik roop ki jaankaari mein bhi baal-manovijnyaaan tatha aviksit logon ka manovijnyaaan hamaari sahaayata karta hai.

manovijnyaaan ko bhi apni chikitsa-paddhati mein rogi ki oolajalool baaton ka arth jaanane ke liye bhaasha-vigyaan se sahaayata leni padti hai. at: bhaasha-vigyaan ki sahaayata se ek manovijnyaaani rogi ki manogranthiyon ka pata lagaane mein safal ho sakta hai. bhaasha-vigyaan aur manovijnyaaan ke ghanishth sambandhon ke kaaran hi aajkal bhaasha manovijnyaaan (Linguistic Psychology) ya saaikolinginvastiks (Psycholinguistics) naamak ek nayi adhyayan-paddhati ka vikaas ho raha hai.

shareer-vigyaan aur bhaasha-vigyaan

bhaasha mukh se nikalne waali dhvani ko kehte hain at: bhaasha-vigyaan mein hava bheetar se kaise chalti hai, svarayantr, svaratantri, naasikaavivr, kauva, taalu, daaaint, jeebh, onth, kanth, moorddha tatha naak ke kaaran usamein kya parivartan hote hain tatha kaan dvaara kaise dhvani grahan ki jaati hai, in sabka adhyayan karna padta hai. ismein shareer-vigyaan hi usaki sahaayata karta hai. likhit bhaasha ka grahan aaainkh dvaara hota hai aur is prakriya ka adhyayan bhi bhaasha-vigyaan ke antargat hi hota hai. iske liye bhi use shareer vigyaan ka rini hona padta hai.

bhoogol aur bhaasha-vigyaan

bhaasha-vigyaan aur bhoogol ka bhi-gahra sambandh hai. kuchh logon ke anusaar kisi sthaan ki bhaugolik paristhitiyon ka usaki bhaasha par gahra prabhaav padta hai. kisi sthaan mein boli jaane waali bhaasha mein vahaaain ke ped-paudhe, pakshi, jeev-jantu evam ann aadi ke liye shabd avashya milte hain parantu yadi unamein se kisi ki samaapti ho jaae to usaka naam vahaaain ki bhaasha se bhi juda ho jaata hain. 'somalata' shabd ka prayog aaj hamaari bhaasha mein naheen hota. is lop ka kaaran sambhavat: bhaugolik hi hai. kisi sthaan mein ek bhaasha ka door tak prasaar na hona, bhaasha mein kam vikaas hona tatha kisi sthaan mein bahut si boliyon ka hona bhi bhaugolik paristhitiyon ka hi parinaam hota hai. durgam parvaton par rahane waali jaatiyon ka paraspar kam sampark hone ke kaaran unki boli prasaar naheen kar paati. nadiyon ke aar-paar rahane vaale logon ki boli-bhaasha saamaanya bhaasha se hat kar bhinn hoti hai.

deshon, nagaron, nadiyon tatha praanton aadi ke naamon ka bhaasha-vaigyaanik adhyayan karne mein bhoogol badi manoranjak saamagri pradaan karta hai.

arth-vichaar ke kshetr mein bhi bhoogol bhaasha-vigyaan ki sahaayata karta hai. 'ushtr' ka arth bhainsa se ooaint kaise ho gaya tatha 'saindhav' ka arth ghoda aur namak hi kyon hua, aadi samasyaaon par vichaar karne mein bhi bhoogol sahaayata karta hai. bhaasha-vigyaan ki ek shaakha bhaasha-bhoogol ki adhyayan-paddhati to theek bhoogol ki hi bhaaainti hoti hai. isi prakaar kisi sthaan ke praagautihaasik kaal ke bhoogol ka adhyayan karne mein bhaasha-vigyaan bhi paryaapt sahaayak hota hai.

itihaas aur bhaasha-vigyaan

itihaas ka bhi bhaasha-vigyaan se ghanishth sambandh hai. itihaas ke teen roopon (1) raajaneetik itihaas, (2) dhaarmik itihaas, (3) saamaajik itihaas-ko lekar yahaaain bhaasha-vigyaan se usaka sambandh dikhlaaya ja raha hai-

