bhaashaai saamraajyavaad

bhaashik saamraajyavaad ya bhaashaai saamraajyavaad (Linguistic imperialism) us sthiti ko kehte hain jismein kisi sabal raashtra ki bhaasha kisi nirbal raashtra ki shiksha aur shaasan aadi vividh kshetron se deshi bhaasha (on) ka lop kar deti hai. iske liye ghoshit ya aghoshit roop se ek aisi vyavastha utpann karke jad jamaane di jaati hai jismein us videshi bhaasha ko na bolne aur jaanane vaale log doosare darje ke naagrik ke samaan hone ko vivsh ho jaate hain.

anukram

angreji bhaasha ka saamraajyavaad

filipinsan ne angreji bhaasha ke saamraajyavaad ki paribhaasha is prakaar ki hai:

the dominance asserted and maintained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages.
(sansthaapana dvaara prabhutv par bal dena aur use banaae rakhana aur angreji tatha anya bhaashaaon ke madhya lagaataar punargathan dvaara sanrachanaatmak aur saanskrutik asamaanata ko banaae rakhana.)

filipsan ka uparokt siddhaant angreji ke antarraashtreeya bhaasha ke roop mein aitihaasik prasaar ki sateek vyaakhya karta hai. saath hi yeh is tathya ki vyaakhya karta ki kyon Bhaarat, Pakistan, yugaanda, jimbaabve aadi deshon mein svatantr hone ke pashchaat bhi angreji ka prabhutv bana hua hai?

bhaashaai-saamraajyavaad ke shastr evain upakaran

bhaashaai-saamraajyavaad failaane ka sabse sashakt aur aitihaasik upakaran raajanaitik saamraajya hai. dakshin Asia mein angreji bhaasha ka saamraajya tatha afreeka ke anek deshon mein fraanseesi ka saamraajya raajanaitik saamraajya mein nihit shaktiyon ke durupayog ka hi parinaam hai. kintu iske saath-saath bhaashaai-saamraajya ko banaae rakhane aur satat prasaar ko sunishchit karne ke liye mithya-prachaar, ardhasatya, dushprachaar aadi ka sahaara liya jaata hai. iske atirikt yeh sunishchit kiya jaata hai ki rojgaar paane ke liye aaropit bhaasha ka achha gyaan anivaarya ho. iske liye ek alpasankhyak abhijaat varg taiyaar kiya jaata hai jo is bhaasha ka durupayog karke shesh samaaj ka shoshan karta rahe tatha vah varg jaane-anajaane is videshi bhaasha ka hit saadhan karta rahata hai.

pilipsan ki pustak mein is baat ka vishleshan hai ki kis prakaar british kaaunsil tatha anya sansthaaeain bhraamak-prachaar (ritorik) ka prayog karke angreji saamraajya ko badhaava deti hai. in bhramajaalon ke kuchh namoone hain :

  • angreji-shikshan ka sarvottam tareeka use ekabhaasheeya roop se padhaana hai. (ekabhaasheeya bhram)
  • angreji shikshan ke liye aadarsh adhyaapak vahi hai jiski maatrubhaasha angreji ho. (maatrubhaashi bhram)
  • jitni kam aayu se angreji sikhaayi jaaya, parinaam utane hi achhe honge. (sheeghraarambh bhram)
  • jitni adhik angreji padhaayi jaaegi, parinaam utana hi achha hoga. (adhiktam-anaavaran bhram)
  • yadi anya bhaashaaon ka adhik prayog kiya jaayega to, angreji ka star girega. (vyakalit bhram)

angreji bhaasha ke vishay mein vividh maadhyamon se ardhasatyon se mishrit prachaar ko failaaya jaata hai:

  • angreji ko daivi, dhani, sabhya aur rochak bataaya jaata hai. aisa prateet karaaya jaata hai ki doosari bhaashaaeain in gunon se heen hain.
  • angreji mein prashikshit adhyaapak evain shiksha-saamagri ke bharpoor upalabdhata ki baat kahi jaati hai.

angreji ke baare mein kuchh kathan uske upayogita aur mahatva ka atishyoktipoorn prachaar karte hue diye jaaye hain; jaise:

  • angreji vishv ka praveshadvaar hai.
  • angreji logon ko praudyogiki ke sanchaalan mein saksham banaati hai.
  • angreji aadhunikta ka prateek hai.

bhaashaai saamraajyavaad ke dushparinaam evain haaniyaaain

  • bhaashaai-saamraajya ka sabse bada dushparinaam yeh hota hai ki svadeshi bhaasha (eain) evain boliyaaain upekshit ho jaateen hain. kuchh maamalon mein unke lupt hone ka prabal khatra bhi upasthit ho jaata hai.
  • saamraajyavaadi bhaasha ek alpasankhyak, abhijaatya, shoshak varg utpann karti hai.
  • saamraajyavaadi bhaasha (jaise, angreji) shoshan ke hathiyaar ke roop mein prayukt hoti rahati hai.
  • abhijaat varg, saamraajyavaadi bhaasha ka upayog aam janta se doori banaakar anuchit laabh lene ke liye karta hai. (jaise - dhauns jamaane ke liye)
  • samaaj ke pichhde aur upekshit logon ko unki pratibha ke pashchaat bhi rojgaar milne mein kathinaai hoti hai kyonki unke saamaajik paryaavaran ke kaaran ek videshi bhaasha ke sthaan par ve svabhaasha mein praveen hote hain. isse samaaj mein samaanata aane ke sthaan par asamaanata ki khaai banti jaati hai.
  • videshi bhaasha ke upayog ki vivshata ke kaaran samaaj mein vichaar-vinimay samyak prakaar se naheen ho paata. kuchh-kuchh sthitiyon mein (saamraajyavaadi) bhaasha ka upayog samvaad ko badhaava dene ke sthaan par samvaad ka hanan karne ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai.
  • shiksha mein videshi bhaasha ke prachalan se vidyaarthiyon mein samajhne ke sthaan par ratane ki pravruti badhti hai. isse maulik chintan karne vaale deshvaasiyon ke sthaan par andhaanukaran karne vaale (nakalachi) adhik utpann hote hain.
  • videshi bhaasha mein anaavashyak roop se nipunata laane ke liye samay barbaad karna padta hai jise kisi anya srujanaatmak kaarya ke liye upayog mein laaya ja sakta tha.
  • deergh avadhi mein samaaj apni sanskruti aur jad se hi kat jaata hai.
  • samaaj mein heenabhaavana aa jaati hai.
  • saara samaaj bhaasha jaisi mahaan cheej ki asvaabhaavik sthiti ke kaaran pareshaani uthaata hai.

inein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain