bhaas

bhaas sanskrut saahitya ke prasiddh naatakakaar the jinke jeevanakaal ke baare mein adhik pata naheen hai. svapnavaasavadatta unke dvaara likhit sabse charchit naatak hai jismein ek raaja ke apne raani ke prati avirhaneeya prem aur punarmiln ki kahaani hai. kaalidaas jo guptakaaleen samajhe jaate hain, ne bhaas ka naam apne naatak mein liya hai, jisse lagta hai ki vo guptakaal se pehle rahe honge par isse bhi unke jeevanakaal ka adhik thos pramaan naheen milta. aaj kai naatakon mein unka naam lekhak ke roop mein ullikhit hai par 1912 mein triveindram mein ganapati shaastri ne naatakon ke lekhan shaili mein samaanata dekhkar unhein bhaas-likhit bataaya. isse pehle bhaas ka naam sanskrut naatakakaar ke roop mein vismrut ho gaya tha.

anukram

ullekh

sanskrut naatakakaaron mein bhaas ka naam bade sammaan ka vishay raha hai. kaalidaas ne apne poorvavarti aur lokapriya naatakakaaron ki charcha karte hue sabse pehle bhaas aur baad mein somil (saumill) evam kaviputr ke naam liye hain aur unhein yashasvi naatakakaar kaha hai. baanabhatt, vaakyatiraaj aur jayadev ne bhi unki prashansa ki hai. vaaman ki "kaavyaalankaar sootravruti" aur abhinvagupt ki "abhinvabhaarati", raajashekhar ki "kaavyameemaansa" se bhaas ke naatakon ka astitv soochit hai. "avantisundari katha" mein bhi unka naam aaya hai. at: nishchit hai ki sambhavat: ashvaghosh ke paravarti aur kaalidaas se poorvavarti naatakakaar ke roop mein bhaas atyant lokavishrut kalaakaar the.

rachanaaen

bhaas sanskrut saahitya ke bade naatakakaar ke roop mein maanya the parantu unke naatak apraapt the. san 1907 i0 mein ma0 ma0 tee0 ganapati shaastri ko malayalam lipi mein likhit sanskrut ke das naatak praapt hue. khoj karne par teen aur naatak mile. 1912 i0 mein ganapati shaastri dvaara anantashayan sanskrut granthaavali mein bhaas ke naam se ve prakaashit kiye gaye. in naatakon ki anek pratiyaaain anya sthaanon se praapt hui.

ukt 13 naatakon ko poornat: ya anshat: bhaasakrut maanane / na maanane vaalon ke paksh tarkasamarpit hokar bhi aajatak nirnaayak naheen ho sake. is vivaad ke uthane ke anek kaaran hain. naatakon ki sthaapana (prastaavana) aur pushpika mein kaheen bhi naatakakaar bhaas ka naam naheen milta. sanskrut granthon mein bhaas ke jo ansh udadhrut hain unamein adhikaansh aksharash: in naatakon mein anupalabdh hain. isi prakaar anek kaaran hai jo un terah naatakon ki bhaasarachana vishyak praamaanikta ko sandigdh banaate hain.

is prasang ke pramukh matapakshon ko chaar vargo mein rakha ja sakta hai

  • (k) kuchh vidvaan in naatakon ko bhaasakrut maanate hain - jaise dau॰ keeth, pusalakar, ayyar aadi;
  • (kh) kuchh log prachalit naatakon ko Kerala ke chaakyaar naton ki kruti maanate hain ya paravarti kisi saamaanya naatakakaar ki rachana samajhte hain;
  • (g) doosare panditon ka kathan hai ki "pratijnyaaayaugandharaayanam" "svapnavaasavadattam" aadi naatak bhaasakrut hain kyoki praacheen sanskrut granthon mein unka sanket hai tatha anya bhaasakrut naheen hai;
  • (gh) anya kuchh vidvaanon ke mat se moolat: ve naatak bhaasakrut the; par unka varttamaan roop naton ya anya dvaara naatyaprayogaanukool parivrtit ya sankshipt hokar saamane aaya hai.

yeh bhi kabhi kabhi kaha jaata hai ki bhaas ke upalabdh naatak adhoore the jise anya ya anyajanon ne poora karke unhein vartamaan roop diya. jo ho, yeh nishchit hai k ye naatak jaali naheen hain. Kerala ke chaakaar parampara ne samaan roop se surakshit rakha hai. paramparaagat prasiddhi ke anusaar unki sankhya 23 ya 30 kahi gayi hai. triveindram sanskaran ke 13 naatakon mein kuchh aisi samaanataaeain aur visheshataaeain hain jinke kaaran vartamaan sanskaran ki naatyalekhan aur naatyashilp ke kalaakaar ki ekta soochit hoti hai. "naandyante tat: pravishti sootradhaar:" se inka aarambh, prastaavana ke sthaan par sthaapana shabd ka prayog, naatakakaar ke naam ka abhaav, bharatavaakya mein praaya: saamya, bharat ke naatyashaastreeya kuchh vidhaanon ka apaalan, sanskrut mein katipya apaanineeya roop ka prayog, anek naatakon mein kuchh paatron ke naam ka saamya, vichaar aur aadarsh ki samaanata, praakrut bhaasha ki kuchh vilkshanata aadi aisi baatein hain jinke kaaran in sab ke ekakartrutv ka sanket bhi milta hai. par vah bhaas the ya chaakyaar naton ke naatyaroopantakaar, yeh naheen kaha ja sakta.