  • (k) raajaneetik itihaas : kisi desh mein anya desh ka raajya hona un donon hi deshon ki bhaashaaon ko prabhaavit karta hai. hindi evam anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein angreji ke kai hajaar shabdon ka pravesh tatha angreji bhaasha mein kai hajaar bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke shabdon ka pravesh Bhaarat ki raajaneetik paraadheenata ya donon deshon ke paraspar sambandh ka parinaam hai. hindi mein arabi, faarasi, Turkey, purtagaali shabdon ke aane ke kaaranon ko jaanane ke liye bhi hamein raajaneetik itihaas ka sahaara lena padta hai.
  • (kh) dhaarmik itihaas : Bhaarat mein hindi-urdoo-samasya dharm ya saampradaayikta ki hi den hai. dharm ka bhaasha se ghanishth sambandh hai. dharm ka roop badalne par bhaasha ka roop bhi badal jaata hai. yagya ka lok-dharm se uth jaana hi vah kaaran hai jisse aaj hamaari bhaasha se yagya-sambandhi anek shabdon ka lop ho chuka hai. vyaktiyon ke naamon par bhi dharm ka prabhaav padta hai. hindu ki bhaasha mein sanskrut shabdon ki bahulata hogi to ek musalmaan ki bhaasha mein arabi-faarasi ke shabdon ki prachurata dekhne ko milegi. isi prakaar bahut-si praacheen dhaarmik gutthiyon ko bhaasha-vigyaan ki sahaayata se sulajhaaya ja sakta hai. dharm ke bal par kabhi-kabhi koi boli anya boliyon ko peechhe chhodkar vishesh mahattv pa jaati hai. madhya yug mein avadhi aur braj ke vishesh mahattv ka kaaran hamein dhaarmik itihaas mein hi praapt hota hai.
  • (g) saamaajik itihaas : saamaajik vyavastha tatha hamaari paramparaaeain bhi bhaasha ko prabhaavit karti hain. bhaasha ki sahaayata se kisi jaati ke saamaajik itihaas ka gyaan bhi saralata se praapt kiya ja sakta hai. bhaarateeya samaaj mein paarivaarik sambandhon ko vishesh mahattv diya jaata hai. isliye bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein, maaain-baap, bahan-bhaai, chaacha, mausa, foofa, buaa, mausi, saala, bahanoi, saadhoo, saali, saas-sasur jaise anek shabdon ka prayog kiya jaata hai kintu Europeeya samaaj mein in sabhi sambandhon ke liye keval ankal, aant, madar, father, brother, sistar jaise shabd hi hai jinmein kuchh 'in law' aadi shabd jod jaad kar abhivyakti ki jaati hai. at: bhaasha-vigyaan ke adhyayan mein saamaajik itihaas poori sahaayata karta hai. isi prakaar saamaajik vyavastha mein shabdon ka kis prakaar nirmaan ho jaaya karta hai is par bhaasha-vigyaan prakaash daalata hai. kisi samaaj ki bhaasha mein milne vaale shabdon se usaki samaaj-vyavastha ka parichay praapt hota hai. samaaj mein sanyukt-parivaar vyavastha hai, vishaal kutumb vyavastha hai ya ekal parivaar vyavastha hai is baat ka usamein vyavahaar kiye gaye shabdon se pata chalta hai.

bhaashaavijnyaaan tatha gyaan ke anya kshetr

bhaashaavijnyaaan ke adhyayan mein tarkashaastr, bhautikshaastr evam maanav-shaastr jaise anya gyaan ke kshetr bhi badi sahaayata pahunchaate hain. manushya mein anek prakaar ke andhavishvaas ghar kar lete hain jinka usaki bhaasha par praabhaav padta hai. bhaarateeya saamaj mein striyaaain apne pati ka naam ghuma-firaakar leti hai, seedha-spasht naheen. raatri mein vishaal keedon ka naam naheen liya jaata hai. ve apne ladke ka naam maange (maanga hua), chhedi (usaki naak chhed kar), bechoo (use do-chaar paise mein kisi ke haath bech kar), ghurahoo (kooda), katavaaroo (kooda) alichaar (kooda) ya leindha (raddi), aadi rakhate hain. andhavishvaason ke atirikt anya bahut si saamaajik-manovijnyaaan se sambaddh gutthiyon ke spashteekaran ke liye maanav-vigyaan ki shaakha-prashaakhaaon ka sahaara lena padta hai.

