bhaaratendu harishchandr

bhaaratendu harishchandr
Bhatendu.jpg
bhaaratendu harishchandr
upanaam: harishchandr
janm: 9 September, 1850
Varanasi, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 6 January, 1885
Varanasi, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: rachanaakaar, saahityakaar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: naatak, kaavyakrutiyaan, anuvaad, nibandh sangrah
vishay: aadhunik hindi saahitya
pramukh kruti(yaaain): saahitya harishchandr
aadhunik hindi saahitya ke pitaamah

bhaaratendu harishchandr (9 September 1850-7 January 1885) aadhunik hindi saahitya ke pitaamah kahe jaate hain. ve hindi mein aadhunikta ke pehle rachanaakaar the. inka mool naam 'harishchandr' tha, 'bhaaratendu' unki upaadhi thi. unka kaaryakaal yug ki sandhi par khada hai. unhonne reetikaal ki vikrut saamanti sanskruti ki poshak vruttiyon ko chhodkar svasthya parampara ki bhoomi apnaai aur naveenata ke beej boe. hindi saahitya mein aadhunik kaal ka praarambh bhaaratendu harishchandr se maana jaata hai. bhaarateeya navajaagaran ke agradoot ke roop mein prasiddh bhaaratendu ji ne desh ki gareebi, paraadheenata, shaasakon ke amaanaveeya shoshan ka chitran ko hi apne saahitya ka lakshya banaaya. hindi ko raashtra-bhaasha ke roop mein pratishthit karne ki disha mein unhonne apni pratibha ka upayog kiya.

bhaaratendu bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani the. hindi patrakaarita, naatak aur kaavya ke kshetr mein unka bahumoolya yogadaan raha. hindi mein naatakon ka praarambh bhaaratendu harishchandr se maana jaata hai. bhaaratendu ke naatak likhne ki shuruaat bangala ke vidyaasundar (1867) naatak ke anuvaad se hoti hai. yadyapi naatak unke pehle bhi likhe jaate rahe kintu niyamit roop se khadeeboli mein anek naatak likhkar bhaaratendu ne hi hindi naatak ki neenv ko sudrudh banaaya.[1] unhonne 'harishchandr patrika', 'kavivchan sudha' aur 'baal vibodhini' patrikaaon ka sanpaadan bhi kiya. ve ek utkrusht kavi, sashakt vyangyakaar, safal naatakakaar, jaagruk patrakaar tatha ojasvi gadyakaar the. iske alaava ve lekhak, kavi, sampaadak, nibandhakaar, evam kushal vakta bhi the.[2] bhaaratendu ji ne maatr 34 varsh ki alpaayu mein hi vishaal saahitya ki rachana ki. paintees varsh ki aayu (san 1885) mein unhonne maatra aur gunavatta ki drushti se itna likha, itni dishaaon mein kaam kiya ki unka samoocha rachanaakarm pathadarshak ban gaya.

anukram

jeevan parichay

bhaarateindu harishchandr ka janm 9 September, 1850 mein kaashi ke ek pratishthit vaishya parivaar mein hua.[2] unke pita gopaal chandra ek achhe kavi the aur girdhar das upanaam se kavita likha karte the. 1857 mein pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke samay unki aayu 7 varsh ki hogi. ye din unki aaainkh khulne ke the. bhaaratendu ka krutitv saakshya hai ki unki aaainkhein ek baar khuleen to band naheen huin. paintees varsh ki aayu (san 1885) mein unhonne maatra aur gunavatta ki drushti se itna likha, itni dishaaon mein kaam kiya ki unka samoocha rachanaakarm pathadarshak ban gaya. bhaaratendu ke poorvaj angrej bhakt the, unki hi krupa se dhanavaan hue. pita gopeechandr upanaam giridhr das ki mrutyu inki das varsh ki umr mein ho gayi. maata ki paaainch varsh ki aayu mein hui. is tarah maata-pita ke sukh se bhaaratendu vanchit ho gaye. vimaata ne khoob sataaya. bachapan ka sukh naheen mila.[3] shiksha ki vyavastha prathaapaalan ke liye hoti rahi. samvedansheel vyakti ke naate unamein svatantr roop se dekhne-sochane-samajhne ki aadat ka vikaas hone laga. padhaai ki vishay-vastu aur paddhati se unka man ukhadta raha. kveens college, banaaras mein pravesh liya, teen-chaar varshon tak college aate-jaate rahe par yahaaain se man baar-baar bhaagata raha. smaran shakti teevr thi, grahan kshamata adbhut. isliye pareekshaaon mein utteern hote rahe. banaaras mein un dinon angreji padhe-likhe aur prasiddh lekhak - raaja shivprasaad sitaare hind the, bhaaratendu shishya bhaav se unke yahaaain jaate. unheen se angreji shiksha seekhi. bhaaratendu ne svaadhyaaya se sanskrut, maraathi, bangala, gujaraati, punjabi, urdoo bhaashaaeain seekh leen.

