bhaasha

bhaasha vah saadhan hai jiske dvaara ham apne vichaaron ko vyakt karte hai aur iske liye ham vaachik dhvaniyon ka upayog karte hain. bhaasha mukh se uchchaarit honevaale shabdon aur vaakyon aadi ka vah samooh hai jinke dvaara man ki baat batalaai jaati hai. kisi bhaasha ki sabhi dhvaniyon ke pratinidhi svan ek vyavastha mein milkar ek sampoorn bhaasha ki avadhaarana banaate hain. vyakt naad ki vah samashti jiski sahaayata se kisi ek samaaj ya desh ke log apne manogat bhaav tatha vichaar ek doosare par prakat karte hain. mukh se uchchaarit honevaale shabdon aur vaakyon aadi ka vah samooh jinke dvaara man ki baat batalaai jaati hai. boli. jabaan. vaani. vishesha— is samay saare sansaar mein praay: hajaaron prakaar ki bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain jo saadhaaranat: apne bhaashiyon ko chhod aur logon ki samajh mein naheen aateen. apne samaaj ya desh ki bhaasha to log bachapan se hi abhyast hone ke kaaran achhi tarah jaante hain, par doosare deshon ya samaajon ki bhaasha bina achhee tarah seekhe naheen aati. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke jnyaaataaon ne bhaashaaon ke aarya, semetik, hemetik aadi kai varg sthaapit karke unamein se pratyek ki alag alag shaakhaaeain sthaapit ki hain aur un shaakhaakon ke bhi anek varg upavarg banaakar unamein badi badi bhaashaaon aur unke praanteeya bhedon, upabhaashaaon athaav boliyon ko rakha hai. jaise hamaari hindi bhaasha bhaashaavijnyaaan ki drushti se bhaashaaon ke aarya varg ki bhaarateeya aarya shaakha ki ek bhaasha hai; aur brajabhaasha, avadhi, bundelakhandi aadi iski upabhaashaaeain ya boliyaaain hain. paas paas boli jaanevaali anek upabhaashaaon ya boliyon mein bahut kuchh saamya hota hai; aur usi saamya ke aadhaar par unke varg ya kul sthaapit kiye jaate hain. yahi baat badi badi bhaashaaon mein bhi hai jinka paarasparik saamya utana adhik to naheen, par fir bhi bahut kuchh hota hai. sansaar ki sabhi baaton ki bhaaainti bhaasha ka bhi manushya ki aadim avastha ke avyakt naad se ab tak baraabar vikaas hota aaya hai; aur isi vikaas ke kaaran bhaashaaon mein sada parivartan hota rahata hai. bhaarateeya aaryon ki vaidik bhaasha se sanskut aur praakruton ka, praakruton se apabhranshon ka aur apabhranshon se aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ka vikaas hua hai.

saamaanyat: bhaasha ko vaichaarik aadaan-pradaan ka maadhyam kaha ja sakta hai. bhaasha aabhyantar abhivyakti ka sarvaadhik vishvasaneeya maadhyam hai. yahi naheen vah hamaare aabhyantar ke nirmaan, vikaas, hamaari asmita, saamaajik-saanskrutik pehchaan ka bhi saadhan hai. bhaasha ke bina manushya sarvatha apoorn hai aur apne itihaas tatha parampara se vichhinn hai.

is samay saare sansaar mein praay: hajaaron prakaar ki bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain jo saadhaaranat: apne bhaashiyon ko chhod aur logon ki samajh mein naheen aateen. apne samaaj ya desh ki bhaasha to log bachapan se hi abhyast hone ke kaaran achhi tarah jaante hain, par doosare deshon ya samaajon ki bhaasha bina achhee tarah seekhe naheen aati. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke jnyaaataaon ne bhaashaaon ke aarya, semetik, hemetik aadi kai varg sthaapit karke unamein se pratyek ki alag alag shaakhaaeain sthaapit ki hain aur un shaakhaaon ke bhi anek varg-upavarg banaakar unamein badi badi bhaashaaon aur unke praanteeya bhedon, upabhaashaaon athaav boliyon ko rakha hai. jaise hindi bhaasha bhaashaavijnyaaan ki drushti se bhaashaaon ke aarya varg ki bhaarateeya aarya shaakha ki ek bhaasha hai; aur brajabhaasha, avadhi, bundelakhandi aadi iski upabhaashaaeain ya boliyaaain hain. paas paas boli jaanevaali anek upabhaashaaon ya boliyon mein bahut kuchh saamya hota hai; aur usi saamya ke aadhaar par unke varg ya kul sthaapit kiye jaate hain. yahi baat badi badi bhaashaaon mein bhi hai jinka paarasparik saamya utana adhik to naheen, par fir bhi bahut kuchh hota hai.