naatak

1912 mein triveindram se ganapati shaastri dvaara prakaashit karaae gaye 13 naatak bhaasakrut maane jaate hain.

  • (1) svapnavaasavadatta,
  • (2) pratijnyaa yaugandharaayan,
  • (3) daridr chaaru datt,
  • (4) avimaarak
  • (5) pratima
  • (6) Abhishek,
  • (7) baalacharit
  • (8) pancharaatr
  • (9) madhyamaavyaayog,
  • (10) dootavaakya
  • (11) dootaghatotkach
  • (12) karnabhaar
  • (13) urubhang.

inmein pratham aath naatak anekaanki (teen se saat ank vaale) hain aur antim paaainch ekaanki hain. pratham do naatak udayanakathaashrit hain, 3, 4 sankhyak naatak kalpit kathaashrit hain (truteeya ki lagbhag vahi katha hai jo shoodrak ke "mruchhakatikm" mein hai), 5, 6 sankhyak raamakathaashrit hain, saptam naatak krushnakathaashrit hai tatha ashtam se terahavein tak ke naatakon ka aadhaar mahaabhaarat hai. inki kathaavastuon mein naatakakaar ne kalpanaajanya ghatnaaon, paatron aadi ka bhi naatakeeyata ke liye paryaapt upayog kiya hai.

pratima

yeh saat ankon ka naatak hai, jismein bhaas ne Ram vanagaman se lekar raavanavadh tatha Ram raajyaabhishek tak ki ghatnaaon ko sthaan diya hai. mahaaraaj dasharath ki mrutyu ke uparaant nanihaal se laut rahe bharat ayodhya ke paas maarg mein sthit devakul mein poorvajon ki pratimaayein dekhte hain , vahaaain dasharath ki pratima dekhkar ve unki mrutyu ka anumaan kar lete hain. pratima darshan ki ghatna pradhaan hone se iska naam pratima naatak rakha gaya hai.

pratima nirmaan ki katha bhaas ki apni maulikta hai. bhaas ne is naatak mein maulikta laane mein prachalit raamacharit se paryaapt paarthakya la diya hai. yadyapi ye saari ghatanaayein prachalit katha se bhinn hain , par naatakeeya drushti se inka mahatva sutaraan ooaincha hai aur paathak athva darshak ki kut hoo l vruddhi mein ye ghatanaayein sahaayak hui hain . is naatak mein raamaayaneeya katha se bhinnataayein is prakaar hain - pratham ank mein seeta dvaara parihaas mein valkal pahanana bhaas ki maulikta hai. truteeya ank mein pratima ka sampoorn prakaran hi kavi kalpit hai aur yeh kalpana hi naatak ki aadhaarabhoomi banaayi gayi hai. paaainchavein ank mein seeta ka haran bhi yahaaain naveen dhang se bataaya gaya hai.

yahaaain Ram ke utaj mein vartamaan rahane par hi raavan vahaaain aata hai aur dasharath ke shraaddh k liye unhein kaanyachanapaarshv mrug laane ko kehta hai tatha unhein kaanyachan mrug dikhaakar door hataata hai. yeh sampoorn pras g naatakakaar dvaara gadha gaya hai. paanchavein ank mein sum tr ka van mein jaana tatha lautakar bharat se seetaaharan bataana kavi kalpana ka prasaad hai. kaikayi dvaara yeh kehna bhi ki usane rishivchan satya karne ke liye Ram ko van bheja bhaas ki prasi t hai. antat: saptam ank mein Ram ka van mein hi raajyaabhishek is naatak mein maulik hi hai.

pratima naatak bhaas ke sarvottam naatakon mein se ek hai. saat ankon ke is naatak mein bhaas ki kala paryaapt ooainchaain ko praapt kar chuki hai. is naatak mein bhaas ne paatron ka chaaritrik utkarsh dikhaane ka bharsak prayaas kiya hai. itivrutt tatha charitra chitran donon drushtiyon se yeh naatak safal hua hai. bhaavon ke anukool bhaasha tatha laghu vistaari vaakya bhaas ke naatakon ki apni visheshataaeain hain . yeh karunaras pradhaan naatak hai tatha anya ras isi mein sahaayak bankar aaye hain .