is prakaar gyaan ke anek kshetr- sanskruti-adhyayan, shikshaashaastr, saankhyiki, paath-vigyaan - aadi bhaasha vigyaan se gahra sambandh rakhate hain.

bhaashaavijnyaaan ke kshetr

maanav ki bhaasha ka jo kshetr hai vahi bhaasha-vigyaan ka kshetr hai. sansaarabhar ke sabhya-asabhya manushyon ki bhaashaaon aur boliyon ka adhyayan bhaasha-vigyaan ke antargat kiya jaata hai. is prakaar bhaasha-vigyaan keval sabhya-saahityik bhaashaaon ka hi adhyayan naheen karta apitu asabhya-barbar-asaahityik boliyon ka, jo prachalan mein naheen hai, ateet ke garv mein khoi hui hain un bhaashaaon ka bhi adhyayan iske antargat hota hai.

bhaasha-vigyaan ke adhyayan ke vibhaag

vishay-vibhaajan ki drushti se bhaashaavijnyaaan ko bhaasha-sanrachana (vyaakaran) evam 'arth ka adhyayan' (semantics) mein baanta jaata hai. ismein bhaasha ka vaigyaanik drushtikon se vishleshan aur varnan karne ke saath hi vibhinn bhaashaaon ke beech tulanaatmak adhyayan bhi kiya jaata hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke do paksh hain- taattvik aur vyavahaarik.

  • taattvik bhaashaavijnyaaan mein bhaasha ka dhvanismbhaar (svaravijnyaaan aur dhvanivijnyaaan (fonetiks)), vyaakaran (vaakyavinyaas va aakruti vigyaan) evam shabdaarth (arthavijnyaaan) ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

iske atirikt bhaashaavijnyaaan ka gyaan-vigyaan ki anyaanya shaakhaaon ke saath gahra sambandh hai. isse samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan, manobhaashaavijnyaaan, gananaamoolak bhaashaavijnyaaan (computational lingustics), aadi iski vibhinn shaakhaaon ka vikaas hua hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke gaun kshetr nimnalikhit hain-

  • 1. bhaasha ki utpatti : bhaasha-vigyaan ka sabse pratham, svaabhaavik, mahattvapoorn kintu vichitr prashn bhaasha ki utpatti ka hai. is par vichaar karke vidvaanon ne anek siddhaanton ka nirmaan kiya hai. yeh ek adhyayan ka rochak vishay hai jo bhaasha ke jeevan ke saath juda hua hai.
  • 2. bhaashaaon ka vargeekaran : bhaasha ke praacheen vibhaag (vaakya, roop, shabd, dhvani evam arth) ke aadhaar par ham sansaar bhar ki sabhi bhaashaaon ka adhyayan karke unhein vibhinn kulon ya vargon mein vibhaajit karte hain.
  • 3. anya kshetr : bhaasha ke adhyayan ke bhaasha-bhoogol, bhaasha-kaalakram vigyaan, bhaasha par aadhaarit praagaitihaasik khoj, lipi-vigyaan, bhaasha ki prakruti, bhaasha ke vikaas ke kaaran aadi anya anek kshetr hain.

taattvik bhaashaavijnyaaan ke prakshetr

  • svanavijnyaaan (Phonetics) : maanav ke svar-yantr dvaara utpann svaniyon ka adhyayan
  • roopavijnyaaan (morphology) : shabdon ke aantarik sanrachana ka adhyayan
  • vaakyavinyaas ya vaakyavijnyaaan (syntax) : vaakya ka nirmaan karne waali shaabdik ikaaiyon (lexical units) ke beech paraspar sambandhon ka adhyayan
  • arthavijnyaaan (semantics) : shabdon evam kathanon ke arth ka adhyayan

vaakya-vigyaan : bhaasha mein saara vichaar-vinimay vaakyon ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. bhaasha-vigyaan ke jis vibhaag mein is par vichaar kiya jaata hai use vaakya-vichaar ya vaakya-vigyaan kehte hain. iske teen roop hain-

