bhaarateeya thalasena

bhaarateeya thalasena
Flag of the Indian Army

bhaarateeya thalasena
Founded 15 August 1947 – Present
desh India
prakaar Army
aakaar 1,100,000 sakriya karmi
1,500,000 reserve karmi
bhaarateeya sena ke upakaran
hissa raksha mantraalaya
bhaarateeya sashastr senaaen
mukhyaalaya nai Delhi, Bhaarat
rang sunahara, laal aur kaala
website indianarmy.nic.in
commander
thal sena ke cheef general dalabeer Singh suhaag[1]
Notable
commanders
feeld maarshal kariyppa
feeld maarshal manekashau
yeh lekh aadhunik bhaarateeya sena se sambandhit hai. Bhaarat ki svatantrata se pehle ke sainya itihaas ke liye, jismein british-bhaarateeya sainya itihaas sammilit hai, dekhein british-bhaarateeya sainya itihaas.

bhaarateeya thalasena bhaarateeya sashastr senaaon ki thal ikaai hai, ispar bhoomi par sanchaalit hone vaale sainya kaaryakramon ka uttaradaayitv hai| iske praathamik uddeshya bhaarateeya seemaaon ki baahari shaktiyon ke aakraman se raksha karna, desh ke andar shaanti evam suraksha sunishchit karna, seemaaon ki nigraani evam aatank virodhi kaaryakramon ka sanyachaalan karna hain| aapada, ashaanti aur upadrav ki sthitiyon mein bhaarateeya thalasena bachaav evam maanaveeya sahaayata pahuainchaane mein prashaasan ka sahayog bhi karti hai| thalasena ka niyantran evam sanyachaalan ka kaarya bhaarateeya raksha mantraalaya ke antargat hai|

gyaarah lakh tees hajaar sakriya sainikon evam baarah lakh aarakshit sainya karmiyon ki sevaaen grahan karne waali bhaarateeya thal sena vishv ki doosari sabse badi sena hai| yeh poornat: svechhik seva hai, yadyapi Bhaarat ke samvidhaan mein anivaarya sainya seva ka praavadhaan bhi hai, par ise aaj tak laagoo naheen kiya gaya|

bhaarateeya thalasena ki sthaapana san 1947 mein Bhaarat ko svatantrata milne ke tunrat baad hui thi| british raaj ke samay ki adhiktar rejeemeinton ko yathaavat rahane diya gaya| sanyukt raashtra ki shaanti senaaon ke sadasya ke taur par bhaarateeya thalasena ne vishv ke adhiktar yuddh evam sangharsh prabhaavit kshetron mein utkrusht yogadaan diya hai| ise desh ki bhaugolik vibhinnataaon ke chalte alag- alag bhaugolik kshetron mein yuddh ka bahumoolya anubhav hai| dalabeer Singh suhaag thalasena ke varttamaan pramukh hain| bhaarateeya thalasena mein field maarshal ka pad uchchatam maana jaata hai| yeh ek maanad pad hai jo ki kendra sarkaar ki anushansa par raashtrapati dvaara pradaan kiya jaata hai, parantu keval vishisht paristhitiyon mein hi iski anushansa ki jaati hai bhaarateeya sena ke chh: dashakon ke itihaas mein maatr do adhikaareeyon ko hi field maarshal ka pad saunpa gaya hai|

chitr:India.Military.02.jpg
Indian soldiers are known as Jawans in Hindi. Shown here are Indian Jawans of the Madras Regiment during the annual Republic Day Military Parade in 2004

anukram

uddeshya

bhaarateeya sena ke siddhaant ke roop mein bhaarateeya sena ki bhoomika ki paribhaasha - " bhaarateeya sena bhaarateeya sashastr bal ka mukhya ghatak hai jo ki Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ke aadarshon ko banaae rakhane ke liye maujood hain" ye raashtreeya shakti ka ek pramukh ghatak hai aur bhaarateeya nausena aur bhaarateeya vaayu sena ke saath ke roop mein kaarya karta hai.
bhaarateeya sena ki bhoomika is prakaar hai :

  • praathamik bhoomika : kisi bhi baahari khataron ke viruddh shakti santulan ke dvaara ya yuddh chhedne ke dvaara sanrakshit raashtreeya hiton, samprabhuta ki raksha, kshetreeya akhandata aur Bhaarat ki ekta ki raksha karna.
  • maadhyamik bhoomika : sarkaari tantr ko chhaaya yuddh aur aantarik khataron mein madad karna aur aavashyakta padne par naagrik adhikaaron mein sahaayata karna."[2]

itihaas

1947 mein aajaadi milne ke baad british bhaarateeya sena ko naye bane raashtra Bhaarat ganaraaj aur islaami ganaraajya Pakistan ki seva karne ke liye 2 bhaagon mein baant diya gaya. jyaadaatar ikaaiyon ko Bhaarat ke paas rakha gaya. chaar gorakhaa sainya dal ko british sena mein sthaanaantarit kiya gaya jabki shesh ko Bhaarat ke liye bheja gaya.

jaisa ki bhaarateeya sena mein british bhaarateeya sena se vyutpann huyi hai to iski sanrachana, vardi aur paranparaao ko anivaarya roop se viraasat mein british se liya gaya hain|

pratham Kashmir yuddh (1947)

aajaadi ke lagbhag turant baad se hi Bhaarat aur Pakistan ke beech tanaav paida ho gaya tha aur donon deshon ke beech pehle teen poorn paimaane par huye yuddh ke baad raajasi raajya Kashmir ka vibhaajan kar diya gaya. Kashmir ke mahaaraaja ki Bhaarat ya Pakistan me se kisi bhi raashtra ki saath vilay ki anichha ki baad Pakistan dvaara Kashmir ke kuchh hisson me aadivaasi aakraman praayojit karavaaya gaya. Bhaarat dvaara aaropit purushon ko bhi niyamit roop se Pakistan ki sena me shaamil kiya gaya. jald hi Pakistan ne apne dalon ko sabhi raajyon ko apne mein sanlagn karne ke liye bheja. mahaaraaja hari sihan ne Bhaarat aur Lord maauntabetan se apni madad karne ki yaachana ki par unako kaha gaya ki Bhaarat ke paas unki madad karne ke liye koi kaaran nahi hai. is par unhone Kashmir ke vilay ke ektarfa sandhiptr par hastaakshar kiye jiska nirnaya british sarkaar dvaara liya gaya par Pakistan ko yeh sandhi kabhi bhi sveekaar naheen hui. is sandhi ke turant baad hi bhaarateeya sena ko aakramanakaareeyon se mukaabala karne ke liye shreenagar bheja gaya. is dal mein general thimmaiya bhi shaamil the jinhone is kaaryavaahi mein kaafi prasiddhi haasil ki aur baad mein bhaarateeya sena ke pramukh bane. poore raajya mein ek gahan yuddh chhid gaya aur puraane saathi aapas me lad rahe the. dono pakshon me kuchh ko raajyavaar badhat mili to saath hi saath mahatvapoorn nuksaan bhi hua. 1948 ke ant mein niyntran rekha par lad rahe sainikon mein asahaj shaanti ho gayi jisko sanyukt raashtra dvaara Bhaarat aur Pakistan mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya. Pakistan aur bhaa‍aarat ke madhya Kashmir mein utpann hua tanaav kabhi bhi poorn roop se samaapt naheen hua hai.

sanyukt raashtra shaanti sena mein yogadaan

Korea mein September 1953 mein tatasth bafar jon ke saath shaanti sthaapit karne ke liye bhaarateeya sena ke aagaman par

vartamaan mein bhaarateeya sena ki ek tukadi sanyukt raashtra ki sahaayata ke liye samarpit rahati hai. bhaarateeya sena dvaara nirantar kathin kaaryon mein bhaag lene ki pratibddhataaon ki hamesha prashansha ki gayi hai. bhaarateeya sena ne sanyukt raashtra ke kai shaanti sthaapit karne ki kaaryavaahiyon mein bhaag liya gaya hai jinmein se kuchh is prakaar hain: angola kambodiya saaipras lokataantrik ganaraajya kaango, al saalvaador, naameebiya, Lebanon, laaiberiya, mojaambik, ravaanda, somaaliya, Sri Lanka aur viytanaam| bhaarateeya sena ne Korea mein huyi ladaai ke dauraan ghaayalon aur beemaaron ko surakshit laane ke liye bhi apni arddh-sainikon ki ikaai pradaan ki thi.

Hyderabad ka vilay (1948)

Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke uparaant raajasi raajya Hyderabad jo ki nijaam dvaara saashit tha ne svatantr raajya ke taur rahana pasand kiya. nijaam ne Hyderabad ko Bhaarat mein milaane par apni aapatti darj karavaai. Bhaarat sarkaar aur Hyderabad ke nijaam ke beech paida hui anirnaayak sthiti ko samaapt karne hetu Bhaarat ke up-pradhaanamantri sardaar ballabh bhaai Patel dvaara 12 sitmbar 1948 ko bhaarateeya tukadiyon ko Hyderabad ki suraksha karne ka aadesh diya. 5 dinon ki gahan ladaai ke baad vaayoo sena ke samarthan se bhaarateeya sena ne Hyderabad ki sena ko paraast kar diya. usi din Hyderabad ko Bhaarat ganaraajya ka bhaag ghoshit kar diya gaya. polo kaaryavaahi ke aguaa major general jauyanto naath chaudhari ko kaanoon vyavastha sthaapit karne ke liye Hyderabad ka sainya shaashak (1948-1949) ghoshit kiya gaya.

Goa, daman aur deev ka vilay (1961)

inhein bhi dekhein: Goa mukti sangraam

british aur fraans dvaara apne sabhi aupaniveshik adheekaaron ko samaapt karne ke baad bhi bhaarateeya upamahaadveep, Goa, daman aur deev mein purtagaaliyon ka shaasan raha. purtagaaliyon dvaara baarabaar baatcheet ko asveekaar kar dene par nai Delhi dvaara 12 December 1961 ko operation vijay ki ghoshana ki aur apni sena ke ek chhote se dal ko purtagaali kshetron par aakraman karne ke aadesh diye. 26 ghante chale yuddh ke baad Goa aur daman aur deev ko surakshit aajaad kara liya gaya aur unako Bhaarat ka ang ghoshit kar diya gaya.

Bhaarat-cheen yuddh (1962)

1959 se Bhaarat pragat niti ka paalan kar raha hai. 'pragat niti' ke antargat bhaarateeya gasht dalon ne cheen dvaara bhaarateeya seema ke kaafi andar tak hathiyaai gayi chaukiyon par hamla bol kar unhein fir kabje mein liya. Bhaarat ke maik-mahon rekha ko hi antararaashtreeya seema maan liye jaane par jor daalne ke kaaran Bhaarat aur cheen ki senaaon ke beech chhote star par sangharsh chhid gaya. baharahaal, Bhaarat aur cheen ke beech maitreepoorn sambandhon ke kaaran vivaad ne adhik tool naheen pakada.

Buoyed by the success of its military operations in Hyderabad and Goa, India took a more aggressive stance towards its border disputes with China. In 1962, the Indian Army was ordered to move to the Thagla ridge located near the border between Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh and about three miles (5 km) north of the disputed McMahon Line. Meanwhile, Chinese troops too had made incursions into Indian-held territory and tensions between the two reached a new high when Indian forces discovered a road constructed by China in Aksai Chin. After a series of failed negotiations, People's Liberation Army attacked Indian Army positions at the Thagla ridge. This move by China caught India by surprise and by October 12, Nehru gave orders for the Chinese to be expelled from Aksai Chin. However, poor coordination among various divisions of the Indian Army and the late decision to mobilize the Indian Air Force in vast numbers gave China a crucial tactical and strategic advantage over India. On October 20, Chinese soldiers attacked India in both the North-West and North-Eastern parts of the border and captured vast portions of Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh.