unako kaavya-pratibha apne pita se viraasat ke roop mein mili thi. unhonne paanch varsh ki avastha mein hi nimnalikhit doha banaakar apne pita ko sunaaya aur sukavi hone ka aasheervaad praapt kiya-

lai byodha thaadhe bhae shri aniruddh sujaan.
vaanaasur ki sen ko hanan lage Bhagwan.

dhan ke atyadhik vyaya se bhaarateindu ji riani ban gaye aur dushchintaaon ke kaaran unka shareer shithil hota gaya. parinaam svaroop 1885 mein alpaayu mein hi mrutyu ne unhein gras liya.

saahityik parichay

bhaaratendu ke vruhat saahityik yogadaan ke kaaran heen 1857 se 1900 tak ke kaal ko bhaaratendu yug ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

aachaarya raamachandr shukl ke anusaar "bhaaratendu ne apni sarvatomukhi pratibha ke bal se ek or to ve padmaakar, dvijdev ki parampara mein dikhaai padte the, to doosari or bang desh "
pandrah varsh ki avastha se hi bhaarateindu ne saahitya seva praarambh kar di thi. athaarah varsh ki avastha mein unhonne kavivchanasudha naamak patrika nikaali jismein us samay ke bade-bade vidvaanon ki rachanaaen chhapati theen. ve bees varsh ki avastha me onareri maijistret banaae gaye aur aadhunik hindi saahitya ke janak ke roop me pratishthit hue. unhonne 1868 mein 'kavivchanasudha', 1873'harishchandr maigajeen' aur 1874 mein stri shiksha ke liye 'baal bodhini' naamak patrikaaeain nikaaleen. saath hi unke samaantar saahityik sansthaaeain bhi khadi keen. vaishnav bhakti ke prachaar ke liye unhone 'tadeeya samaaj` ki sthaapana ki thi. apni desh bhakti ke kaaran raajabhakti prakat karte hue bhi unhein angreji hukoomat ka kopabhaajan banana pada. unki lokapriyta se prabhaavit hokar kaashi ke vidvaanon ne 1880 me unhein 'bhaarateindu` ki upaadhi pradaan ki.[3] hindi saahitya ko bhaaratendu ki den bhaasha tatha saahitya donon hi kshetron mein hai. bhaasha ke kshetr mein unhonne khadi boli ke us roop ko pratishthit kiya, jo urdoo se bhinn hai aur hindi kshetr ki boliyon ka ras lekar sanvardhit hua hai. isi bhaasha mein unhonne apne sampoorn gadya saahitya ki rachana ki. saahitya seva ke saath-saath bhaarateindu ji ki samaaj seva bhi chalti thi. unhonne kai sansthaaon ki sthaapana mein apna yog diya. deen-dukhiyon, saahityikon tatha mitron ki sahaayata karna ve apna kartavya samajhte the.

pramukh krutiyaaain

maulik naatak[4]

  • vaidiki hinsa hinsa na bhavati (1873i., prahasan)
  • satya harishchandr (1875)
  • shri chandraavali (1876, naatika)
  • vishsya vishmaushadham (1876, bhaan)
  • Bhaarat durdasha (1880, brajaratnadaas ke anusaar 1876, naatya raasak),
  • neeladevi (1881, prahasan).
  • andher nagari (1881)
  • premajogani (1875, pratham ank mein keval chaar ank ya garbhaank, naatika)
  • sati prataap (1883, keval chaar ank, geetiroopak)

anoodit naatya rachanaaeain

  • vidyaasundar (1868, 'sanskrut chaurapanchaasika' ka baingala sanskaran)
  • paakhand vidmvana (Krishna mishrikrut 'prabodhachandrodaya' ka truteeya ank)
  • dhananjaya vijay (1873, kaanchan kavi krut sanskrut naatak ke teesare ank ka anuvaad)
  • karpoor manjari (1875, sattak, kaanchan kavi krut sanskrut naatak ka anuvaad)
  • Bhaarat janani (1877, naatyageet)
  • mudra raakshas (1878, vishaakhadatt ke sanskrut naatak ka anuvaad)
  • durlabh bandhu (1880, sheksapiyr ke 'marcheint aap venis' ka anuvaad)

nibandh sangrah

  • bhaaratendu granthaavali (teesara khand) mein sankalit hai.
  • "naatak sheershak prasiddh nibandh (1885) granthaavali ke doosare khand ke parishisht mein naatakon ke saath diya gaya

kaavyakrutiyaan

  • bhaktasarvasv,
  • premamaalika (1871),
  • prem maadhuri (1875),
  • prem-tarang (1877),
  • uttaraarddh bhaktamaal (1876-77),
  • prem-pralaap (1877),
  • holi (1879),
  • madhumukul (1881),
  • raag-sangrah (1880),
  • varsha-vinod (1880),
  • vinaya prem pachaasa (1881),
  • foolon ka guchha (1882),
  • prem fulavaari (1883)
  • krushnacharitr (1883)
  • daanaleela
  • tanmaya leela
  • naye jmaane ki mukari
  • sumanaanjali
  • bandar sabha (haasya vyang)
  • bakari vilaap (haasya vyang)

varnya vishay

bhaarateindu ji ki yeh visheshata rahi ki jahaan unhonne ishvar bhakti aadi praacheen vishyon par kavita likhi vahaan unhonne samaaj sudhaar, raashtra prem aadi naveen vishyon ko bhi apnaaya. at: vishay ke anusaar unki kavita shrrungaar-pradhaan, bhakti-pradhaan, saamaajik samasya pradhaan tatha raashtra prem pradhaan hain.

shrungaar ras pradhaan bhaarateindu ji ne shrrungaar ke sanyog aur viyog donon hi pakshon ka sundar chitran kiya hai. viyogaavastha ka ek chitr dekhiye-

dekhyo ek baarahoon na nain bhari tohi yaate
jaun jaun lok jaihein tahi pachhataayagi.
bina praan pyaare bhae darase tihaare haaya,
dekhi leejo aankhein ye khuli hi rah jaayagi.

bhakti pradhaan bhaarateindu ji Krishna ke bhakt the aur pushti maarg ke maanane vaale the. unako kavita mein sachchi bhakti bhaavana ke darshan hote hain. ve kaamna karte hain -

bolyon karai noopur streenani ke nikat sada
pad tal maanhi man meri bihrayau karai.
baajyau karai bansi dhuni poori rom-rom,
mukh man muskaani mand manahi haasyau karai.

saamaajik samasya pradhaan bhaarateindu ji ne apne kaavya mein anek saamaajik samasyaaon ka chitran kiya. unhonne samaaj mein vyaapt kureetiyon par teekhe vyangya kiye. mahaajanon aur rishvat lene vaalon ko bhi unhonne naheen chhoda-

chooran amle jo sab khaate,
dooni rishvat turat pachaate.
chooran sabhi mahaajan khaate,
jisse jama hajam kar jaate.

raashtra-prem pradhaan bhaarateindu ji ke kaavya mein raashtra-prem bhi bhaavana spasht drushtigochar hoti hai. Bhaarat ke praacheen gaurav ki jhaanki ve in shabdon mein prastut karte hain -

Bhaarat ke bhuj bal jag rachhit,
Bhaarat vidya lahi jag sichhit.
Bhaarat tej jagat vistaara,
Bhaarat bhaya kanpith sansaara.

praakrutik chitran prakruti chitran mein bhaarateindu ji ko adhik safalta naheen mili, kyonki ve maanav-prakruti ke shilpi the, baahya prakruti mein unka marmapoorn roopen naheen ram paaya. at: unke adhikaansh prakruti chitran mein maanav hrudaya ko aakarshit karne ki shakti ka abhaav hai. chandraavali naatika ke yamuna-varnan mein avashya sajeevata hai tatha usaki upamaaen aur utprekshaaen naveenata liye hue hain-

kai piya pad upamaan jaan yeh nij ur dhaarat,
kai mukh kar bahu bhrungan miss astuti uchchaarat.
kai braj tiygan badan kamal ki jhalakat jhaanin,
kai braj haripd paras hetu kamala bahu aain.

prakruti varnan ka yeh udahaaran dekhiye, jisme yumana ki shobha kitni darshaneeya hai |

"tarani tanooja tat tamaal taruvar bahu chhaaye |
jhuke kool son jal parasan hit manahooain suhaaye || "

bhaasha

bhaarateindu ji ke kaavya ki bhaasha pradhaanat: braj bhaasha hai. unhonne braj bhaasha ke aprachalit shabdon ko chhod kar uske parikrusht roop ko apnaaya. unki bhaasha mein jahaan-tahaan urdoo aur angreji ke prachalit shabd bhi jaate hain. bhaarateindu ji ki bhaasha mein kaheen-kaheen vyaakaran sambandhi ashudhdiyaan bhi dekhne ko mil jaati hain. muhaavaron ka prayog kushalataapoorvak hua hai. bhaarateindu ji ki bhaasha saral aur vyavahaarik hai.