(1) varnanaatmak (descriptive)
(2) aitihaasak vaakya-vigyaan (Historical)
(3) tulanaatmak vaakya-vigyaan (Comparative)

vaakya-rachana ka sambandh bolanevaale samaaj ke manovijnyaaan se hota hai. isliye bhaasha-vigyaan ki yeh shaakha bahut kathin hai.

roop-vigyaan : vaakya ki rachana padon ya roopon ke aadhaar par hoti hai. at: vaakya ke baad pad ya roop ka vichaar mahattvapoorn ho jaata hai. roop-vigyaan ke antargat dhaatu, upasarg, pratyaya aadi un sabhi upakaranon par vichaar karna padta hai jinse roop bante hain.

shabd-vigyaan : roop ya pad ka aadhaar shabd hai. shabdon par rachana ya itihaas in do drushtiyon se vichaar kiya ja sakta hai. kisi vyakti ya bhaasha ka vichaar bhi iske antargat kiya jaata hai. kosh-nirmaan tatha vyutpatti-shaastr shabd-vigyaan ke hi vichaar-kshetr ki seema mein aate hain. bhaasha ke shabd samooh ke aadhaar par bolne vaale ka saanskrutik itihaas jaana ja sakta hai.

dhvani-vigyaan : shabd ka aadhaar hai dhvani. dhvani-vigyaan ke antargat dhvaniyon ka anek prakaar se adhyayan kiya jaata hai. iske antargat dhvani-shaastr (Phonetics) ek alag se upavibhaag hai jismein dhvani utpann karne vaale angon-mukh-vivr, naasika-vivr, svar tantri, dhvani yantr ke saath-saath sunane ki prakriya ka bhi adhyayan kiya jaata hai. is adhyayan ke do roop hain-aitihaasik aur doosra tulanaatmak. grim niyam ka sambandh isi se hai.

arth-vigyaan : vaakya ka baahari ang dhvani par samaapt ho jaata hai yeh bhaasha ka baahari kalevar hai iske aage usaki aatma ka kshetr praarambh hota hai jise ham arth kehte hain. arth-rahit shabd aatmaarahit shareer ki bhaaainti vyarth hota hai. at: arth bhaasha ka ek mahattvapoorn ang hota hai. arth-vigyaan mein shabdon ke arthon ka vikaas tatha uske kaaranon par vichaar kiya jaata hai.

bhaashaavijnyaaan ke adhyayan ki paddhatiyaaain athva prakaar

kisi bhi adhyayan ko ham vaigyaanik tab kehte hain jab usamein ek nishchit prakriya ko apna kar chalte hain. bhaasha vigyaan bhi kisi bhaasha ke kaaran-kaaryaparak yuktipoorn vivechan-vishleshan ke liye kuchh nishchit prakriyaaon mein bandh kar chalta hai. inheen prakriyaaon ke aadhaar par abhi tak bhaasha-vigyaan ke paaainch prakaar ke adhyayan hamein praapt hote hain-

saamaanyataya bhaasha ka adhyayan nimnaankit drushtiyon se kiya jaata hai :

varnanaatmak paddhati

varnaatmak paddhati dvaara ek hi kaal ki kisi ek bhaasha ke svaroop ka vishleshan kiya jaata hai. iske liye ismein un siddhaanton par prakaash daala jaata, jinke aadhaar par bhaasha-vishesh ki rachanaagat visheshataaoain ko spasht kiya ja sake. dhyaatavya hai ki is paddhati mein ek saath vibhinn kaalon ko bhaasha ka samaavesh naheen kiya ja sakta, kyonki har kaal ki bhaasha ke vishleshan ke liye pruthak-pruthak siddhaanton ka prayojan padega.

paanini na keval Bhaarat ke, apitu sansaar ke sabse bade bhaashaavijnyaaani hain, jinhonne varnanaatmak roop mein bhaasha ka vishd evam vyaapak adhyayan kiya. kaatyaayan evam patanyajali bhi isi koti mein aate hain. greek vidvaanon mein thraiks, diskolas tatha irodiyn ne bhi is kshetr mein ullekhya kaarya kiya tha.