As the fighting moved beyond disputed territories, China called on the Indian government to negotiate, however India remained determined to regain lost territory. With no peaceful agreement in sight, China unilaterally withdrew its forces from Arunachal Pradesh. The reasons for the withdrawal are disputed with India claiming various logistical problems for China and diplomatic support from the United States while China stated that it still held territory that it had staked diplomatic claim upon. The dividing line between the Indian and Chinese forces was christened as the Line of Actual Control.

The poor decisions made by India's military commanders raised several questions. The Henderson-Brooks committee was soon set up by the Government of India to determine the causes of the poor performance of the Indian Army. The report of committee apparently faulted much of the command of Indian Armed Forces and severely criticized the executive government for its failures on several fronts. The committee found that the major reason for the defeat was low deployment of troops on India's border with China even after hostilities began and also criticized the decision to not allow the Indian Air Force to target Chinese transport lines out of fear of Chinese aerial counter-attack on Indian civilian areas. Much of the blame was also targeted at the incompetence of then Defense Minister, Krishna Menon. Despite frequent calls for its release, the Henderson-Brooks report still remains classified.

dviteeya Kashmir yuddh (1965)

Tanks of 18th Cavalry of the Indian Army take charge at Pakistani positions during the 1965 war.

A second confrontation with Pakistan took place in 1965, largely over Kashmir. Pakistani President Ayub Khan launched Operation Gibraltar in August 1965 during which several Pakistani paramilitary troops infiltrated into Indian-administered Kashmir and tried to spark an anti-India rebellion. Pakistani leaders believed that India, which was still recovering from the disastrous Sino-Indian War, would be unable to deal with a military thrust and rebellion. However, the operation was a major failure since the Kashmiri people showed little support for such a rebellion and India quickly moved forces to drive the infiltrators out. Within a fortnight of the launch of the Indian counter-attack, most of the infiltrators had retreated back to Pakistan.

Battered by the failure of Operation Gibraltar and expecting a major invasion by Indian forces across the border, Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam on September 1, invading India's Chamb-Jaurian sector. In retaliation, the Indian Army's 15th Infantry Division crossed the international border on the Western Front on September 6.

Initially, the Indian Army met with considerable success in the northern sector. After launching prolonged artillery barrages against Pakistan, India was able to capture three important mountain positions in Kashmir. By September 9, the Indian Army had made considerable in-roads into Pakistan. India had its largest haul of Pakistani tanks when the offensive of Pakistan's 1 Armoured Division was blunted at the Battle of Asal Uttar on September 10th. Six Pakistani Armoured Regiments took part in the battle, namely the 19 Lancers (Patton), 12 Cavalry (Chafee), 24 Cavalry (Patton) 4 Cavalry (Patton), 5 Horse (Patton) and 6 Lancers (Patton). These were opposed by three Indian Armoured Regiments with inferior tanks, Deccan Horse (Sherman), 3 Cavalry (Centurion) and 8 Cavalry (AMX). The battle was so fierce and intense that by the time it had ended, the 4th Indian Division had captured about 97 Pakistani tanks in either destroyed, or damaged, or in intact condition. This included 72 Patton tanks and 25 Chafees and Shermans. 32 of the 97 tanks, including 28 Pattons, were in running condition. The Indians lost 32 tanks at Khem Karan. Roughly about fifteen of them were captured by the Pakistan Army, mostly Sherman tanks. By the end of the war, it was estimated that more than 100 Pakistani tanks were destroyed and an additional 150 were captured by India. Indian Army lost 128 tanks during the conflict. Of these, about 40 tanks, most of them vintage AMX-13s and Shermans, fell into Pakistani hands during the battles near Chamb and Khem Karan.

By September 23, Indian army suffered 3,000 battlefield deaths, while Pakistan suffered no less than 3,800. The Soviet Union had brokered a peace deal between the two countries and after formal negotiations were held in Tashkent, a ceasefire was declared on September 23. Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan agreed to withdraw to virtually all pre-war positions. Hours after signing the deal, Lal Bahadur Shastri died in mysterious circumstances in Tashkent giving air to various conspiracy theories. The decision to return back to pre-war positions caused an outcry among the polity in New Delhi as India was clearly in an advantageous position at the end of the war. According to one independent analyst, continuation of the war would have led further losses and ultimately defeat for Pakistan.[3]

Bangladesh mukti yuddh (1971)

An independence movement broke out in East Pakistan which was brutally crushed by Pakistani forces. Due to large-scale atrocities against them, thousands of Bengalis took refuge in neighboring India causing a major refugee crisis there. In early 1971, India declared its full-support for the Bengali rebels, known as Mukti Bahini, and Indian agents were extensively involved in covert operations to aid them.

chitr:Basantar2.jpg
Indian Army personnel celebrate Indian victory at the end Battle of Basantar on top of a knocked out Pakistani Patton tank.

On November 20, 1971, Indian Army moved the 14 Punjab Battalion and 45 Cavalry into Garibpur, a strategically important town near India's border with East Pakistan, and successfully captured it. The following day, more clashes took place between Indian and Pakistani forces. Wary of India's growing involvement in the Bengali rebellion, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) launched a pre-emptive strike on Indian military positions near its border with East Pakistan on December 3. The aerial operation, however, failed to accomplish its stated objectives and caused India to declare a full-scale war against Pakistan the same day. By midnight, the Indian Army, accompanied by Indian Air Force, launched major military thrust into East Pakistan. The Indian Army won several battles on the eastern front including the decisive of Battle of Hilli.

Pakistan launched a counter-attack against India on the western front. On December 4, 1971, the A company of the 23rd Battalion of Punjab Regiment detected and intercepted the movement of the 51st Infantry Division of the Pakistani army near Ramgarh, Rajasthan. The battle of Longewala ensued during which the A company, though outnumbered, fought heroically and thwarted the Pakistani advance until the Indian Air Force directed its fighters to engage the Pakistani tanks. By the time the battle ended, 34 Pakistani tanks and 50 APCS were either destroyed or abandoned. About 200 Pakistani troops were killed in action during the battle while only 2 Indian soldiers lost their lives. From December 4th to 16th, the Indian Army fought and won the battle of Basantar by the end of which 66 Pakistani tanks were destroyed and 40 more were captured. In return, Pakistani forces were able to destroy only 11 Indian tanks. By December 16th, Pakistan had lost sizable territory on both eastern and western fronts.

Under the command of Lt. General J.S Aurora, the three corps of the Indian Army who had invaded East Pakistan entered Dhaka and forced Pakistani forces to surrender on 16th December, 1971. After Pakistan's Lt. General A.A.K. Niazi signed the Instrument of Surrender, India took more than 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war (38,000 armed forces personnel and 52,000 militia and bureaucrats of West Pakistani origin).

In 1972, the Simla Agreement was signed between the two countries and tensions simmered. However, there were occasional spurts in diplomatic tensions which culminated into increased military vigilance on both sides.

inhein bhi dekhein: Battle of Longewala, Battle of Hilli, evam Battle of Basantar

siyaachin vivaad (1984-)

chitr:Mi-8 Indian Army.jpg
The Mi-8 of the Indian Army takes part in a military exercise. The Mi-8 was used extensively to airlift Indian troops during Operation Meghdoot.

The Siachen Glacier, though a part of the Kashmir region, is not officially demarcated. As a consequence, prior to the 1980s, neither India nor Pakistan maintained permanent military presence in the region. However, Pakistan started hosting a series of mountaineering expeditions to the glacier during the 1950s. By early 1980s, the government of Pakistan was granting special expedition permits to mountaineers and United States Army maps deliberately showed Siachen as a part of Pakistan. This practice gave rise to the contemporary meaning of the term oropolitics.

An irked India launched Operation Meghdoot in April 1984 during which the entire Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army was airlifted to the glacier. Pakistani forces responded quickly and clashes between the two followed. Indian Army secured the strategic Sia La and Bilafond La mountain passes and by 1985, more than 1000 sq. miles of territory, claimed by Pakistan, was under Indian control.[4] The Indian Army continues to control more than 2/3rd of the glacier.[5] Pakistan made several unsuccessful attempts to regain control over Siachen. In late 1987, Pakistan mobilized about 8,000 troops and garrisoned them near Khapalu, aiming to capture Bilafond La. However, they were thrown back after engaging the Indian Army personnel guarding Bilafond. Further attempts to reclaim positions were launched by Pakistan in 1990, 1995, 1996 and 1999.

India continues to maintain a strong military presence in the region despite extremely inhospitable conditions and the conflict over Siachen is regularly cited as an example of mountain warfare.[6] Maintaining control over Siachen poses several logistical challenges for the Indian Army. Several infrastructure projects were constructed in the region, including a helipad 21,000 feet (6,400 m) above the sea level.[7] In 2004, Indian Army was spending an estimated US$2 million a day to support its personnel stationed in the region.[8]

upadrav-rodhi gatividhiyaaain

The Indian Army has played a crucial role in the past, fighting insurgents and terrorists within the nation. The army launched Operation Bluestar and Operation Woodrose in the 1980s to combat Sikh insurgents. The army, along with some paramilitary forces, has the prime responsibility of maintaining law and order in the troubled Jammu and Kashmir region. The Indian Army also sent a contingent to Sri Lanka in 1987 as a part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force.

Kargil sangharsh (1999)

In 1998, India carried out nuclear tests and a few days later, Pakistan responded by more nuclear tests giving both countries nuclear deterrence capability. Diplomatic tensions eased after the Lahore Summit was held in 1999. The sense of optimism was short-lived, however, since in mid-1999 Pakistani paramilitary forces and Kashmiri insurgents captured deserted, but strategic, Himalayan heights in the Kargil district of India. These had been vacated by the Indian army during the onset of the inhospitable winter and were supposed to reoccupied in spring. The mujahideen who took control of these areas received important support, both in the form of arms and supplies, from Pakistan. Some of the heights under their control, which also included the Tiger Hill, overlooked the vital Srinagar-Leh Highway (NH 1A), Batalik and Dras.

chitr:IndianArmyKargil.jpg
Army trucks carry supplies for Indian troops fighting in Kargil in summer 1999.

Once the scale of the Pakistani incursion was realized, the Indian Army quickly mobilized about 200,000 troops and Operation Vijay was launched. However, since the heights were under Pakistani control, India was in a clear strategic disadvantage. From their observation posts, the Pakistani forces had a clear line of sight to lay down indirect artillery fire on NH 1A, inflicting heavy casualties on the Indians.[9] This was a serious problem for the Indian Army as the highway was its main logistical and supply route.[10] Thus, the Indian Army's first priority was to recapture peaks that were in the immediate vicinity of NH1a. This resulted in Indian troops first targeting the Tiger Hill and Tololing complex in Dras.[11] This was soon followed by more attacks on the Batalik-Turtok sub-sector which provided access to Siachen Glacier. Point 4590, which had the nearest view of the NH1a, was successfully recaptured by Indian forces on on June 14.[12]

Though most of the posts in the vicinity of the highway were cleared by mid-June, some parts of the highway near Drass witnessed sporadic shelling until the end of the war. Once NH1a area was cleared, the Indian Army turned to driving the invading force back across the Line of Control. The Battle of Tololing, among other assaults, slowly tilted the combat in India's favor. Nevertheless, some of the posts put up a stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill (Point 5140) that fell only later in the war. As the operation was fully underway, about 250 artillery guns were brought in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the line of sight. In many vital points, neither artillery nor air power could dislodge the outposts manned by the Pakistan soldiers, who were out of visible range. The Indian Army mounted some direct frontal ground assaults which were slow and took a heavy toll given the steep ascent that had to be made on peaks as high as 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Two months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly retaken most of the ridges they had lost;[13][14] according to official count, an estimated 75%–80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground was back under Indian control.