Abhishek

yeh bhi raamakatha par aashrit hai. ismein chh: ank hain. ismein raamaayan ke kishkindhaakaand se yuddhakaand ki samaapti tak ki katha arthaat baalivdh se Ram raajyaabhishek tak ki katha varnit hai. raamaraajyaabhishek ke aadhaar par hi iska naamakaran kiya gaya hai. kathaanak ko sajaan sanvaarane mein naatakakaar ne paryaapt maulikta ka parichay diya hai. baalivdh ko nya ̧aaya roop dene ka bhi naatakakaar ne paryaapt prayaas kiya hai.

is naatak ke naayak maryaadaapurooshottam shri raamachandr hain . lokopadesh unke charitra ka pradhaan bhaag hai. Lakshman ka charitra is naatak mein vishesh prasfutit naheen ho saka hai. ve shreeraam k ek aajnyaaakaari sevak tatha vineet bhakt ke roop mein saamane aate hain . sugreev ka charitra is naatak mein praarambh se lekar ant tak kisi na kisi roop mein vartamaan rahata hai. vibheeshan nyaayapriya Bhagwad bhakt ke roop mein ankit kiya gaya hai. raavan kroor, duraachaari tatha parastri lampat ke roop mein chitrit kiya gaya hai.

Abhishek naatak ke pranayan mein bhaas ne paryaapt safalta praapt ki hai. yadyapi kaavya tatha naatakeeyata ki drushti se yeh naatak pratima naatak ki apeksha avar koti ka hai tathaapi is naatak ki apni visheshataayein hain . Ram-raavan yuddh apni vishishtataaon mein bejod hai. paatron ka kathopakathan aakarshak hai. chhot - chhote tatha saral vaakyon ka vinyaas bhaas ki apni visheshata hai tatha us visheshata ka darshan is naatak mein hota hai.

is naatak ka pradhaan ras veer hai jo samagr naatak mein vyaapt hai, par karoon ras bhi yatr tatr anusyoot hai. iski satta baalivdh ke anantar, seeta ke santaap aadi mein dekhi ja sakti hain . shrrungaar ka ismein abhaav hai tatha uske liye kaheen avsar bhi naheen aaya hai.

madhyam vyaayog

yeh ek ank ka vyaayog hai. vyaayog rupak ka ek bhed hota hai. iski kathaavastu ka aadhaar mahaabhaarat hai. ismein paandavon ke vanavaas kaal mein bheem dvaara ghatotkach ke panje se ek braahman baalak ki mukti ki katha hai. madhyam shabd madhyam paandav bheem aur braahman k madhyam putr donon ke liye prayukt hua hai. isliye is naatak ka naam ''madhyam vyaayog'' hai.

naatakeeya drushti se yeh naatak uttam koti ka hai, kyon k is paripaak tatha bhaavonmesh mein naatakakaar ko poori safalta praapt hui hai. kathopakathanon mein kaheen vairasya naheen aata tatha darshak ka kutuhal pratikshan badhta hua dikhaai deta hai. in kathopakathanon mein bhaasha bhi badi sahaayak siddh hui hai. lambe samaasaant padon ka yahaaain abhaav hai. bhaasha saralata mein bejod hai. ghatnaakram mein satvarata prabhaavotpaadan mein chaar-chaaaind laga deti hai. bhaas ka kaavya karm bhi is rupak mein safal raha hai.

karnabhaar

yeh bhi ek ank ke kathaanak wala mahaabhaarat ki kathaavastu se sambaddh vyaayog hai. dronaachaarya ke paralok sidhaare jaane par karn ko senaapati banaaya jaata hai tatha yuddh ka bhaar us par aa padta hai, isliye naatak ka naam ''karnabhaar'' hai.

''karnabhaar'' sheershak ki vyaakhya vidvaanon ne anek prakaar se ki hai. professor A di pusaalakar ki sammati mein kaanon ke bhaarabhoot kundalon ka daanakar yahaaain karn ki adbhut daanasheelata varnit ki gayi hai. at: kaanon ke aadhaarbhoot kundalon ke daan ko kendra maankar is naatak ki rachana karan se is naatak ka naam ''karnabhaar'' hai. Dr vintaranits ne karnabhaar ki vyaakhya karn ke kathin kaarya se ki hai. Dr. bhatt ki dhaarana hai ki karn ki chinta hi bhaarasvaroop ho gayi hai. isi baat ko dhyaan mein rakhakar is naatak ka naam karnabhaar rakha gaya hai. kuchh logon ke mat mein karn dvaara praapt yuddh kaushal unke liye bhaarabhoot ho gaya tha, at: is naatak ka naam karnabhaar pada.