paanini se poorn prabhaavit hokar bloomafeeld (amareeka) ne san 1932 E. mein 'laingvej' naamak apna granth prakaashit karavaakar varnanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ke vikaas ka maarg prashast kiya. idhar pashchimi deshon - visheshakar amareeka mein varnanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ka aashaateet vikaas hua hai.

aitihaasik paddhati ya kaalakramik paddhati (diachronic linguistics)

kisi bhaasha me vibhinn kaalon mein parivrtanon par vichaar karna evam un parivrtanon ke sambandh mein siddhaanto ka nirmaan hi aitihaasik bhaashaavijnyaaan (Historical linguistics) ka uddeshya hota hai. varnanaatmak paddhati ka mool antar yeh hai ki varnanaatmak paddhati jahaaain ekakaalik hai, vahaaain aitihaasik paddhati dvikaalik.

sankrut bhaasha ki praacheenata ne aitihaasik paddhati ki or bhaashaavijnyaaaniyon ka dhyaan aakrusht kiya. 'filauloji' ka mukhya pratipaadya praacheen granthon ki bhaashaaon ka tulanaatamak adhyayan hi tha. mukhyat: sanskrut, jarman, greek, lautin jaisi bhaashaaon par hi vidvaanon ka dhyaan kendrit raha. fredarik august vulf ne san 1777 E. mein hi aitihaasik paddhati ki or vidvaanon ka dhyaan aakrusht kiya tha.

vastut:, kisi bhi bhaasha ke vikaasaatmak roop ko samajhne ke liye aitihaasik paddhati ka sahaara leinna hi padega. puraani hindi athva madhyakaaleen hindi aur aadhunik hindi mein kya parivartan hua hai, ise aitihaasik paddhati dvaara hi spasht kiya ja sakta hai.

tulanaatmak paddhati

tulanaatmak paddhati dvaara do ya do se adhik bhaashaaon ki tulana ki jaati hai. ise mishrit paddhati bhi kah sakte hain, kyonki vivranaatmak paddhati tatha aitihaasik paddhati donon ka aadhaar liya jaata hai. vivran ke liye kisi ek kaal ko nishchit karna hota hai aur tulana ke liye kam-se-kam do bhaashaaon ki apeksha hoti hai. is prakaar, tulanaatmak paddhati ko varnanaatmak paddhati aur aitihaasik paddhati ka yog kaha ja sakta hai.

tulanaatmak paddhati kinheen do bhaashaaon par laagoo ho sakti hai. jaise, bhaarateeya bhaashaaon - Bhojpuri aadi mein bhi paraspar tulana ki jaati hai ya fir hindi-angareji, hindi-roosi, hindi-faarasi ka bhi tulanaatmak adhyayan kiya jaata hai. arthaat ismein kshetragat seema naheen hai.

William jons (1746-1794tak), France baupp (1791-1867), maiksamoolar (1823-1900), kartias (1820-1885), august shlaaikhar (1823-1868) prabhruti vidvaanon ne tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ke vikaas mein mahattvapoorn yogadaan kiya hai. par, abatak tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan mein un siddhaanton ki badi kami hai, jinke aadhaar par do bhinn bhaashaaon ka vargeekaran vaigyaanik naheen ban saka.

sanrachanaatmak (gathanaatmak) paddhati

sanrachanaatmak paddhati varnanaatmak paddhati ki agali kadi hai. amareeka mein is paddhati ka vishesh prachaar ho raha hai. ismein yaantrik upakaranon ko adhik mahattv diya ja raha hai, jisse anuvaad karne mein vishesh suvidha hogi. jailig hairis ne 'metheds in strakcharal lingyustiks ' naamak pustak likhkar is paddhati ko viksit kiya.