As Pakistan found itself entwined in a prickly position, the army had covertly planned a nuclear strike on India, the news of which alarmed U.S. President Bill Clinton, resulting in a stern warning to Nawaz Sharif.[15] Following the Washington accord on July 4, where Sharif agreed to withdraw Pakistani troops, most of the fighting came to a gradual halt, but some Pakistani forces remained in positions on the Indian side of the LOC. In addition, the United Jihad Council (an umbrella for all extremist groups) rejected Pakistan's plan for a climb-down, instead deciding to fight on.[16] The Indian army launched its final attacks in the last week of July; as soon as the Drass subsector had been cleared of Pakistani forces, the fighting ceased on July 26. The day has since been marked as Kargil Vijay Diwas (Kargil Victory Day) in India. By the end of the war, India had resumed control of all territory south and east of the Line of Control, as was established in July 1972 as per the Shimla Accord.

pramukh yuddhaabhyaas

chitr:IAexercise.jpg
Indian Army T-90 tanks take part during an exercise in the Thar Desert.

operation paraakram

After the December 13 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament, Operation Parakram was launched in which tens of thousands of Indian troops were deployed along the Indo-Pakistan border. India blamed Pakistan for backing the attack. The operation was the largest military exercise carried out by any Asian country. Its prime objective is still unclear but appears to have been to prepare the army for any future nuclear conflict with Pakistan, which seemed increasingly possible after the December attack on the Indian parliament.

operation sangh shakti

It has since been stated that the main goal of this exercise was to validate mobilisation strategies of the Ambala-based II Strike Corps. Air support was a part of this exercise, and an entire battalion of paratroops was paradropped during the conduct of the war games, with allied equipment. Some 20,000 soldiers took part in the exercise.

ashvamedh yuddhaabhyaas

Indian Army tested its network centric warfare capabilities in the exercise Ashwamedha. The exercise was held in the Thar desert, in which over 30,000 troops participated.[17]. Asymmetric warfare capability was also tested by the Indian Army during the exercise.[18]

bhaarateeya thalasena ki sanrachana

Initially, the army's main objective was to defend the nation's frontiers. However, over the years, the army has also taken up the responsibility of providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and north-east.

The army has a strength of about a million troops and fields 34 divisions. Its headquarters is located in the Indian capital New Delhi and it is under the overall command of the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), currently General Dalbir Singh Suhag dalabeer Singh suhaag.

aadeshon (Commands)

The army operates 6 tactical commands . Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in New Delhi. These commands are given below in their correct order of raising, location (city) and their commanders. Their is also one training command known as ARTRAC.

Command Command HQ GOC-in-C
Southern Command Pune Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj
Eastern Command Kolkata Lt. Gen. V K Singh
Central Command Lucknow Lt Gen. H.S. Panag,PVSM,AVSM*,ADC
Western Command Chandimandir (Chandigarh) Lt. Gen. TK Sapru
Northern Command Udhampur Lt. Gen. P C Bhardwaj
South Western Command Jaipur Lt. Gen. C.K.S. Sabu

indiaa

kaurp (Corps)

vyooh-rachana (Field formation)

A Corps is an army field formation responsible for a sector within a Command. There are 3 types of Corps in the Indian Army: Strike, Holding & Mixed. A Command generally consists of 2 or more Corps. A corps has Army Divisions under its command. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army.

Corps Head Quarter Command General Officer Commanding (GOC) Divisions[19]
1 Corps Mathura, Uttar Pradesh Central Command Lt. Gen. P.C. Katoch 4 Inf Div (Allahabad), 6 Mtn Div (Bareilly), 33 Armd Div (Hisar)
2 Corps Ambala, Haryana Western Command Lt. Gen. JP Singh, AVSM 1 Armd Div (Ambala), 14 RAPID (Dehradun), 22 Inf Div (Meerut)
3 Corps Rangapahar (Dimapur), Nagaland Eastern Command Lt. Gen. Rakesh Kumar Loomba 23 Inf Div (Ranchi), 57 Mtn Div (Leihmakong)
4 Corps Tezpur, Assam Eastern Command Lt. Gen. R K Chhabra 2 Mtn Div (Dibrugarh), 5 Mtn Div (Bomdila), 21 Mtn Div (Rangia)
9 Corps Yol, Himachal Pradesh Western Command Lt. Gen. P K Rampal 26 Inf Div (Jammu), 29 Inf Div (Pathankot), 2,3,16 Ind Armd Bdes
10 Corps Bhatinda, Punjab Western Command Lt. Gen. 16 Inf Div (Sri Ganganagar), 18 RAPID (Kota), 24 RAPID (Bikaner), 6 Ind Armd Bde
11 Corps Jalandhar, Punjab Western Command Lt. Gen. Shreedharan Shyam Kumar, SM, VSM 7 Inf Div (Firozpur), 9 Inf Div (Meerut), 15 Inf Div (Amritsar), 23 Armd Bde, 55 Mech Bde
12 Corps Jodhpur, Rajasthan South Western Command 4 Armd Bde, 340 Mech Bde, 11 Inf Div (Ahmedabad), 12 Inf Division (Jodhpur)
14 Corps Leh, Ladakh Northern Command Lt. Gen. Jayanta Kumar Mohanty UYSM, SM, VSM 3 Inf Div (Leh), 8 Mtn Div (Dras),[20] artillery brigade
15 Corps Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir Northern Command Lt. Gen. Mukesh Sabharwal 19 Inf Div (Baramulla), 28 Inf Div (Gurez, Bandipora District), artillery brigade
16 Corps Nagrota, Jammu & Kashmir Northern Command Lt Gen RK Karwal 10 Inf Div (Akhnoor),[21] 25 Inf Div (Rajauri), 39 Inf Div (Yol), artillery brigade, armoured brigade?
21 Corps(ex IPKF) Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Southern Command Lt. Gen. 31 Armd Div (Jhansi), 36 RAPID (Sagar), 54 Inf Div (Sikandrabad), arty, AD, eng bdes
33 Corps Siliguri, West Bengal Eastern Command Lt Gen PK Rath 17 Mtn Div (Gangtok), 20 Mtn Div (Binnaguri, Jalpaiguri district), 27 Mtn Div (Kalimpong), arty bde


rejimeint sangathan

In addition to this (not to be confused with the Field Corps mentioned above) are the Regiments or Corps or departments of the Indian Army. The corps mentioned below are the functional divisions entrusted with specific pan-Army tasks.

Arms
  1. Indian Infantry Regiments
  2. Armoured Corps Regiments - The Armoured Corps School and Centre is at Ahmednagar.
  3. Regiment of Artillery - The School of Artillery is at Devlali near Nasik.
  4. Corps of Engineers - The College of Military Engineering is at Dapodi, Pune. The Centers are located as follows- Madras Engineer Group at Bangalore, Bengal Engineer Group at Roorkee and Bombay Engineer Group at Khadki, Pune.
  5. Corps of Army Air Defence-Center at Gopalpur in Orissa State.
  6. Mechanised Infantry - Regimental Center at Ahmednagar.
  7. Corps of Signals
  8. Army Aviation Corps

Services

  1. Army Dental Corps
  2. Army Education Corps - Center at Pachmarhi.
  3. Army Medical Corps - Center at Lucknow.
  4. Army Ordnance Corps - Centers at Jabalpur andSecunderabad.
  5. Army Postal Service Corps
  6. Army Service Corps - Center at Bangalore
  7. Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers- Centers at Bhopal and Secunderabad .
  8. Corps of Military Police [2] - Center at Bangalore
  9. Intelligence Corps - Center at Pune.
  10. Judge Advocate General's Deptt. - Institute of Military Law kamptee,Nagpur.
  11. Military Farms Service
  12. Military Nursing Service
  13. Remount and Veterinary Corps
  14. Pioneer Corps

saaaincha:Indian Army Arms and Services

anya sainya vyooh (Other Field Formations)

A section of the Indian Army takes charge during a military exercise.
  • Division: An Army Division is an intermediate between a Corps and a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division is headed by [General Officer Commanding] (GOC) in the rank of Major General. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support elements. Currently, the Indian Army has 34 Divisions including 4 Rapid (Re-organised Army Plains Infantry Divisions) Action Divisions, 18 Infantry Divisions, 10 Mountain Divisions, 3 Armoured Divisions and 2 Artillery Divisions. Each Division composes of several Brigades.
  • Brigade: The Brigade is smaller than the Division and generally consists of 3 Infantry Battalions along with elements of various Combat & Support Arms & Services. It is headed by a Brigadier equivalent to a Brigadier General. The Indian Army also has 5 Independent Armoured Brigades, 15 Independent Artillery Brigades, 7 Independent Infantry Brigades, 1 Independent Parachute Brigade,3 Independent Air Defence Brigades, 2 Independent Air Defence Groups and 4 Independent Engineer Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate directly under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps).
  • Battalion: A Battalion is commanded by a Colonel and is the Infantry's main fighting unit. It consists of more than 900 personnel.
  • Company: Headed by the Major, a Company comprises 120 soldiers.
  • Platoon: An intermediate between a Company and Section, a Platoon is headed by a Lieutenant or depending on the availability of Commissioned Officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of Subedar or Naib-Subedar. It has a total strength of about 32 troops.
  • Section: Smallest military outfit with a strength of 10 personnel. Commanded by a Non-commissioned officer of the rank of Havildar or Sergeant.

Mahar regt=

Soldiers of the Sikh Light Infantry.

paidal sena rejimeint (Infantry Regiments)

There are several battalions or units under the same formation in a Regiment. The Gurkha Regiment, for instance, has several battalions. All formations under a Regiment are battalions of the same arms or Corps (i.e., Infantry or Engineers). Regiments are not exactly field formations; they mostly do not make a formation. All Regiments of the Gurkha's for instance would not fight together as one formation, but can be dispersed over various Brigades or Corps or even Commands.

chitr:Artillery Insignia.gif
Artillery Insignia

topakhaana rejimeint (Artillery Regiments)

topakhaana sena ke vidhvansak shakti ka mukhya ang hai | Bhaarat mein praacheen granthon mein topakhaane ka varnan milta hai | top ko sanskrut mein shataghni kaha jaata hai | madhya kaaleen itihaas mein top ka prayog sarvapratham baabar ne Panipat ke pratham yuddh mein san 1526 i0 mein kiya tha| kuchh naveen pramaanon se yahaaain prateet hota hai ke top ka prayog bahamani raajaaon ne 1368 mein adoni ke yuddh mein tatha Gujarat ke shaasak mohamad shaah ne 15 veen shataabdi mein kiya tha |bharat me top khaana ke dou kendra hai hydrabad aur nasik road

thalasena ka kaaryabal

kshamata

videshi raashtraadhyaksh ki raajakeeya yaatra mein ghudasavaar raashtrapati angarakshak.
bhaarateeya thal sena sambandhit aankade
kaaryarat sainik 1,300,000
aarakshit sainik 1,200,000
praadeshik sena 200,000**
mukhya yuddhak tank 4500
topakhaana 12,800
prakshepaastr 100 (agni-1, agni-2)
krooj prakshepaastr brahmos
vaayuyaan 10 squadron helikauptar
satah se vaayu prakshepaastr 90000

* 300,000 pratham pankti or 500,000 dviteeya pankti ke yoddha sammilit hain

** 40,000 pratham pankti or 160,000 dviteeya pankti ke yoddha sammilit hain

aankade

Soldiers from the 4th Rajput Infantry Battalion of the Indian Army during a training mission.
  • 4 RAPID (Reorganised Army Plains Infantry Divisions)
  • 18 Infantry Divisions
  • 10 Mountain Divisions
  • 3 Armoured Divisions
  • 2 Artillery Divisions
  • 13 Air Defence Brigades + 2 Surface-to-Air Missile Groups
  • 5 Independent Armoured Brigades
  • 15 Independent Artillery Brigades
  • 7 Independent Infantry Brigades
  • 1 Parachute Brigade
  • 4 Engineer Brigades
  • 14 Army Aviation Helicopter Units

up-ikaaiyaaain

  • 63 Tank Regiments
  • 7 Airborne Battalions
  • 200 Artillery Regiments
  • 360 Infantry Battalions + 5 Para (SF) Battalions
  • 40 Mechanised Infantry Battalions
  • 20 Combat Helicopter Units
  • 52 Air Defence Regiments

padaanukram sanrachana

The 1st Battalion of 1 Gorkha Rifles of the Indian Army take position outside a simulated combat town during a training exercise.