is naatak mein do paatron ka charitra mukhya roop se chitrit hai. ek hai is naatak ke naayak karn aur doosare hain , chh: braahman veshadhaari devaraaj indr. karn ke charitra ki sabse badi visheshata jo yahaaain ubhar kar saamane aayi hai, vah hai usaki apoorv braahman nishtha tatha mahati daanasheelata. vah braahmanon ke liye sarvasv daan karne ke liye tatpar dikhaai padta hai. jab indr gau, suvarn aadi lena asveekaar karte hain , tab vah apna sir dene ki baat kehta hai. usaka vishvaas hai ki marne par bhi yash hi sthir rahata hai - ''hateshu deheshu guna dharante''. karn ke charitra ki doosari badi visheshata hai ki vah daan se kisi pratifl ki aasha naheen rakhata.

indr ke charitra mein svaarthi rup ke atirikt anya koi visheshata lakshit naheen hoti. shalya ka charitra koi vishesh ubharakar saamane naheen aaya hai.

apne laghu vistaar mein yeh naatak poorn hai. kaavyaras ke paripaak tatha naatakeeya tatvon k nirvaah donon drushtiyon se yeh naatak uchch koti ka hai. yadyapi naatak ka vishay veer ras aur yuddh bhoomi se hi sambandh rakhata hai, par naatak mein karun ras ki hi vishsh prabha dikhaai padti hai.

pancharaatr

yeh teen ankon ka ''samavakaar'' he. iski katha mahaabhaarat ke viraat parv par aadhaarit hai. iska naamakaran spasht roop se pauch raatriyon mein paandavon ko dhooaindhanein ki baat se hua hai. dronaachaarya ke satpr yaas se paandav mil jaate hain tatha duryodhan dvaara unhe aadha raajya de diya jaata hai.

is naatak mein sabse pradhaan charitra duryodhan ka chitrit hai. aarambh se ant tak vah naatak mein vartamaan hai. naatak mein sarvapratham ek dhaarmik raaja ke roop mein usaka charitra saamane aaya hai. paandavon ko raajya bhrasht kar vah mahaan yagya ka pravartan karta hai. yagya mein sabhi desh deshaantar k raaja usako kar dene upasthit hote hain . yeh unke mahaan shauryan paraakram ko ghoshit karta hai. avabhruth snaan ke samay duryodhan ki atoot guroobhakti bhi saamane aati hai.

kaavyotkarsh ki drushti se yeh rupak uttam koti ka kaha jaayega. saral shabdaavali mein bhaavonmesh bhaas ki apni visheshata hai. shabdon ke aashray se bhaas aisa chitr khada kar dete hain ki poora drushya hi saamane aa jaata hai. alankaaron ki sanghatana bhi nitaant aakarshak hai. sthaan-sthaan par sooktiyaaain is baareeki ke saath di gayi hain ki prabhaavotpaadan mein ve dooni vruddhi kar deti hain .

is roopak ka pradhaan ras veer hai. shrrugaanr ka ismein poornaroopen abhaav hai, jo naatak mein streepaatron ke na aane se hua hai. sankshep mein ise bhaase ki naatyachaaturi ka anupam udaaharan kaha ja sakta hai.

urubhang

yeh bhi mahaabhaarat ki katha par aashrit ek ekaanki hai, ismein vyaayog ke lakshan ghatit hote hain . dra pe di ke apamaan ka pratishodh lene hetu bheem va duryodhan ka gadaayuddh ismein varnit hua hai. ismein ek hi ank hai tatha samay va sthaan ki anviti ka poorn roop se paalan kiya gaya hai. naatak ki vishishtata iske du:khaant hone ke kaaran hai.

is rupak ka naayak duryodhan hai. uske charitra vinyaas mein naatakakaar ne paryaapt kaushal pradarshit kiya hai. is enkaaki mein naatakakaar ne uske charitra ko nitaant udaatt tatha praanyajal roop mein pradarshit kiya hai. vah shaurya paraakram ka jeevant prateek hai. duryodhan ke atirikt ashvatthaama tatha balaraam ka vyaktitv bhi apne mein mahatvapoorn hai.

sanskrut naatya-saahitya mein urubhang apna vishisht sthaan rakhata hai. naatakeeya kaushal ki drushti se yeh naatakaprashansaneeya hai. kathopakathanon mein svaabhaavikta sarvatr parilkshit hoti hai. samay aur paatr ke anukool hi vaartaalaapon ki sanghatana ki gayi hai. duryodhan ke urubhang ho jaane par balaraam ji ki cheshtaaon tatha kathanon mein paryaapt svaabhaavikta hai.

ras ki drushti se bhi naatakakaar ko paryaapt safalta praapt hui hai. naatak mein karun tatha veer ras paraspar anusyoot hain . in donon rason ke chitran mein lekhak ko paryaapt safalta mili hai.

baal charit

ismein paaainch ank hain , yeh naatak bhagavaan shri Krishna ki baal leelaaon par aadhaarit hai. puraanon me ya h pras g bahucharchit hai. visheshat: shreemadbhaagat mahaapuraan ka to yahi saar hai. ismein shreekrushn ke janm se kans vadh tak ki katha varnit hai.

ismein baal rupadhaari bhagavaan shri Krishna ki leelaayein va charitra pradarshit hai. at: is naatak ka naam baalacharit rakha gaya hai.

is naatak mein naayak ke roop mein bhagavaan shri Krishna ka charitra varnit hai. naatakakaar inhein saakshaat paraatpar brahm ke roop mein chitrit karta hai. pruthvi ke bhaar ko door karne tatha go-braahman ki raksha evam asuron ke sanhaar ke liye unhonne nar roop dhaaran kiya hai. ismein Krishna ka alaukik evam maanaveeya donon roop spashtat: dekhen ko milte hain .

Krishna ke alaava balaraam, vasud ve ji evam kans ka charitra bhi is naatak mein chitrit kiya gaya hai. vaasud ve ji ka charitra shaaleenata se otapra te hai. kans ka charitra atyadhik kathor pradarshit kiya gaya hai.

naatakeeya drushti se ise ek safal naatak kaha ja sakta hai. iska naayak prakhyaat tatha dheerodaatt hai. vah naayak ke sabhi gunon se sampann hai. is ki drushti se ismein veer ras pradhaan hai tatha karoon, raudr aadi ras ang roop mein aaye hain . bhaasha kathopakathanon ke anuroop hai. saral bhaasha darshak ke hrudaya par apna apoorv prabhaav daalati hai.

kaavya paripaak ki drushti se yeh naatak atyantaprashansaneeya hai. alankaaron ka sundar va samuchit prayog kiya gaya hai. baalacharit ka nimn shlok anek alankaar granthon mein ullikhit hua hai -

limpateev tamoऽgaanni varshateevaanjanan nabh:.
asatpuroosh sev ve drushtirnishfalataan gata. (1/15)

raatri ke varnan mein naatakakaar ko vishesh safalta praapt hui hai. shabdon ke dvaara bhaavadasha ke chitran mein bhaas ne mahaan safalta praapt ki hai. shabdon ke aashray se sampoorn bhaavadasha saari paristhitiyaaain saakshaat drushtigt hone lagti hain .

dootavaakya

yeh bhi ekaanki naatak hai. rupak ke bhedaanusaar yeh ''vyaayog'' hai. ismein shreekrushn ka doot ke roop mein varnan hua hai. shreekrushn duryodhan ke paas sandhi ka prastaav lekar aate hain kintu unka vahaaain apamaan kiya jaata hai tatha ve asafal hokar lautate hain . ve kuddh hokar sudarshan chakr ka aahvaan karte hain tatha use duryodhan ka vadh karne ka aadesh dete hain . parantu vah vaisa karan se rokata hai. iski kathaavastu mahaabhaarat se li gayi hai.

iska naamakaran bahut hi sateek hai. sampoorn naatak dootaveshadhaari shreekrushn ke vachanon s anupramaanit hai. at: ''dootavaakya'' naam poornataya saarthak hai. sampoorn naatak veeraras se otapra te hai. shreekrushn ke astron ki sahasa udbhaavana tatha viraat roop pradarshan mein adbhut ras ka chamatkaar hai. pradhaan roop se aarabhati vrutti ki yojana hai.

raajaneetik siddhaanton ki yeh naatak Khan hai. ''daayaadya'' ko lekar duryodhan evam shreekrushn ke madhya hua vaartaalaap atyant rochak evam sateek hai. raajyashaasan ke sandarbh mein duryodhan ka kathan atyant saaragarbhit evam mahatvapoorn hai. vah kehta hai ki ''raajya shaasan asakton ka kaam naheen vah to mahaan balashaaliyon se siddh hota hai -

raajyan naam nrupaatmajai: sahrudayairjitva ripoon bhujyate.
talloke na tu yaachyate na tu punardeenaaya va deeyate.

bhaas ki bhaasha saral, paatraanukool va rasaanuroop hai.

doot ghatotkach

yeh ekaanki bhi mahaabhaarat ki katha par aadhaarit hai. ismein abhimnyu ki mrutyu ke pashchaat shreekrushn ghatotkach ko doot roop mein dhrutaraashtan ke paas bhejate hain . duryodhan kruddh hokar ghatotkach ka tirskaar karta hai. donon mein paraspar vaad vivaad hota hai. ghatotkach duryodhan ka yuddh ke liye lalakaarata hai. dhrutaraashtan use shaant karte hain . ant mein ghatotkach arjun dvaara abhimnyu ka badla lene ki baat kehkar dhamaki dete huye nikal jaata hai. ghatotkach ke doot bankar jaane ke kaaran hi iska naam ''doot ghatotkach'' rakha gaya hai.