shaili

bhaarateindu ji ke kaavya mein nimnalikhit shailiyon ke darshan hote hain -

1. reeti kaaleen rasapoorn alankaar shaili - shrrungaarik kavitaaon mein,

2. bhaavaatmak shaili - bhakti ke padon mein,

3. vyangyaatmak shaili - samaaj-sudhaar ki rachanaaon mein,

4. udbodhan shaili - desh-prem ki kavitaaon mein.

ras

bhaarateindu ji ne lagbhag sabhi rason mein kavita ki hai. shrrungaar aur shaant ki pradhaanata hai. shrrungaar ke donon pakshon ka bhaarateindu ji ne sundar varnan kiya hai. unke kaavya mein haasya ras ki bhi utkrusht yojana milti hai.

chhand

bhaarateindu ji ne apne samay mein prachalit praay: sabhi chhandon ko apnaaya hai. unhonne keval hindi ke hi naheen urdoo, sanskrut, bangala bhaasha ke chhandon ko bhi sthaan diya hai. unke kaavya mein sanskrut ke basant tilka, shaardool, vikreedit, shaalini aadi hindi ke chaupaai, chhappaya, rola, soratha, kundaliyaan kavitt, savaiya ghanaachhari aadi, bangala ke payaar tatha urdoo ke rekhata, gjl chhandon ka prayog hua hai. inke atirikt bhaarateindu ji kajali, thumari, laavani, malhaar, chaiti aadi lok chhandon ko bhi vyavahaar mein laae hain.

alankaar

alankaaron ka prayog bhaarateindu ji ke kaavya mein sahaj roop se hua hai. upama, utpreksha, roopak aur sandeh alankaaron ke prati bhaarateindu ji ki adhik ruchi hai. shabdaalankaaron ko bhi sthaan mila hai. nimn panktiyon mein utpreksha aur anupraas alankaar ki yojana spasht dikhaai deti hai:

tarani tanooja tat tamaal taruvar bahu chhaae.
jhuke kool son jal parasan hit manahu suhaae.

mahatvapoorn kaarya

aadhunik hindi saahitya mein bhaarateindu ji ka atyant mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. bhaarateindu bahoomukhi pratibha ke svaami the. kavita, kahaani, naatak, upanyaas, nibandh aadi sabhi kshetron mein unki den apoorv hai. bhaarateindu ji hindi mein nav jaagaran ka sandesh lekar avatarit hue. unhonne hindi ke sarvaangeen vikaas mein mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya. bhaav, bhaasha aur shaili mein naveenata tatha maulikta ka samaavesh karke unhein aadhunik kaal ke anuroop banaaya. aadhunik hindi ke ve janmadaata maane jaate hain. hindi ke naatakon ka sootrapaat bhi unheen ke dvaara hua. bhaarateindu ji apne samay ke saahityik neta the. unase kitne hi pratibhaashaali lekhakon ko janm mila. maatru-bhaasha ki seva mein unhonne apna jeevan hi naheen sampoorn dhan bhi arpit kar diya. hindi bhaasha ki unnati unka moolamantr tha -

nij bhaasha unnati lahai sab unnati ko mool.
bin nij bhaasha gyaan ke mite na hiya ko shool.[2][5]
vividh kala shiksha amit, gyaan anek prakaar.
sab desan se lai karahoo, bhaasha maahi prachaar..

apni inheen visheshataaon ke kaaran bhaarateindu hindi saahityaakaash ke ek daidipyamaan nakshatr ban gaye aur unka yug bhaarateindu yug ke naam se prasidhd hua. harishchandr chandrika, kavivchan sudha, harishchandr maigjeen, stri baala bodhini jaise prakaashan unke vichaarasheel aur pragatisheel sampaadkeeya drushtikon ka parichay dete hain.

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. naatak ka itihaas. janamaanas-ek hindi manch. 2 October 2009. Ajay Singh
  2. a aa i vilkshan pratibha ke dhani bhaaratendu. vebaduniya. smruti Joshi
  3. a aa [http://www.anubhuti-hindi.org/dohe/bhartendu.htm bhaarateindu harishchandr- anubhooti par
  4. hindi saahitya kosh bhaag-2 (naamavaachi shabdaavali) pru-409
  5. bhaaratendu harishchand aur 'nij bhaasha' chhatteesagadhi|lok-aalok. 19 December 2009. nandakishor shukl

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