sansaar ki sabhi baaton ki bhaaainti bhaasha ka bhi manushya ki aadim avastha ke avyakt naad se ab tak baraabar vikaas hota aaya hai; aur isi vikaas ke kaaran bhaashaaon mein sada parivartan hota rahata hai. bhaarateeya aaryon ki vaidik bhaasha se sanskrut aur praakruton ka, praakruton se apabhranshon ka aur apabhranshon se aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ka vikaas hua hai.

praay: bhaasha ko likhit roop mein vyakt karne ke liye lipiyon ki sahaayata leni padti hai. bhaasha aur lipi, bhaav vyakteekaran ke do abhinn pahaloo hain. ek bhaasha kai lipiyon mein likhi ja sakti hai aur do ya adhik bhaashaaon ki ek hi lipi ho sakti hai. udaaharanaarth punjabi, guroomukhi tatha shaahamukhi dono mein likhi jaati hai jabki hindi, maraathi, sanskrut, nepaali ityaadi sabhi devanaagari mein likhi jaati hai.

anukram

paribhaasha

bhaasha ko praacheen kaal se hi paribhaashit karne ki koshish ki jaati rahi hai. iski kuchh mukhya paribhaashaaen nimnalikhit hain-

  • (1) bhaasha shabd sanskrut ke bhaash dhaatu se bana hai jiska arth hai bolna ya kehna arthaat bhaasha vah hai jise bola jaaya.
  • (2) pleto ne sofist mein vichaar aur bhaasha ke sambandh mein likhte hue kaha hai ki vichaar aur bhaashaaa mein thoda hi antar hai. vichaar aatma ki mook ya adhvanyaatmak baatcheet hai par vahi jab dhvanyaatmak hokar hothon par prakat hoti hai to use bhaasha ki sanjnyaa dete hain.
  • (3) sveet ke anusaar dhvanyaatmak shabdon dvaara vichaaron ko prakat karna hi bhaasha hai.
  • (4) veindreeya kehte hain ki bhaasha ek tarah ka chinh hai. chinh se aashay un prateekon se hai jinke dvaara maanav apna vichaar doosaron par prakat karta hai. ye prateek kai prakaar ke hote hain jaise netragraahya, shrotr graahya aur sparsh graahya. vastut: bhaasha ki drushti se shrotragraahya prateek hi sarvashreshth hai.
  • (5) block tatha tregar- bhaasha yaadruchhik bhaash pratikon ka tantr hai jiske dvaara ek saamaajik samooh sahayog karta hai.
  • (6) strutva – bhaasha yaadruchhik bhaash prateekon ka tantr hai jiske dvaara ek saamaajik samooh ke sadasya sahayog evam sampark karte hain.
  • (7) inasaaiklopeediya britainika - bhaasha ko yaadruchhik bhaash pratikon ka tantr hai jiske dvaara maanav praani ek saamaajik samooh ke sadasya aur saanskrutik saajheedaar ke roop mein ek saamaajik samooh ke sadasya sampark evam sanpreshan karte hain.
  • (8) ''bhaasha yaadruchhik vaachik dhvani-sanketon ki vah paddhati hai, jiske dvaara maanav parampara vichaaron ka aadaan-pradaan karta hai.''[1] spasht hi is kathan mein bhaasha ke liye chaar baaton par dhyaan diya gaya hai-
(1) bhaasha ek paddhati hai, yaani ek susambaddh aur suvyavasthit yojana ya sanghatan hai, jismein karta, karm, kriya, aadi vyavasthiti roop mein aa sakte hain.
(2) bhaasha sanketaatkam hai arthaat isame jo dhvaniyaaain uchchaarit hoti hain, unka kisi vastu ya kaarya se sambandh hota hai. ye dhvaniyaaain sanketaatmak ya prateekaatmak hoti hain.
(3) bhaasha vaachik dhvani-sanket hai, arthaat manushya apni vaagindriya ki sahaayata se sanketon ka uchchaaran karta hai, ve hi bhaasha ke antargat aate hain.
(4) bhaasha yaadruchhik sanket hai. yaadruchhik se taatparya hai - aichhik, arthaat kisi bhi vishesh dhvani ka kisi vishesh arth se maulik athva daarshanik sambandh naheen hota. pratyek bhaasha mein kisi vishesh dhvani ko kisi vishesh arth ka vaachak 'maan liya jaata' hai. fir vah usi arth ke liye roodh ho jaata hai. kehne ka arth yeh hai ki vah paramparaanusaar usi arth ka vaachak ho jaata hai. doosari bhaasha mein us arth ka vaachak koi doosra shabd hoga.