is naatak ka pradhaan paatr ghatotkach hai. vah veer ras se otapra te hai. veerata k saath-saath usamein shaaleenata tatha shishtata bhi samabhaaven drushtigt hoti hai. vah vaakpatu bhi hai. sankshep mein ham yeh kah sakte hain ki naatakakaar ne ghatotkach ka charitra bahut hi unnat roop mein prastut kiya hai.

ghatotkach ke alaava duryodhan, shakuni tatha du:shaasan ke charitra bhi is naatak mein ubharakar samaane aaye hain . ye sabhi atyant abhimaani tatha kroor prakruti ke hain . nihatthe baalak abhimnyu ka maarkar ve prasann hote hain .

naatak veer tatha karun ras ka sammiln hai. ek aur abhimnyu ki mrutyu se karun ras ka vaataavaran prastut hai to doosari aur ghatotkach tatha duryodhanaadi ke vivaad mein veeraras apna astitv vyakt karta hai. yeh naatak vaastavikta ke nikat prateet hota hai maanav hrudaya ki aakaankshaaon evam kamjoriyon ke chitran mein naatakakaar atyant safal hai.

is naatak mein bharatavaakya ka abhaav hai, at: kuchh log ise apoorn batalaate hain , sambhav hai aage ismein kuchh ansh raha ho. parantu yeh naatak apne prayojan mein poorn hai.

pratijnyaaayaugandharaayan

yeh lokakathaashrit naatak hai. ismein kaushaambi ke raaja vatsaraaj udayan dvaara ujjayini ke raaja pradyot ki putri vaasavadatta ke haran ki katha hai. ismein chaar ank hain . is naatak ka naamakaran amaatya yaugandharaayan ki pratijnyaaaon par aashrit hai. is naatak mein amaatya yaugandharaayan apne svaami ko shatru ke bandeegruh se chhuda laane ki pratijnyaa karta hai tatha anek vidhnon ke upasthit hone par bhi use poorn kar bataata hai.

is naatak ka naayak vats desh ka raaja udayan kalaakaaron ka sirmaur hai. vah bharatavanshi raaja hai. vah atyant roopavaan hai tatha uske roop par mahaasen pradyot ki stri bhi mugdh hai. veenaavaadan mein vah aachaarya hai. uske veenaavaadan ki prasiddhi desh deshaantar mein vyaapt hai tatha bandi avastha mein hi use pradyotaputri vaasavadatta ko veena sikhaane ka daayitv milta hai. atulit kala pr me hone ke saath-saath vah shaurya tatha paraakram se bhi otapra te hai. krutrim gaj ko pakadne ka prayaas karte samay jab pradyot ki sena us par toot padti hai, vah kinchit maatr bhi vichlit naheen hota tatha anekon ko mrutyu ke ghaat bhej deta hai. yahaaain uske dhairya tatha paraakram ki pareeksha hoti hai jismein vah safal hota hai.

jab use bandi bana liya jaata hai to vah apne aapko man se bandi naheen maanata tatha yaugandharaayan dvaara mukti ka poora prabandh kar lene par bhi vaasavadatta ko lekar chalne ka nishchaya karta hai. is kaam mein vah apne kaushal tatha yaugandharaayan ke buddhi kaushal se safal hota hai.

udayan ke alaava amaatya yaugandharaayan ki bhi is naatak mein mahati bhoomika hai. vah buddhimtta tatha neetikaushal ka choodaant nidrshan hai. anya paatron mein ujjayini ke raaja mahaasen pradyot prataapi raaja hain . sarvatr unke aadhiptya ka sammaan hai. vah gunagraahak hai. man hi man vah vatsaraaj udayan ke gunon kaaprashansak hai. rumanvaan tatha vidooshak donon svaamibhkt hain . 'pratijnyaaayaugandharaayan' bhaas ke safal naatakon mein apna sthaan rakhata hai. kathaanak ka vinyaas, paatron ka charitra-chitran, samvaad yojana evam rasayojana sabhi ka is naatak mein sundar samanvaya hai. kaavyakala ke paripaak ki drushti se bhi yeh naatak uchchastareeya hai. ismein raajaneeti evam kootaneeti ka saamraajya hai. svaameebhakti ka mahattv is naatak mein sarvatr lakshit hota hai. sooktiyon ka ismein praachurya hai.

svapnavaasavadattam

bhaas virchit roopakon mein yeh sarvashreshth hai. vastut: yeh bhaas ki naatyakala ka choodaant nidrshan hai. yeh chh: ankon ka naatak hai. ismein pratijnyaaayaugandharaayan se aage ki katha ka varnan hai. is naatak ka naamakaran raaja udayan ke dvaara svapn mein vaasavadatta ke darshan par aadhaarit hai. svapn wala drushya sanskrut naatya saahitya mein apna vishesh sthaan rakhata hai.