The various rank of the Indian Army are listed below in descending order:

commission praapt adhikaari

  • feeld maarshal1
  • general (yeh thalasena adhyaksh ka pad hai)
  • lieutenant-general
  • major-general
  • Brigadier
  • Colonel
  • lieutenant-Colonel
  • major
  • CAPTAIN
  • lieutenant
  • second lieutenant2

kanishth commission praapt adhikaari (JCOs)

  • soobedaar major /maanad kaptaan3
  • soobedaar /maanad lieutenant3
  • soobedaar major
  • soobedaar
  • naayab soobedaar

gair commission praapt adhikaari (NCOs)

  • regiment hawaldaar major2
  • regiment kvaartaramaastar hawaldaar major2
  • company hawaldaar major
  • company kvaartaramaastar hawaldaar major
  • hawaldaar
  • naayak
  • laansanaayak
  • sipaahi

Note:
•a1. Only two officers have been made Field Marshall so far: Field Marshal K M Cariappa – the first Indian Commander-in-Chief (a post since abolished) – and Field Marshal S H F J Manekshaw, the Chief of Army Staff during the Army in the 1971 war with Pakistan.
•a2. This has now been discontinued. Non-Commissioned Officers in the rank of Havildar are elible for Honorary JCO ranks.
•a3. Given to Outstanding JCO's Rank and pay of a Lieutenant, role continues to be of a JCO.

yuddh siddhaant

The current combat doctrine of the Indian Army is based on effectively utilizing holding formations and strike formations. In the case of an attack, the holding formations would contain the enemy and strike formations would counterattack to neutralize enemy forces. In the case of an Indian attack, the holding formations would pin enemy forces down whilst the strike formations attack at a point of Indian choosing. The Indian Army is large enough to devote several corps to the strike role. Currently, the army is also looking at enhancing its special forces capabilities.

upaskar evam upakaran

Arjun MBT.
Bhishma T-90 MBT.
T-72 Ajeya.
Nag missile and NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier).

Most of the army equipment is imported, but efforts are being made to manufacture indigenous equipment. All Indian Military Firearms guns are manufactured under the umbrella administration of the Ordnance Factory Board, with principal Firearm manufacturing facilities in Ishapore, Cossipore, Kanpur, Jabalpur and Tiruchirapalli. Indian National Small Arms System (INSAS) rifle, which is successfully inducted by Indian Army since 1997 is a product of Ordanance Factory Board, Ishapore. While ammunition is manufactured at Kirkee (Now Khadki) and possibly at Bolangir.

vimaan

This is a list of aircraft of the Indian Army. For the list of aircraft of the Indian Air Force, see List of aircraft of the Indian Air Force.

The Indian Army operates more than 200 helicopters, plus additional unmanned aerial vehicles.

HAL Dhruv
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[22] Notes
HAL Dhruv Flag of India.svg Bhaarat utility helicopter 36+ To acquire 73 more Dhruv in next 5 years.
Aéarospatiale SA 316 Alouette III Flag of France.svg France utility helicopter SA 316B Chetak 60 to be replaced by Dhruv
Aéarospatiale SA 315 Lama Flag of France.svg France utility helicopter SA 315B Cheetah 48 to be replaced by Dhruv
DRDO Nishant Flag of India.svg Bhaarat reconnaissance UAV 1 Delivery of 12 UAV's in 2008.
IAI Searcher II Flag of Israel.svg Israel reconnaissance UAV 100+
IAI Heron II Flag of Israel.svg Israel reconnaissance UAV 50+

The Indian army had projected a requirement for a helicopter that can carry loads of up to 75 kg heights of 23,000 fut (7,000 mi) on the Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir. Flying at these heights poses unique challenges due to the rarefied atmosphere. The Indian Army chose the Eurocopter AS 550 for a $550 million contract for 197 light helicopters to replace its ageing fleet of Chetaks and Cheetahs, some of which were inducted more than three decades ago.[23] The deal has however been scrapped amidst allegations of corruption during the bidding process.[24]

param veer chakr vijeta

Bhaarat ka sarvochch veerata puraskaar paramaveer chakr praapt karne vaale veeron ki soochi is prakaar hai :

sankhya naam regiment tithi sthaan tippani
IC-521 major somanaath sharma chauthi battalion, kumaaooain regiment 3 November, 1947 badgaam, Kashmir maranoparaant
IC-22356 Lance naayak karam Singh pehli battalion, sikh regiment 13 October, 1948 tithvaal, Kashmir
SS-14246 second lefteeneint Ram raaghoba raane Indian kaarps of injinyars 8 April, 1948 naushera, Kashmir
27373 naayak yadunaath Singh pehli battalion, rajput regiment February 1948 naushera, Kashmir maranoparaant
2831592 company hawaldaar major peeroo Singh chhthi battalion, rajputana rifles 17-18 July, 1948 tithvaal, Kashmir maranoparaant
IC-8497 captain gurabachan Singh salaariya teesari battalion, 1 gurakha rifles 5 December, 1961 Elizabeth vile, kaatanga, kaango maranoparaant
IC-7990 major dhanasinh thaapa pehli battalion, gurakha rifles 20 October, 1962 Laddakh,
JC-4547 soobedaar jogindar Singh pehli battalion, sikh regiment 23 October, 1962 tongapen la, North ist frontier agency, Bhaarat maranoparaant
IC-7990 major shaitaan Singh terahaveen battalion, kumaaooain regiment 18 November, 1962 rejaang la maranoparaant
2639885 company quarter master hawaldaar abdul haamid chauthi battalion, Bombay grenediyrs 10 September, 1965 cheema, khemakaran sector maranoparaant
IC-5565 lefteeneint Colonel aardeshir taaraapor the poona haars 15 October, 1965 filaura, siyaalakota sector, Pakistan maranoparaant
4239746 Lance naayak alabart ekka chaudahaveen battalion, Bihar regiment 3 December, 1971 gangaasaagar maranoparaant
10877 F(P) flaaing aafisr nirmalajeet Singh sekhon athaarahaveen skvaidran, bhaarateeya vaayusena 14 December, 1971 shreenagar, Kashmir maranoparaant
IC-25067 lefteeneint Arun kshetrapaal poona haars 16 December, 1971 jarapaal, shakaragadh sector maranoparaant
IC-14608 major hoshiyaar Singh teesari battalion, Bombay grenediyrs 17 December, 1971 basantaar nadi, shakaragadh sector
JC-155825 naayab soobedaar banna Singh aathaveen battalion, Jammu Kashmir laait inafentri 23 June, 1987 siyaachin gleshiyr, Jammu Kashmir
IC-32907 major raamaasvaami parameshvaran aathaveen battalion, mehar regiment 25 November, 1987 Sri Lanka maranoparaant
IC-56959 lefteeneint manoj Kumar Pande pratham battalion, gyaarahaveen gorakha rifles 3 July, 1999 juber taap, bataalik sector, Kargil kshetr, Jammu Kashmir maranoparaant
2690572 grenediyr yogendr Singh Yadav athaarahaveen battalion, the grenediyrs 4 July, 1999 tiger hills, Kargil kshetr
13760533 raaifalamain sanjaya Kumar terahaveen battalion, Jammu Kashmir rifles 5 July, 1999 flat taap kshetr, Kargil
IC-57556 captain vikram batra terahaveen battalion, Jammu Kashmir rifles 6 July, 1999 point 5140, point 4875, Kargil kshetr maranoparaant

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; SinghCOAS naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. Indian Army doctrine
  3. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1965.htm
  4. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,958254-2,00.html
  5. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/siachen.htm
  6. http://web.archive.org/web/20050707031356/http://www.time.com/time/asia/covers/501050711/story.html
  7. http://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/south/05/20/siachen.kashmir/
  8. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/FI23Df04.html
  9. Indian general praises Pakistani valour at Kargil May 5 2003 Daily Times, Pakistan
  10. Kashmir in the Shadow of War By Robert Wirsing Published by M.E. Sharpe, 2003 ISBN 0-7656-1090-6 pp36
  11. Managing Armed Conflicts in the 21st Century By Adekeye Adebajo, Chandra Lekha Sriram Published by Routledge pp192,193
  12. The State at War in South Asia By Pradeep Barua Published by U of Nebraska Press Page 261
  13. Bitter Chill of Winter - Tariq Ali, London Review of Books
  14. Colonel Ravi Nanda (1999). Kargil : A Wake Up Call. Vedams Books. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7095-074-0. Online summary of the Book
  15. Pakistan 'prepared nuclear strike'
  16. Pakistan and the Kashmir militants
  17. Indian Army tests network centric warfare capability in Ashwamedh war games
  18. 'Ashwamedha' reinforces importance of foot soldiers
  19. Division and brigade source information from Jane's World Armies, Issue 19, 2006, p.319
  20. Globalsecurity.org, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/northcom.htm, accessed December 2007
  21. See also http://orbat.com/site/cimh/divisions/10th%20Division%20orbat%20Chaamb%201971.html
  22. Indian military aviation OrBat
  23. Eurocopter wins big Indian Army deal
  24. [1]

baahari link


Hyderabad aur Goa mein apne sainya abhiyaanon ki safalta se utsaahit Bhaarat cheen ke saath seema vivaad ki disha mein ek aur adhik aakraamak rukh le liya. 1962 mein, bhaarateeya sena ko sthaanaantarit karne ka aadesh diya gaya tha Thagla rij bhootaan aur [[arunaachal pradesh] aur teen (5 kimi) ke baare mein vivaadit ke meal uttar ke beech ki seema ke paas sthit maikamohan rekha. is beech, cheeni sainikon ko bhi donon ke beech aayojit bhaarateeya kshetr aur tanaav mein ghuspaith kar diya tha ek nai uchch pahuainche jab bhaarateeya sena mein cheen dvaara nirmit sadak ki khoj aksaai chin. vifal vaarta ke ek shrrunkhala ke baad, people's liberation army Thagla rij par bhaarateeya sena ke padon par hamla. cheen dvaara is kadam se aashcharya dvaara Bhaarat pakada aur dvaara 12 October Nehru cheeni ke liye aadesh diya aksaai chin se nishkaasit kiya. haalaanki, bhaarateeya sena ke vibhinn prabhaagon aur der vishaal sankhya mein bhaarateeya vaayu sena jutaane ka faisala ke beech gareeb samanvaya cheen Bhaarat par ek mahatvapoorn saamarik aur rananeetik laabh diya. 20 October ko cheeni sainikon donon uttar - pashchim aur seema ke uttar - poorvi bhaagon mein Bhaarat par hamla kiya aur aksaai chin aur arunaachal pradesh ke vishaal bhaag par kabja kar liya.

ke roop mein lad vivaadit pradeshon se pare chala gaya hai, cheen Bhaarat sarkaar par bulaaya ke liye baatcheet, lekin Bhaarat kho kshetr haasil karne ke liye nirdhaarit bane rahe. drushti mein koi shaantipoorn samjhaute ke saath, cheen ektarfa arunaachal pradesh se apne balon ko vaapas le liya. vaapasi ke liye kaaran Bhaarat cheen ke liye vibhinn saajo samasyaaon ka daava hai aur sanyukt raajya America se raajanayik ka samarthan karte hue cheen ne kaha hai ki yeh abhi bhi kshetr mein aayojit kiya hai ki yeh kootaneetik daava kiya tha par saath vivaadit hain. bhaarateeya aur cheeni senaaon ke beech vibhaajan rekha [vaastavik niyantran] [rekha] ke roop mein naam tha.