ham vyavahaar mein yeh dekhte hain ki bhaasha ka sambandh ek vyakti se lekar sampoorn vishv-srushti tak hai. vyakti aur samaaj ke beech vyavahaar mein aane waali is parampara se arjit sampatti ke anek roop hain. samaaj saapekshata bhaasha ke liye anivaarya hai, theek vaise hi jaise vyakti saapekshata. aur bhaasha sanketaatmak hoti hai arthaat vah ek 'prateek-sthiti' hai. iski prateekaatmak gatividhi ke chaar pramukh sanyojak hai: do vyakti-ek vah jo sambodhit karta hai, doosra vah jise sambodhit kiya jaata hai, teesari sanketit vastu aur chauthi-prateekaatmak sanvaahak jo sanketit vastu ki or pratinidhi bhangima ke saath sanket karta hai.

vikaas ki prakriya mein bhaasha ka daayara bhi badhta jaata hai. yahi naheen ek samaaj mein ek jaisi bhaasha bolne vaale vyaktiyon ka bolne ka dhang, unki uchchaapan-prakriya, shabd-bhandaar, vaakya-vinyaas aadi alag-alag ho jaane se unki bhaasha mein paryaapt antar aa jaata hai. isi ko shaili kah sakte hain.

boli, vibhaasha, bhaasha aur raajabhaasha

yon boli, vibhaasha aur bhaasha ka maulik antar bata paana kathin hai, kyonki ismein mukhyataya antar vyavahaar-kshetr ke vistaar par nirbhar hai. vaiyaktik vividhta ke chalte ek samaaj mein chalne waali ek hi bhaasha ke kai roop dikhaai dete hain. mukhya roop se bhaasha ke in roopon ko ham is prakaar dekhte hain-

(1) boli,

(2) vibhaasha aur

(3) bhaasha (arthaat parinishthit ya aadarsh bhaasha)

boli bhaasha ki chhoti ikaai hai. iska sambandh gram ya mandal se rahata hai. ismein pradhaanata vyaktigat boli ki rahati hai aur deshaj shabdon tatha ghareloo shabdaavali ka baahulya hota hai. yeh mukhya roop se bolachaal ki hi bhaasha hai. at: ismein saahityik rachanaaon ka praay: abhaav rahata hai. vyaakaranik drushti se bhi ismein asaadhuta hoti hai.

vibhaasha ka kshetr boli ki apeksha vistrut hota hai yeh ek praant ya upapraant mein prachalit hoti hai. ek vibhaasha mein sthaaneeya bhedon ke aadhaar par kai beliyaan prachalit rahati hain. vibhaasha mein saahityik rachanaaen mil sakti hain.

bhaasha, athva kahein parinishthit bhaasha ya aadarsh bhaasha, vibhaasha ki viksit sthiti hain. ise raashtra-bhaasha ya takasaali-bhaasha bhi kaha jaata hai.

praay: dekha jaata hai ki vibhinn vibhaashaaon mein se koi ek vibhaasha apne gun-gaurav, saahityik abhivruddhi, jan-saamaanya mein adhik prachalan aadi ke aadhaar par raajakaarya ke liye chun li jaati hai aur use raajabhaasha ke roop mein ya raashtrabhaasha ghoshit kar diya jaata hai.

raajyabhaasha, raashtrabhaasha aur raajabhaasha

kisi pradesh ki raajya sarkaar ke dvaara us raajya ke antargat prashaasanik kaaryon ko sampann karne ke liye jis bhaasha ka prayog kiya jaata hai, use raajyabhaasha kehte hain. yeh bhaasha sampoorn pradesh ke adhikaansh jan-samudaaya dvaara boli aur samajhi jaati hai. prashaasanik drushti se sampoorn raajya mein sarvatr is bhaasha ko mahattv praapt rahata hai.

bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein raajyon aur kendrashaasit pradeshon ke liye hindi ke atirikt 21 anya bhaashaaen raajabhaasha sveekaar ki gayi hain. raajyon ki vidhaanasabhaaen bahumat ke aadhaar par kisi ek bhaasha ko athva chaahein to ek se adhik bhaashaaon ko apne raajya ki raajyabhaasha ghoshit kar sakti hain.

raashtrabhaasha sampoorn raashtra ka pratinidhitv karti hai. praaya: vah adhikaadhik logon dvaara boli aur samajhi jaane waali bhaasha hoti hai. praaya: raashtrabhaasha hi kisi desh ki raajabhaasha hoti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. - Outlines of linguistic analysis, b. Block and G.L. Trager, page 5.


sambandhit pustakein

  • bhaasha vigyaan - bhola naath tivaari, kitaab mahal, nai Delhi, 1951
  • bhaasha aur samaaj - raamavilaas sharma, Rajkamal prakaashan, nai Delhi

inhein bhi dekhein

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