yeh naatak naatyakala ki sarvottam pariniti hai. vastu, neta evam ras-teenon hi drushti s yeh uttam koti ka hai. naatakeeya samvidhaan, kathopakathan, charitra-chitran, praakrutik varnan tatha rason ka sundar saamanjasya is naatak mein poorn paripaak ko praapt huye hain . maanav hrudaya ki sookshmaatisookshm bhaav dashaaon ka chitran is naatak mein sarvatr dekha ja sakta hai. naatak ka pradhaan ras shrungaar hai tatha haasya ki bhi sundar udbhaavana hui hai.

avimaarak

yeh lokakatha sambandhi chh: ankon ka roopak hai. ismein raaja kuntibhoj ki putri kurangi ka Rajkumar avimaarak se pranaya evam vivaah ka varnan hai. naayak ke aadhaar par iska naamakaran avimaarak rakha gaya hai. avimaarak ka yathaarth naam vishnusen tha tatha avi roopadhaari asur ko maarane se usaki sanjnyaa avimaarak hai.

naatak ka naayak avimaarak hai. vah atulit paraakramashaali hai. sahaj paraakramasheelata tatha par du:khakaatarata uske svabhaav ke ang hain . isi kaaran vah Rajkumari kurangi par haathi ke aakraman karne par use mukt karta hai. avimaarak ek dheeralalit naayak ke roop mein is naatak mein prastut kiye gaye hain . naatak ki naayika kurangi hai. vah roopayauvan sampanna hai. anya paatr sauveeraraaj tatha kuntibhoj hain.

naatakeeyata ki drushti se bhaas ke anya naatakon ki tarah yeh naatak bhi safal hai. saral bhaasha ka prayog naatak ki abhineyata mein chaar-chaaaind laga deta hai, kathopakathanon mein svaabhaavikta tatha bhaavaankan bhaas ki apni visheshata hai. chhot - chhote vaakya, saral bhaasha, rasaanukool ev paatraanukool bhaasha ka prayog is naatak ko uchchakoti mein la khada karta hai. is naatak ka pradhaan ras shrru gaar hai tatha anya ras uske sahaayak bankar aaye hain .

kaavyakala ki drushti se bhi yeh naatak nitaant udaatt hai. paristhitiyon , avasthaaon ev bhaavon ka sateek shabdon evam aalankaarik bhaasha mein vanarn sarvatr vidyamaan hai. prakruti chitran mein naatakakaar poornataya safal rahe hain . naatak mein sooktiyaaain yatr-tatr bikhri hui hain . prasiddh sookti ''kanyaapitrutvan khalu naam kashtam'' ka bhaas ne yahaaain uttar upasthit kiya hai - ''kanya pitrutv bahuvandaneeyam.''

is prakaar sabhi drushtiyon se yeh roopak prashast kaha ja sakta hai.

chaarudatt

mahaakavi bhaas ki naatya shrrunkhala mein chaarudatt antim kadi maana jaata hai. iski kathaavastu chaar ankon mein vibhaajit hai. shoodrak ke prasiddh prakaran ''mruchhakatik'' ka aadhaar yahi maana jaata hai. ismein kavi ne daridr chaaroodatt evam veshya vasantasena ki pranaya-katha ka varnan kiya hai. ek anya paatr shakaar hai jo pratinaayak ke roop mein hai. pr me ke aadarsh ki saamaajik prastuti ismein drushtavya hai.

is naatak ka naayak vanikputr aarya chaaroodatt hai. usi ke naam par is naatak ka naamakaran hua hai. naatak ki sampoorn ghatanaaeain usi ke sukrutyon par kendrit hain . chaarudatt ki daridrata ka bada hi maarmik chitran ismein kiya gaya hai. chaarudatt atyant daani, gunavaan ev roopavaan hai. daanasheelata ke kaaran hi vah daridr ho gaya hai. chaarudatt dheer prakruti ka maanav hai. vah kala marmajnya hai. vah mahaan dhaarmik hai tatha nirdhanaavastha mein bhi pooja evam balikrm sampann karta hai.

naatak ki naayika vasantasena hai. vah ujjayini ki ek prasiddh ganika hai. vah atyant roopavati hai. shakaar tatha vit uske rup-jal ke pipaasu hain . ganika hote huye bhi usaka chaaritrik star ooaincha hai. vah chaarudatt ke gunon par anurakt hai. uske ek-ek gun vasantasena ke pr me ko drudh karte jaate hain . shakaar se raatri mein raksha aur vidooshak ke saath vasantasena ka sakushal ghar pahuainchaana, chet ko pravaarak dena, vasantasena ke nyaas ki chori ho jaane par us apne stri ka atyant moolyavaan haar dena - ye sabhi gun vasantasena ke hrudaya mein sthaayi prabha daalte hain tatha vah swayam abhisaar ke liye uske paas chal deti hai. vasantasena ganika hone par bhi dhan lobhini naheen hai. vah atyant udaar manavaali naayika hai.