gareeb Bhaarat ke sainya commanderon dvaara kiye gaye faisale kai savaal uthaae. [[report heindarasan - brooks | samiti heindarasan - brooks] jald hi Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara sthaapit bhaarateeya sena ke kharaab pradarshan ke kaaranon ka nirdhaaran. samiti ki report ke jaahira taur par bhaarateeya sashastr balon ki kamaan ke jyaada galati hai aur apni naakaamiyon ke liye kai morchon par buri tarah kaaryakaari sarkaar ki aalochna ki. samiti ne paaya hai ki haar ke liye pramukh kaaran Bhaarat cheen ke saath seema par sainikon ki tainaati kam tha ke baad bhi dushmani shuroo kiya aur yeh bhi ke liye anumati dene ke liye bhaarateeya vaayu sena cheeni parivhan laainon ko lakshya cheeni javaabi hamle havaai ke dar se baahar naheen hai faisale ki aalochna ki bhaarateeya naagrik kshetron par. jyaadaatar dosh ke tatkaaleen raksha mantri ki akshamata par bhi nishaana banaaya gaya, Krishna Menon. apni rihaai ke liye lagaataar call ke baavajood, heindarasan - brooks report abhi bhi vargeekrut rahata hai.

dviteeya Kashmir (1965) yuddh

saaaincha:mein Pakistani padon par bhaarateeya sena ki 18 veen kaivalari ke tank 1965 ke yuddh ke dauraan prabhaari le. Pakistan ke saath ek doosare takaraav par mote taur par 1965 mein jagah le li Kashmir. Pakistani raashtrapati ayoob Khan shuroooperation jibraaltar1,965 August mein jiske dauraan kai Pakistani ardhasainik sainikon ko bhaarateeya prashaasit Kashmir mein ghuspaith aur Bhaarat virodhi vidroh chingaari ki koshish ki. Pakistani netaaon ka maanana ​a​ahai ki Bhaarat, jo abhi bhi vinaashakaari yuddh Bhaarat - cheen se ubarane tha ek sainya jor aur vidroh ke saath sauda karne mein asamarth hoga. haalaanki, operation ek pramukh vifalta ke baad se Kashmiri logon ko is tarah ke ek vidroh ke liye thoda samarthan dikhaaya aur Bhaarat jaldi balon sthaanaantarit ghuspaithiyon ko baahar nikaalne. bhaarateeya javaabi hamle ke prakshepan ke ek pakhavaade ke bheetar, ghuspaithiyon ke sabse vaapas Pakistan ke liye peechhe hat gaya tha.

operation jibraaltar ki vifalta se past hai aur seema paar bhaarateeya balon dvaara ek pramukh aakraman ki ummeed hai, Pakistan [[operation grand slam] 1 September ko shuroo, Bhaarat Chamb - Jaurian kshetr hamlaavar. javaabi kaarravaai mein, 6 September ko pashchimi morche par bhaarateeya sena ke 15 infaintri diveejan antararaashtreeya seema paar kar gaya.

praarambh mein, bhaarateeya sena ke uttari kshetr mein kaafi safalta ke saath mulaakaat ki. Pakistan ke khilaaf lambe samay tak topakhaane barrages shuroo karne ke baad, Bhaarat Kashmir mein teen mahatvapoorn parvat padon par kabja karne mein saksham tha. 9 September tak bhaarateeya sena sadkon mein kaafi Pakistan mein banaaya tha. Bhaarat Pakistani tainkon ki sabse badi daud tha jab Pakistan ke ek bakhtaraband diveejan ke aakraamak [Asal uttar [ladaai]] par September 10 veen pa gaya tha. chhah Pakistani aarmad rejimeint ladaai mein bhaag liya, arthaat 19 (paitan) laansars, 12 kaivalari (Chafee), 24 (paitan) kaivalari 4 kaivalari (paitan), 5 (paitan) haars aur 6 laansars (paitan). in teen avar tank ke saath bhaarateeya aarmad rejimeint dvaara virodh kiya gaya, dekan haars (sheramen), 3 (seinchuriyn) kaivalari aur 8 kaivalari (AMX). ladaai itni bhayankar aur teevr hai ki samay yeh samaapt ho gaya tha dvaara, 4 bhaarateeya diveejan ke baare mein ya to nasht mein 97 Pakistani tank, ya kshatigrast, ya akshunn haalat mein kabja kar liya tha. yeh 72 paitan tank aur 25 Chafees aur Shermans shaamil hain. 28 Pattons sahit 97 tank, 32 shart mein chal rahe the. bhaarateeya khem karan par 32 tank kho diya hai. ke baare mein mote taur par unamein se pandrah Pakistani sena, jyaadaatar sheramen tank dvaara kabja kar liya gaya. yuddh ke ant tak, yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya tha ki 100 se adhik Pakistani tank ko nasht kar diya aur gaya ek atirikt 150 Bhaarat dvaara kabja kar liya gaya. bhaarateeya sena ne sangharsh ke dauraan 128 tank kho diya hai. inmein se 40 tank ke baare mein, unamein se jyaadaatar AMX-13s aur Shermans puraane Chamb aur khem ​a​akaran ke paas ladaai ke dauraan Pakistani haathon mein gir gaya.

23 September tak bhaarateeya sena +3000 ranabhoomi mauton ka saamana karna pada, jabki Pakistan 3,800 ki tulana mein kam naheen saamana karna pada. soviyt sangh donon deshon ke beech ek shaanti samjhaute ki madhyasthata ki thi aur baad mein aupachaarik vaarta mein aayojit kiye gaye taashakand, ek yuddhaviraam par ghoshit kiya gaya tha [23 September]]. bhaarateeya pradhaanamantri laal bahaadur shaastri aur ayoob Khan lagbhag sabhi yuddh poorv padon ko vaapas lene par sahamat hue. samjhaute par hastaakshar karne ke baad ghante, laal bahaadur shaastri taashakand vibhinn shadyantr ke siddhaant ko hava dene mein rahasyamaya paristhitiyon mein mrutyu ho gayi. yuddh poorv padon ke liye vaapas karne ka nirnaya ke kaaran Bhaarat ke roop mein nai Delhi mein raajaneeti ke beech ek chillaahat yuddh ke ant mein ek laabhaprad sthiti mein spasht roop se kiya gaya tha. ek svatantr vishleshak ke mutaabik, yuddh ko jaari rakhane ke aage nuksaan ka netrutv hota hai aur antat: Pakistan ke liye haar<ref> http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1965.htm </ ref>.

Bangladesh mukti (1971) yuddh

saaaincha:mein ek svatantrata aandolan mein baahar tod diya poorvi Pakistan jo tha berahmi se kuchal diya. Pakistani balon dvaara. kaaran bade paimaane par atyaachaaron unke khilaaf ke hajaaron [[bangaali log | bangaaliyon] padosi Bhaarat mein sharan li, vahaaain ek pramukh sharanaarthi sankat ke kaaran. jaldi 1971 mein, Bhaarat bangaali vidrohiyon ke liye poorn samarthan, mukti vaahini ke roop mein jaana jaata ghoshit aur bhaarateeya agenton ko bade paimaane par gupt aapareshanon mein shaamil the unhein sahaayata.

bhaarateeya sena karmiyon ke ant mein bhaarateeya jeet ka jashn manaane Basantar ki ladaai baahar khatkhataaya Pakistani paitan tank ke sheersh par 20 November 1971 ko bhaarateeya sena 14 Punjab battalion chale gaye aur 45 kaivalari gareebapur, poorvi Pakistan ke saath Bhaarat ki seema ke paas ek rananeetik roop se mahatvapoorn shahar hai aur mein safalataapoorvak [[gareebapur ki ladaai | kabja kar liya]. agale din aur [[Atgram ki ladaai | sangharsh] bhaarateeya aur Pakistani senaaon ke beech jagah le li. Bhaarat bangaali vidroh mein badhti bhaageedaari se saavdhaan Pakistan vaayu sena (peeeef) ka shubhaaranbh kiya [operation [Chengiz Khan | hadtaal agrakaya] 3 December ko bhaarateeya sena poorvi Pakistan ke saath apni seema ke nikat padon par. havaai operation, tathaapi, iski kaha uddeshyon ko poora karne mein vifal raha hai aur Bhaarat Pakistan ke khilaaf ek poorn paimaane par yuddh ke kaaran usi din ghoshit kiya. aadhi raat se, bhaarateeya sena, bhaarateeya vaayu sena ke saath, poorvi Pakistan mein pramukh sainya jor ka shubhaaranbh kiya. bhaarateeya sena ki nirnaayak sahit poorvi morche par kai ladaaiyon jeeta [Hilli [ladaai]]

Pakistan ke pashchimi morche par Bhaarat ke khilaaf javaabi hamle ka shubhaaranbh kiya. December 4, 1971 ko, ek company ke 23 battalion ke Punjab rejimeint ka pata chala aur Pakistan ke paas sena ki 51 infaintri diveejan ke aandolan ko rok [[raamagadh, Rajasthan]. [Longewala [ladaai]] ke dauraan jo laagoo ek company hai, haalaanki outnumbered, veerataapoorvak ladi aur Pakistani agrim naakaam jab tak bhaarateeya vaayu sena apne senaaniyon ko nirdeshit karne ke liye Pakistani tank sanlagn. samay ladaai samaapt karke 34 Pakistani tank aur 50 APCs ya nasht ho gaye the parityakt. ke baare mein 200 Pakistani sainikon ko ladaai ke dauraan kaarravaai mein maare gaye the jabki keval 2 bhaarateeya sainikon ko unke jeevan kho diya hai. 4 December se 16 tak bhaarateeya sena ladi aur ant jismein se 66 Pakistani tank ko nasht kar rahe the aur 40 se kabja kar liya gaya [] [ladaai ke Basantar] jeeta. badle mein Pakistani balon ke liye keval 11 bhaarateeya tainkon ko nasht karne mein saksham the. 16 December tak Pakistan ke poorvi aur pashchimi donon morchon par bade aakaar ka kshetr kho diya tha.

lieutenant | jagajeet Singh aroda ke aadesh ke tahat general J S aroda, bhaarateeya sena ke teen kor mein pravesh kiya jo poorvi Pakistan par aakraman kiya tha dhaaka aur Pakistani sena ne 16 December 1971 ko aatmasamarpan karne ke liye majaboor kiya. Pakistan ke lieutenant general ke baad AAK niyaaji samarpan ke saadhan par hastaakshar kiye, Bhaarat mein 90,000 se adhik Pakistani [[] yuddh ke kaidiyon (+38,000 sashastr balon ke karmiyon aur 52,000 milishiya pashchim Pakistani mool ke aur naukarashaahon) le liya.