bhaashaavijnyaaan ka prayogaatmak paksh

vigyaan ki anya shaakhaaon ke samaan bhaashaavijnyaaan ke bhi prayogaatmak paksh hain, jinke liye prayog ki pranaaliyon aur prayogashaala ki apeksha hoti hai. bhinn-bhinn yaantrik prayogon ke dvaara uchchaaranaatmak svanavijnyaaan (articulatory phonetics), bhautik svanavijnyaaan (acoustic phonetics) aur shravanaatmak svanavijnyaaan (auditory phonetics) ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. ise praayogik svanavijnyaaan, yaantrik svanavijnyaaan ya prayogashaala svanavijnyaaan bhi kehte hain. ismein darpan jaise saamaanya upakaran se lekar jatiltam vaidyut upakaranon ka prayog ho raha hai. parinaamasvaroop bhaashaavijnyaaan ke kshetr mein ganitjnyaon, bhautikshaastriyon aur injeeniyaaron ka poorn sahayog apekshit ho gaya hai. krutrim taalu aur krutrim taalu projektar ki sahaayata se vyaktivishesh ke dvaara uchchaarit svanon ke uchchaaran sthaan ki pareeksha ki jaati hai. kaayamograaf svaanon ka ghoshanatv aur praanatv nirdhaaran karne anunaasikta aur kaalamaatra jaanane ke liye upayogi hai. lairingo skop se svarayantr (kaakal) ki sthiti ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. endoskop lairingoskop ka hi sudhara roop hai. osilograaf ki tarangein svanon ke bhautik svaroop ko parde par ya film par atyant spashtata se ankit kar deti hai. yahi kaam spektograaf ya sonograaf dvaara adhik safalta se kiya jaata hai. spektograaf jo chitr prastut karta hai unhein paitarn plebaik dvaara fir se suna ja sakta hai. speechastrechar ki sahaayata se rikaard ki hui saamagri ko dheemi gati se suna ja sakta hai. inke atirikt aur bhi chhote bade yantr hain, jinse bhaashaavaijnyaaanik adhyayan mein paryaapt sahaayata li ja rahi hai.

fraanseesi bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon mein rooiyo ne svanavijnyaaan ke prayogon ke vishay mein (Principes phonetique experiment, Paris, 1924) granth likha tha. London mein pro॰ farth ne vishesh taaluyantr ka vikaas kiya. svaron ke maapan ke liye jaise svaratrikon ya chatushkon ki rekhaaeain nirdhaarit ki gayi hain, vaise hi inhonne vyanjanon ke maapan ke liye aadhaar rekhaaon ka niroopan kiya, jinke dvaara uchchaaran sthaanon ka theek theek varnan kiya ja sakta hai. Daniel jaans aur ida ward ne bhi angreji svanavijnyaaan par mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya hai. fraanseesi, jarman aur roosi bhaashaaon ke svanavijnyaaan par kaam karne vaalon mein kramash: aarmastraaaing, bithel aur boyaanas mukhya hain. saiddhaantik aur praayogik svanavijnyaaan par samaan roop se kaam karanevaale vyaktiyon mein nimnalikhit mukhya hain: stetasan (motor fonetiks 1928), negas (the maikenijm ov di lerings,1919) pautar, green aur kaup (vijibul speech), Martin joos (akoostik fonetiks, 1948), hefanar (general fonetiks 1948), maul (fandaameintals ov fonetiks, 1963) aadi.

idhar ek naya yaantrik prayaas aarambh hua hai jiska sambandh shabdaavali, arthatatv tatha vyaakaranik roopon se hai. yaantrik anuvaad ke liye vaindyut kampyootaron ka upayog vaigyaanik yug ki ek vishesh den hai. yeh anuprayukt bhaashaavijnyaaan ka atyant rochak aur upaadeya vishay hai.

bhaugolik bhaashaavijnyaaan (Geographical Lingiustics)

nrujaateeya bhaashaavijnyaaan (Anthropological Linguistics)

anuprayukt bhaashaavijnyaaan (Applied Linguistics)

vistrut vivechan ke liye anuprayukt bhaashaavijnyaaan dekhein.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • bhaashaavijnyaaan ki bhoomika (Google pustak; lekhak - devendranaath sharma) - iske ant mein bahoopayogi "bhaashaavijnyaaan ki shabdaavali" di hui hai.
  • bhaasha adhyayan (Google pustak ; lekhak - shivendr kishor varma, dilip Singh)


  • Glottopedia, MediaWiki-based encyclopedia of linguistics, under construction
  • The Linguist List, a global online linguistics community with news and information updated daily.
  • "Linguistics" section - A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology, ed. J. A. Garcíaa Landa (University of Zaragoza, Spain)