naatak ke anya paatron mein chaarudatt ka mitr maitr ya vidooshak hai. vah janm ka braahman hai. vah apne mitr ka viptti-sampatti donon samayon mein saath dene wala hai. maitr ya sanskrut naatkon mein anya vidooshakon ke samaan keval bhojanabhatt moorkh braahman naheen hai. vah samayaanusaar uske hit sampaadan ke liye kathin kaaryon ko bhi sampann karta hai.

shakaar is naatak mein khalanaayak hai. vah moorkh hai. saamaanya se saamaanya baat ka bhi us gyaan naheen hai. gunavaanon ke prati usaka koi aakarshan naheen hai. vah vasantasena ke roop par mugdh hai tatha balaat usase pr me karna chaahata hai.

yeh naatak daiv-durvipaakavash akasmaat samaapt ho jaata hai tatha yeh sahaj mein anumit ho jaata hai ki apne vartamaan roop mein yeh poorn naheen hai. yeh bhi sambhaavana hai ki is naatak ki rachana karte samay bhaas ki mrutyu ho gayi ho tatha is prakaar yeh adhoora rah gaya ho. yeh naatak saral va subodh hai. charitra-chitran ki drushti se bejod hai. naana prakaar k sajjan se sajjan tatha durjan se durjan yahaaain vartamaan hain . ek or chaarudatt sajjanata ki seema hai to doosari or shakaar durjanata ka choodaant prateek hai, kathopakathan ki drushti se bhi yeh naatak uchch koti ka hai.

is naatak mein bhaas ka kavihrudaya bhi poornaroop se abhivyakti ko praapt hua hai. prakruti ka chitran bhi svaabhaavik evam hrudayaakarshak hai. naatak ka pradhaan ras shrrungaar hai tatha anya rason ka bhi samayaanusaar sundar prayog kiya gaya hai.

is naatak mein deshakaal ka chitran bada hi svaabhaavik hai. dyoot ka varnan drushtavya hai. das-pratha ka sanket sajjalak dvaara vasantasena ki chori ko mukt karaane ke udyog se lagta hai. chori ka drushtaant sajjalak ka krutya hai.

naatak ki bhaasha saral, saras evam paatraanukool hai.

naatakon ka rachanaakaal

bhaas aur unke naatakon ka avirbhaav nishchaya hi kaalidaas se poorv aur sambhavat: ashvaghosh ke baad hua tha. unase poorvavarti naatakakaaron ke roop mein keval ashvaghosh ka naam, kadaachit, liya ja sakta hai. ganapati shaastri, pusalakar aadi ne uparyukt naatakon ka rachanaakaal kautilya arthashaastr se poorv pancham chaturth shataabdi i0 poo0 maana hai. dau॰ keeth, sten kono aadi ne dviteeya truteeya shataabdi i0 (kaalidaas se poorv) maana hai. baarnet, raamaavataar sharma, sukathankar vintaranits aadi shodhakon ne 7veen shati i0 se 11veen shati tak ke kaal ko in naatako ka rachana kaal maana hai. isi prakaar 16 shataabdiyon ki lambi kaalaavadhi mein vibhinn kaalon mein naana panditon ke mat se rachana hui. adhikaansh vidvaan inka samay dviteeya-truteeya shati i0 maanate hain.

saahityik moolyaankan

in naatakon ke kathaasootron ka aakalan aur sanyojan vividh stroton aur kalaatmak shilp ke saath hua hai.

yadyapi "Abhishek" aur "pratima" aadi mein vastuyojana kuchh shithil hai, tathaapi anyatr usamein naatakeeya gatimtta bhi paryaapt hai "udayan" naatakon ki vastuyojana gatisheel, naatakeeya kalaatmak aur shaktishaali hai. mahaabhaarataashrit naatakon ki katha vastu bhi paryaapt shaktishaali hai. kabhi kabhi shithil vastu ki kami ko ojasvi sanvaadon ne oorjasvit kar diya hai. udayan naatakon mein naatyakaushal aur naatakeeya shilp ke sanyojan ne unako uttam koti ke naatak star par pahuaincha diya hai. svapn vaasavadattan mein kathaavastu ki shithilta ke baavajood kaaryasankalan ki kushalata ne usamein apoorv gatimtta prasfutit ki hai. vanrya katha ko naatakeeya roop dekar sanyojana mein in naatakon ko achhi safalta mili hai. unamein naatakeeya vyangya hai, gatisheelata hai, apratyaashit evam maulik paristhitiyon ke udbhaavan ki dakshata hai aur alaukik, aadhidaivik, atikramit praakrutik paatron-ghatnaaon ka prayog hone par bhi charitron aur paroksh chitran dvaara yathaarthata ya vaastavikta ka aabhaas dene mein in naatakon ko safal kaha ja sakta hai.