1972 mein, [[Shimla samjhaute] donon deshon ke tanaav aur simmered ke beech hastaakshar kiye gaye the. haalaanki, vahaaain kootaneetik tanaav hai jo donon pakshon par vruddhi hui sainya satarkata mein samaapan mein kabhi kabhi spurts the.

inhein bhi dekhein: Hilli ki ladaai evam Longewala ki ladaai Basantar ki ladaai

siyaachin vivaad (1984 -)

[[M I 8] bhaarateeya sena ka] ek sainya abhyaas mein hissa leta hai. M I-8 bade paimaane par eyaralift bhaarateeya sainikon ke liye istemaal kiya gaya tha operation meghadoot ke dauraan.]] siyaachin gleshiyr, haalaanki Kashmir kshetr ke ek hissa hai, aadhikaarik taur par seemaankan naheen hai. ek parinaam ke roop mein, pehle 1980 ke dashak ke liye, na to Bhaarat aur na hi Pakistan is kshetr mein sthaayi sainya upasthiti ko banaae rakha. haalaanki, Pakistan parvataarohan abhiyaanon ke 1950 ke dashak ke dauraan gleshiyr shrrunkhala ki mejabaani shuroo kar diya. 1980 ke dashak tak Pakistan ki sarkaar parvataarohiyon ke liye vishesh abhiyaan paramit dene gaya tha aur sanyukt raajya America sena nakshe jaanboojhkar Pakistan ke ek bhaag ke roop mein siyaachin se pata chala hai. is abhyaas kaaryakaal ke samakaaleen arthaoropolitics . ko janm diya ek irked Bhaarat ka shubhaaranbh kiya operation meghadoot April 1984 ke dauraan jo poore kumaaoon rejimeint bhaarateeya sena ki gleshiyr pahuncha tha. Pakistani sena ne jaldi se javaab diya aur donon ke beech sangharsh ka paalan kiya. bhaarateeya sena saamarik siya la aur Bilafond la pahaad gujarata hai aur 1985 ke dvaara, kshetr ke 1000 varg meal se adhik, Pakistan ne daava kiya, bhaarateeya niyantran ke adheen tha.<ref> Http://www surakshit .time.com/time/magazine/article/0, 9171,958254-2, 00.html </ ref> bhaarateeya sena ke liye aur adhik niyantran se gleshiyr ke 2/3rd jaari hai.<ref> http://www. globalsecurity.org sainya / / / vishv yuddh / </ ref> Pakistan siachen.htm siyaachin par niyantran paane ke kai asafal prayaas kiya. der se 1987 mein, Pakistan ke baare mein 8,000 sainikon jutaae aur unhein Khapalu nikat garrisoned, haalaanki Bilafond La. kabja karne ke liye lakshya hai, ve bhaarateeya sena karmiyon Bilafond rakhavaali ulajhaane ke baad vaapas feink diya gaya. Pakistan dvaara 1990, 1995, 1996 aur 1999 mein padon ko pun: praapt karne ke liye aage prayaas shuroo kiya gaya. Bhaarat ke liye atyant durgam paristhitiyon aur niyamit roop se pahaad yuddh.<ref> Http://www.time.com/time/asia ka ek udaaharan ke roop mein uddhrut hai siyaachin par sangharsh ke baavajood ek majaboot kshetr mein sainik upasthiti ko banaae rakhane ke liye jaari hai / covers/501050711/story.html </ ref> siyaachin se adhik niyantran banaae rakhane bhaarateeya sena ke liye kai sainya chunautiyon poses. kai buniyaadi dhaancha pariyojanaaon ke kshetr mein nirmaan kiya gaya, samudra ke star se oopar ek helipaid 21,000 feet (+6400 meter) sahit<ref> http://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/south/05/20/. siachen.kashmir / </ ref> 2004 mein bhaarateeya sena ke ek anumaan ke anusaar 2 lakh Amreeki dollar ek din kharch karne ke liye apne kshetr mein tainaat karmiyon ka samarthan. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/FI23Df04<ref>. html </ ref> upadrav - rodhi gatividhiyaaain bhaarateeya sena ateet mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai hai, ladaai vidrohi aur aatankvaadiyon raashtra ke bheetar. sena operation bloostaar aur [operation [Woodrose [[sikh] vidrohiyon ka mukaabala karne ke liye 1980 ke dashak mein. shubhaaranbh sena ke saath arddhasainik balon Bhaarat ke kuchh ardhasainik balon, banaae rakhane ke pradhaanamantri jimmedaari hai [[kaanoon aur vyavastha (raajaneeti) | kaanoon aur vyavastha] pareshaan Jammu Kashmir kshetr mein. bhaarateeya sena Sri Lanka 1987 mein ke ek bhaag ke roop mein bhi ek dal bheja hai bhaarateeya shaanti sena.

Kargil (1999) sangharsh

aur kuchh dinon ke baad, Pakistan aur adhik dvaara pratikriya parmaanu pareekshanon dene ke donon deshon ke parmaanu pratirodh kshamata | 1998 mein, Bhaarat [parmaanu pareekshan] [pokharan dviteeya] kiya jaata hai kootaneetik tanaav ke baad dheel Lahore shikhar sammelan 1999 mein aayojit kiya gaya tha. aashaavaad ki bhaavana kam rahata tha, tathaapi, ke baad se madhya 1999-Pakistani ardhasainik balon mein aur Kashmiri aatankvaadiyon par kabja kar liya veeraan hai, lekin saamarik, Kargil jile Bhaarat ke himaalaya haaits. in durgam sardiyon ki shuruaat ke dauraan kiya gaya tha bhaarateeya sena dvaara khaali the aur vasant mein reoccupied chaahiye. mujaahideenjo in kshetron ka niyantran le liya mahatvapoorn samarthan praapt hai, donon haath aur aapoorti ke roop mein Pakistan se. unke niyantran hai, jo bhitiger hilke tahat haaits ke kuchh mahatvapoorn shreenagar -[[ leh] raajamaarg (enaech 1A), bataalik aur Dras ki anadekhi .

sena truckon bhaarateeya garmiyon mein 1999 mein Kargil mein lad rahe sainikon ke liye aapoorti le ek baar Pakistani aakraman ke paimaane ka ehsaas tha, bhaarateeya sena jaldi 200.000 ke baare mein sainikon jutaae aur operation vijay shuroo kiya gaya tha. haalaanki, baad se oonchaaiyon Pakistan ke niyantran ke adheen the, Bhaarat ek spasht rananeetik nuksaan mein tha. raashtreeya raajamaarg 1 A par bhaarateeyon par bhaari hataahat inflicting <referee naam = "NLI" | apne prekshan chauki se Pakistani balon ki drushti se ek spasht rekha apratyaksh topakhaane aag [] [apratyaksh aag] neeche rakhana pada > bhaarateeya saamaanya Kargil mein Pakistani veerata bhajan 5 May [[+2,003] daily times, Pakistan </ referee> yeh bhaarateeya sena ke liye ek gambhir samasya hai ke roop mein raajamaarg apne mukhya sainya aur aapoorti maarg tha i sharp, 2003 dvaara prakaashit Robert Wirsing karke yuddh ki chhaaya mein<ref> Kashmir thi. ISBN 0-7656-1090-6 pp36 </ ref> is prakaar, bhaarateeya sena ki pehli praathamikta chotiyon ki NH1a ke tatkaal aaspaas ke kshetr mein the hata dena tha. yeh bhaarateeya sainikon mein pehli baar tiger hil aur Dras mein Tololing jatil lakshyeekaran parinaamasvaroop<ref> prabandh Adekeye Adebajo, chandra lekha shreeraam 21 veen sadi mein sashastr sangharsh pp192 rootalej, 193 dvaara prakaashit </ ref> yeh jald hi adhik hamlon se peechha kiya gaya tha. bataalik Turtok up - kshetr hai jo siyaachin gleshiyr tak pahuainch pradaan par. 4590 point hai, jo NH1a ke niktatam drushya tha safalataapoorvak par 14 June ko bhaarateeya balon dvaara pun: kabja dakshin Asia mein yuddh ke Nebraska press pradeep baruaa 261 </ ref><ref> raajya mein pej ke you dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya tha.

haalaanki raajamaarg ke aaspaas ke kshetr mein padon ke adhikaansh madhya June tak manjoori de di, draas ke paas raajamaarg ke kuchh bhaagon mein yuddh ke ant tak goleebaari chhitput dekha. ek baar NH1a kshetr saaf ho gaya tha, bhaarateeya sena niyantran rekha ke paar vaapas hamlaavar bal driving ke liye badal gaya. [Tololing [ladaai]], anya hamlon ke beech dheere - dheere Bhaarat ke paksh mein mukaabala jhuka. fir bhi, kuchh padon ki ek kadi pratirodh daal sahit tiger hil (5140 point) hai ki keval yuddh ke baad mein gir gaya,. ke roop mein poori tarah se operation chal raha tha, ke baare mein 250 topon mein laaya gaya post mein the mein ghuspaithiyon ko spasht drushti se [line]]. kai mahatvapoorn binduon mein, na to topakhaane aur na hi hava shakti bedakhal kar sakta hai chaukiyon Pakistan sainikon, jo dikhaai range ke baahar the dvaara maanav. bhaarateeya sena ke kuchh pratyaksh lalaat jameen hamle hai jo dheemi gati se the aur ek bhaari tol le liya khadi chadhaai hai ki 18,000 feet (+5500 meter) ke roop mein uchch ke roop mein chotiyon par banaaya jaana tha diya muhim shuroo ki. sangharsh mein do maheene, bhaarateeya sena dheere lakeerein ve kho diya tha ki sabse retaken tha, sardi ki<ref> kadve shaant - taarik Ali, London ki sameeksha pustakon ki </ ref><ref> saaaincha:pustak ka havaala dete hain [book ke https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no14953.htm online saaraansh] </ ref> sarkaari ginti ke anusaar, ek anumaan ke anusaar 75% -80% aur ghuspaith kshetr ke lagbhag sabhi uchch bhoomi bhaarateeya niyantran ke tahat vaapas aa gaya tha.

Bhaarat par, samaachaar jinmein se chintit ameriki | ke roop mein Pakistan paaya khud ek kaantedaar sthiti mein entwined sena chhipkar [] parmaanu hamle [parmaanu yuddh] ki yojana banaai thi raashtrapati bill Clinton, ek kadi chetaavani mein navaaj shareef ke parinaamasvaroop<ref> 'Pakistan taiyaar parmaanu hadtaal ' </ ref> Washington par samjhaute ke baad 4 July, jahaan shareef Pakistani sainikon ko vaapas lene par sahamat hue, ladne ke sabse ek kramik rokane ke liye aaya tha, lekin kuchh Pakistani sena ne bhaarateeya paksh par sthiti mein bane rahe niyantran rekha. iske alaava, United jihaad kaaunsil (sabhi [ativaadi []] samoohon ke liye ek chhaata) ek chadhaai neeche ke liye Pakistan ki yojana ko asveekaar kar diya hai, bajaay par ladne ke nirnaya lene.<ref> co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/386537.stm Pakistan aur Kashmir ke aatankvaadiyon </ ref> July ke aakhiri hafte mein bhaarateeya sena apni antim hamlon ka shubhaaranbh kiya, ke roop mein jald hi ke roop mein draas Subsector Pakistan ki manjoori de di thi balon se ladne par rah gaye 26 July. din ke baad seKargil vijayBhaarat mein (Kargil vijay diwas) diwas ke roop mein chihnit kiya gaya hai hai. yuddh ke ant tak Bhaarat sabhi kshetr dakshin aur niyantran rekha ke poorv ka niyantran fir se shuroo kiya tha, ke roop mein July 1972 mein Shimla samjhaute ke anusaar sthaapit kiya gaya tha.

pramukh yuddhaabhyaas

2001-2002 Bhaarat - Pakistan} gatirodh} ke baad 13 December [2001] [[bhaarateeya sansad] operation paraakram mein jo bhaarateeya sainikon ki hajaaron ki dasiyon Bhaarat - Pakistan seema par tainaat kiya gaya tha shuroo kiya gaya tha par hamle. Bhaarat hamle samarthan ke liye Pakistan ko doshi thaharaaya. sabse bada sainya kisi Asiaee desh se baahar kiye gaye vyaayaam operation kiya gaya tha. iska mukhya uddeshya abhi spasht naheen hai hai lekin parmaanu sangharsh Pakistan, jo bhaarateeya sansad par December hamle ke baad teji se sambhav lag raha tha ke saath kisi bhi bhavishya ke liye sena ko taiyaar karne ke liye kiya gaya hai prakat hota hai.

operation sangh shakti

iske baad se kaha hai ki is abhyaas ka mukhya lakshya ambaala [[]] aadhaaritdviteeya strikekor jutaana rananeeti ko maanya kiya gaya tha. air samarthan is abhyaas ka ek hissa tha aur havaai chhatari sena ki ek poori battalion ke yuddh khel ke sanchaalan ke dauraan paradropped sambaddh upakaranon ke saath. kuchh 20000 sainik abhyaas mein bhaag liya.

ashvamedh yuddhaabhyaas

bhaarateeya sena vyaayaam ashvamedh mein apne network keindrit yuddh kshamataaon ka pareekshan kiya. vyaayaam thaar registaan mein aayojit kiya gaya, jismein 30,000 se adhik sainikon ne bhaag liya<ref> bhaarateeya sena pareekshan Ashwamedh yuddh khel mein network keindrit yuddh kshamata </ ref. >. asamamit yuddh kshamata bhi dauraan bhaarateeya sena dvaara pareekshan kiya gaya tha 'ashvamedh' paidal sainikon ke mahatva] </ ref> pusht

bhaarateeya thalasena ki sanrachana

praarambh mein, sena ke mukhya uddeshya raashtra ki seemaaon ki raksha ke liye kiya gaya tha. haalaanki, pichhle kuchh varshon mein, sena bhi le liya hai ugravaadi maara mein vishesh roop se aantarik suraksha pradaan karne ki jimmedaari, Kashmir aur uttar - poorv.

sena ke baare mein ek lakh sainikon aur kshetron ke 34 diveejanon ke ek taakat hai. iska mukhyaalaya Bhaarat ki rajdhani mein sthit hai [[nai Delhi] aur ke samagr aadesh ke tahat thal senaadhyaksh (thalasenaadhyaksh), vartamaan mein general deepak Kapoor .

(aadesh) kamaan

sena ke saamarik 6 aadeshon chal rahi hai. pratyek aadesh [[lieutenant general] raink ke saath general commanding in cheef adhikaari ki adhyakshata mein hai. pratyek aadesh seedhe mein sena mukhyaalaya se sambaddh hai [[nai Delhi]. in aadeshon neeche unke sahi kram ko oopar uthaane ke sthaan (shahar) aur unke commanderon mein diya jaata hai. unki bhi ek prashikshan ARTRAC ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aadesh hai.

-

Bgcolor = "# cccccc" | kamaan! Bgcolor = "# cccccc" | kamaan mukhyaalaya Bgcolor = "# cccccc" |! jeeosi - in - si

- - | Pune | | lieutenant general Nobel Thamburaj - | Kolkata | | lieutenant general VK Singh - | Lucknow | | lieutenant general H.S. panaag, peeveeesaem, eveeesaem *, edeesi - | chandeemandir (Chandigarh) | | lieutenant general ti.ke. saproo - | udhamapur | | lieutenant general PC Bhardwaj - | Jaipur | | lieutenant general CKS saaboo -

indiaa

(kor) kaurp

vyooh - rachana (field gathan)

[[vaahini] sena ke ek kshetr mein ek kamaan ke bheetar ek kshetr ke liye jimmedaar gathan hai. strike holding aur mishrit: vahaaain bhaarateeya sena vaahini ke 3 prakaar ke hote hain. kamaan aam taur par 2 ya adhik kor ke hote hain. apne aadesh ke tahat ek kor sena prabhaagon hai. kor mukhyaalaya sena mein uchchatam kshetr gathan hai.

-

Bgcolor = "# cccccc" | vaahini! Bgcolor = "# cccccc" |! mukhyaalaya Bgcolor = "# cccccc" | kamaan! Bgcolor = "# cccccc" |! general aafisr commanding (jeeosi) Bgcolor = "# cccccc" |! prabhaagon<ref> prabhaag aur jen vishv senaaon se briged srot jaankaari, ank 19, 2006, p.319 </ ref>

- - 1 kor | | Mathura, uttar pradesh | | madhya kamaan | | lieutenant general PC katoch | 4 | Inf div (Allahabad), 6 Mtn div (bareli), 33 ARMD div ( hisaar) - | ambaala, Haryana | | pashchimi kamaan | | lieutenant general JP Singh, eveeesaem | | 1 ARMD div (ambaala), 14 tvarit ([deharaadoon [] ]), 22 Inf (div Meerut) - 3 kor | | Rangapahar (deemaapur), naagaalaind | | poorvi kamaan | | lieutenant general Rakesh Kumar Loomba | | 23 Inf (div Ranchi), 57 Mtn (div Leihmakong) - 4 kor | | tejapur, asam | | poorvi kamaan | | lieutenant general aar ke chhaabada | | 2 Mtn div (dibroogadh), 5 Mtn div (bomadila), 21 Mtn div (rangiya) -

9 vaahini | | | yol, Himachal pradesh | | pashchimi kamaan | | lieutenant general PK Rampal | | 26 Inf div ([[Jammu chhaavani | Jammu]) 29, Inf div (pathaanakot), 2,3,16 indastreej ARMD Bdes

-

10 kor | | | bhatinda, Punjab | | pashchimi kamaan | | lieutenant general | | 16 Inf div (shri gangaanagar), 18 tvarit ( kota), 24 tvarit (Bikaner), 6 indastreej ARMD BDE

- | Jalandhar, Punjab | | pashchimi kamaan | | lieutenant general shreedharan shyaam Kumar, SM, veeesaem | 7 | Inf div (firojapur), 9 Inf div (Meerut), 15 Inf div (amrutasar), 23 ARMD BDE, 55 Mech BDE -

kor 12 | | | Jodhpur, Rajasthan | | dakshin pashchimi kamaan | | | | 4 ARMD BDE, 340 Mech BDE, 11 Inf div (Ahmedabad), 12 Inf (prabhaag Jodhpur)

- | leh, Laddakh | | uttari kamaan | | lieutenant general jayant Kumar mohanti UYSM, SM, veeesaem | 3 | Inf div (leh), 8 Mtn div (Dras ),< ref> [[Globalsecurity.org] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/northcom.htm, December 2007 pahuaincha topakhaana briged </ ref> - | shreenagar, Jammu evam Kashmir | | uttari kamaan | | lieutenant general mukesh sabharavaal | | 19 Inf div (baaraamoola), 28 Inf (div gurej , Bandipora jila), topakhaana briged -

16 vaahini | | | nagarota, Jammu evam Kashmir | | uttari kamaan | | lieutenant general aar Karwal | | 10 Inf (div akhanoor ),< referee> inhein bhi dekhein http://orbat.com/ site/cimh/divisions/10th%% 20Division 20orbat% 20Chaamb 201971.html% </ ref> 25 Inf div (Rajauri), 39 Inf div ( yol), topakhaana briged, bakhtaraband briged?

- 21 kor (poorv aaipeekeef) | | Bhopal, madhya pradesh | | dakshini kamaan | | lieutenant general | | 31 ARMD div (Jhansi), 36 tvarit (saagar), 54 Inf (div Sikandrabad), aarti, E., eng bdes - 33 vaahini | | sileegudi, pashchim Bengal | | poorvi kamaan | | lieutenant general PK rath | | 17 Mtn div (gangatok), 20 Mtn div (binaaguri, jalapaaigudi jile), 27 Mtn div (kalimpaung), aarti BDE -


rejimeint sangathan

(field kor oopar ullekh kiya hai ke saath bhramit hone ki naheen) is ke alaava rejimeint ya kor ya vibhaagon bhaarateeya sena ke hain. kor neeche ullekh kiya kaaryaatmak vishisht akhil sena kaaryon ke saath saunpa diveejanon hain.

shaili = "faunt - aakaar: 100%;" | |shastr

  1. bhaarateeya infaintri rejimeint
  2. aarmad rejimeint kor - bakhtaraband kor school aur center [ahamadanagar []]
  3. aartilri rejimeint - aartilri school mein devalaali ke nikat Nasik.
  4. [[bhaarateeya sena ke kor engineers | kor of engineers] - dapodi par sainya abhiyaantriki kaalej, Pune. kendra is prakaar hai - Madras engineer group bangalaur, Bengal engineer group rudki aur Bombay engineer group Khadki mein, Pune ke roop mein sthit hain .
  5. army air defence center kor gopaalapur udeesa raajya.
  6. maikenaaijd infeintri ahamadanagar - par rejimeintal kendra [[]].
  7. signal kor
  8. sena uddayan kor

seva'

  1. army deintal kor
  2. sena shiksha kor - center mein pachamadhi.
  3. army medical kor - center mein [[Lucknow].
  4. sena aayudh kor mein kendra jabalapur aur Secundarabad.
  5. sena daak seva kor
  6. sena seva kor - bangalaur par kendra
  7. vaahini ilektrikl aur Bhopal mein maikenikl engineers ke kendra aur Secundarabad.
  8. vaahini sainya police ke [3] - bangalaur mein kendra
  9. inteleejeins kor - center mein Pune.
  10. judge edavoket general vibhaag. sainya vidhi sansthaan mein kaimpati , Nagpur.
  11. sainya firm seva
  12. military nursing service
  13. rimaaunt aur vetenari kor
  14. pioneer kor

saaaincha:bhaarateeya sena ke shastr aur sevaaeain

anya vyooh sainya (anya field sanrachanaaon)

bhaarateeya sena ke ek varg ek sainya abhyaas ke dauraan aarop lagte hain.

* prabhaag: sena diveejan ek kor aur ek briged ke beech ek madhyavarti hai. yeh sabse badi sena mein hadtaali bal hai. pratyek prabhaag [general aafisr commanding (jeeosi) dvaara [[major general] raink mein hota hai. yeh aamtaur par +15,000 mukaabala sainikon aur 8000 ka samarthan tatvon ke hote hain. vartamaan mein, bhaarateeya sena 4 raipid (pun: sangathit sena Plains infaintri prabhaagon) sahit 34 prabhaagon ladaai prabhaagon, 18 infaintri prabhaagon, 10 maaunten prabhaagon, 3 aarmad prabhaagon aur 2 aartilri prabhaagon. pratyek diveejan ke kai composes brigeds.
* briged: briged diveejan ki tulana mein chhote hai aur aam taur par vibhinn ladaakoo samarthan aur aarms aur sevaaeain ke tatvon ke saath saath 3 infaintri battalion ke hote hain. yeh ki adhyakshata mein hai ek Brigadier ke baraabar Brigadier general bhaarateeya sena bhi 5 svatantr bakhtaraband briged, 15 svatantr aartilri briged, 7 svatantr infaintri briged, 1 svatantr pairaashoot briged, 3 svatantr vaayu raksha briged, 2 svatantr vaayu raksha samooh aur 4 svatantr abhiyanta briged hai. ye svatantr briged kor commander (jeeosi kor) ke tahat seedhe kaam.
* battalion: ek battalion ki kamaan mein hai ek Colonel aur infaintri ke mukhya lad ikaai hai. yeh 900 se adhik karmiyon ki hote hain.
* [[company (sainya ikaai) | company] ke netrutv: major, ek company ke 120 sainikon ko shaamil.
  • plaatoon: ek company aur dhaara ke beech ek madhyavarti, ek plaatoon lieutenant ya kameeshand adhikaariyon ki upalabdhata par nirbhar karta hai, ek junior kameeshand adhikaari [raink ke saath, [junior commission afsar ki adhyakshata mein | soobedaar ]] ya naayab soobedaar. yeh baare mein 32 sainikon ki kul sankhya hai.
* dhaara: sabse chhota 10 karmiyon ke ek shakti ke saath sainya sangathan. raink ke ek gair commission adhikaari dvaara kamaan sambhaali hawaldaar ya [saarjeint []].

rejimeint

sikh laait infaintri ke sainikon .

paidal sena rejimeint (infaintri rejimeint)

vahaaain kai bataaliynon ya ikaaiyon ke ek rejimeint mein vahi gathan ke antargat hain. gorakha rejimeint, udaaharan ke liye, kai bataaliynon hai. ek rejimeint ke tahat sabhi sanrachanaaon ke ek hi hathiyaar ya kor (yaani, infaintri ya engineers) ki bataaliynon hain. rejimeint bilkul kshetr sanrachanaaon naheen kar rahe hain, ve jyaadaatar ek gathan naheen kar sakta hooain. gorakha udaaharan ke liye sabhi rejimeint ke ek saath ek gathan ke roop mein ladna naheen hai, lekin vibhinn briged ya kor ya bhi aadesh par failaaya ja sakta hai hai.

aartilri prateek chinh

topakhaana rejimeint (aartilri rejimeint)

topakhaana sena ke vidhvansak shakti ka mukhya ang hai | Bhaarat sabhi praacheen granthon sabhi topakhaane ka varnan milta hai | top ko sanskrut sabhi shataghni kaha jaata hai | madhya kaaleen itihaas sabhi top ka prayog sarvapratham baabar ne Panipat ke pratham yuddh sabhi 1526 san 0 E sabhi kiya tha | kuchh naveen pramaanon se yahaaain prateet hota hai ke top ka prayog bahamani raajaaon 1368 ne sabhi adoni ke yuddh sabhi tatha Gujarat ke shaasak mohamad shaah ne 15 veen shataabdi sabhi kiya tha | bharat me top khaana ke dou hai kendra hydrabad aur nasik road

thalasena ka kaaryabal

kshamata

videshi raashtraadhyaksh ki raajakeeya yaatra sabhi ghudasavaar raashtrapati angarakshak .

bhaarateeya thal sena sambandhit aankade - kaaryarat sainik

13,00,000 |

- aarakshit sainik

1,200,000 |

- [[praadeshik sena]

200.000 ** |

- mukhya yuddhak tank

4500 |

- topakhaana

12,800 |

- [[] prakshepaastr]

100 (agni -1, agni -2) |

- [[krooj prakshepaastr] brahmos - vaayuyaan 10 squadron helikauptar - [[satah se vaayu] prakshepaastr]

90000 |

<nowiki> * 300.000 pratham pankti 500.000 or dviteeya pankti ke yoddha sammilit hain </ nowiki> </ chhote>

<nowiki> ** 40,000 pratham pankti 160.000 or dviteeya pankti ke yoddha sammilit hain </ nowiki> </ chhote>

aankade

ek prashikshan mission ke dauraan bhaarateeya sena ki 4 rajput infaintri battalion se sainikon

  • 4 tvarit (Reorganised sena Plains infaintri prabhaagon)
  • 18 infaintri prabhaagon
  • 10 maaunten prabhaagon
  • 3 aarmad prabhaagon
  • 2 aartilri prabhaagon
  • 13 air defence + brigeds 2 bhootal air misaail samooh
  • 5 svatantr bakhtaraband briged
  • 15 svatantr aartilri briged
  • 7 svatantr infaintri briged
  • 1 pairaashoot briged
  • 4 abhiyanta briged
  • 14 sena uddayan helicopter ikaaiyon

up - ikaaiyaaain

  • 63 tank rejimeint
  • 7 eyaraborn battalion
  • 200 aartilri rejimeint
  • 360 infaintri battalion + 5 paira battalion (S ef)
  • 40 maikenaaijd infeintri battalion
  • ladaakoo helicopter ikaaiyon 20
  • 52 air defence rejimeint

padaanukram sanrachana

[[chitr: bhaarateeya sena ke gorakha rifles.jpg | angoothe | [[1 ki 1 battalion gorakha rifles] bhaarateeya sena ka] ek nakali mukaabala shahar ke baahar ek prashikshan abhyaas ke dauraan sthaan le]]

bhaarateeya sena ke vibhinn raink se neeche ke avarohi kram mein soocheebaddh hain: commission praapt adhikaari

  • [[feeld maarshal (Bhaarat) | feeld maarshal] 1 </ sup>
  • general (yeh thalasena adhyaksh ka pad hai)
  • lieutenant - general
  • major - general
  • Brigadier
  • Colonel
  • lieutenant - Colonel
  • major
  • [kaptaan [(bhoomi) | kaptaan]]
  • [[lieutenant]
  • second lieutenant 2 </ sup>

kanishth commission praapt adhikaari (jeseeo)

  • soobedaar major / [[maanad kaptaan] 3 </ sup>
  • soobedaar / maanad lieutenant 3 </ sup>
  • soobedaar major
  • soobedaar
  • naayab soobedaar

gair commission praapt adhikaari (NCOs)

  • regiment hawaldaar major 2 </ sup>
  • regiment kvaartaramaastar hawaldaar major 2 </ sup>
  • company hawaldaar major
  • company kvaartaramaastar hawaldaar major
  • hawaldaar
  • naayak
  • laansanaayak
  • sipaahi

not:
• 1. keval do adhikaariyon ko field maarshal kiya gaya hai ab tak bana hai: field ke.M. kariyppa – pehle bhaarateeya commander - in - cheef (ek ke baad ke baad samaapt kar diya hai) – aur field maarshal SHFJ maanekashau maarshal , 1971 ke yuddh Pakistan ke saath.
mein sena ke dauraan thal senaadhyaksh • 2. yeh ab band kar diya gaya hai. hawaldaar ke raink mein gair kameeshand adhikaari maanad junior commission afsar rainkon ke liye elible hain
• 3. bakaaya hai junior commission afsar shreshtata shreni ko dekhte hue aur ek lieutenant ke bhugataan, bhoomika ek junior commission afsar ka hona jaari hai
</ chhote>.

yuddh siddhaant

bhaarateeya sena ke vartamaan siddhaant ka mukaabala prabhaavi dhang se pakade sanrachanaaon aur hadtaal sanrachanaaon ke upayog par aadhaarit hai. ek hamle ke maamale mein pakade sanrachanaaon dushman hote hain aur hadtaal sanrachanaaon dushman taakaton ko beasar palatavaar hoga. ek bhaarateeya hamle ke maamale mein pakade sanrachanaaon dushman taakaton neeche pin bhaarateeya ko chunane ke ek bindu par whilst hadtaal sanrachanaaon hamle. bhaarateeya sena kaafi badi hadtaal bhoomika ke liye kai kor samarpit hai. vartamaan mein, sena apne vishesh balon kshamataaon ko badhaane mein bhi dekh raha hai.

upaskar evam upakaran

emabeeti arjun . [[chitr: bhaarateeya sena ti 90.jpg | angoothe | bheeshm ti 90] emabeeti [[chitr: bhaarateeya sena T-72 image1.jpg | angoothe | sahi | [[ti 72] Ajay]] naag misaail aur NAMICA (naag misaail vaahak)

sena ke upakaranon ke adhikaansh aayaatit hai, lekin prayaason ke liye svadeshi upakaranon ke nirmaan kiye ja rahe hain. sabhi bhaarateeya sainya aagneyaastron bandookein aayudh nirmaani board ki chhatari ke prashaasan ke tahat nirmit kar rahe hain, ishaapur mein principle bandook vinirmaan suvidhaaon ke saath, kaasheepur, Kanpur, jabalapur aur tiroochiraapalli. bhaarateeya raashtreeya laghu shastr pranaali (INSAS) rifle hai, jo safalataapoorvak 1997 ke baad se bhaarateeya sena dvaara shaamil Ordanance nirmaani board, ishaapur ke ek utpaad hai. jabki gola baarood kirki (ab Khadki) mein nirmit hai aur sanbhavat: bolangeer par.

vimaan

<- yeh lekh bhaarateeya sena par hai. to krupaya bhaarateeya vaayu sena ke vimaan shaamil naheen hai.-->

yeh bhaarateeya sena ke vimaan ki ek soochi hai. [[bhaarateeya vaayu sena] dekhte hain, [bhaarateeya vaayu sena ke vimaan ke soochi []]. ke vimaan ki soochi ke liye

bhaarateeya sena helicopter, plas atirikt maanavarahit eriyl vaahan S 200 se adhik sanchaalit echaeel dhruv <- aparyaapt hata tark ke saath chhavi: [[chhavi: nishaant UAV Flight.jpg | sahi | angoothe | DRDO nishaant maanavarahit yaan]] -> saaaincha:maanak taalika

vimaan utpatti type sanskaran seva mein<ref> bhaarateeya sainya uddayan OrBat </ ref> nots
echaeel dhruv | | saaaincha:indastreej | | upayogita helicopter | | | 36 + | | | agale 5 varshon mein 73 aur adhik dhruv haasil hai.
Aéarospatiale esae 316 Alouette kshkshksh | | Flag of France.svg France | | upayogita helicopter | | esae 316B chetak | 60 | | | dhruv ki jagah ho
Aéarospatiale esae 315 laama | | Flag of France.svg France | | upayogita helicopter | | esae 315B cheeta | 48 | | | dhruv ki jagah ho
DRDO nishaant | | saaaincha:indastreej | | tohi UAV | | | 1 | | | 2008 mein 12 UAV ki dilivri.
aaieaai khojakarta dviteeya | | Flag of Israel.svg Israel | | tohi UAV | | | 100 + | | |
aaieaai bagula dviteeya | | Flag of Israel.svg Israel | | tohi UAV | | | 50 + | | |

bhaarateeya sena ke ek helicopter ka bhaar 75 kilo haaits karne ke liye le ja sakta hai ke liye ek aavashyakta ka anumaan tha {{kanvart | 23000 foot | |} meter} Jammu aur Kashmir mein siyaachin gleshiyr par. in oonchaai par udne rarefied vaataavaran ki vajah se adviteeya chunautiyon poses. aur cheeta | 197 prakaash heleekaaptaron ke liye ek $ 550 million anubandh [chetak] [Aéarospatiale Alouette III] ke liye apne budhaape bede ki jagah ke liye | [550 ke roop mein] Eurocopter [Eurocopter Fennec] bhaarateeya sena ko chuna jinmein se kuchh ko teen se adhik dashakon pehle shaamil the.<ref> </ ref> Eurocopter bada bhaarateeya sena sauda jeetata hai sauda lekin boli - prakriya ke dauraan kiya gaya bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ke beech khatm kar diya

param veer vijeta chakr

neeche soocheebaddh hain sabse ullekhaneeya praapt hua hai log paramaveer chakr, bhaarateeya sena ke sarvochch sainya sajaavat.

- major somanaath sharma | 4 battalion, kumaaooain regiment | | | 3 November, 1947 | | badgaam, Kashmir Bhaarat, - second lieutenant Ram raaghoba raane | | engineer kor | | April 8, 1948 | | naushera, [ [Kashmir, Bhaarat]] - naayak jadunaath Singh | 1 battalion, rajput regiment | | | February 1948 | | naushera, Kashmir, Bhaarat - company hawaldaar major Piru Singh | | 6 battalion, rajputana rifles | | [[July 17 / 18], 1948 | | Tithwal, [ [Kashmir, Bhaarat]] - Lance naayak karam Singh | 1 battalion, sikh regiment | | | 13 October, 1948 | | [Tithwal []], Kashmir, Bhaarat - kaptaan gurabachan Singh Salaria | | 3 battalion, 1 ​a​agorakha rifles (Malaun rejimeint) | | 5 December, 1961 | | Elizabethville, Katanga, kaango - major dhan Singh thaapa | 1 battalion 8 gorakha rifles | | | 20 October, 1962 | | [[Laddakh] Bhaarat - soobedaar jogindar Singh | 1 battalion, sikh regiment | | | [23 October]], 1962 | | [[Tongpen la] ], poorvottar frontier agency, Bhaarat - major shaitaan Singh | | 13 veen battalion, kumaaooain regiment | | 18 November, 1,962 | | Rezang la - company quarter master hawaldaar abdul hameed | 4 battalion, grenediyrs | | | 10 September, [1965 []] | | cheema, khem karan sector - lieutenant Colonel aardeshir Burzorji taaraapore | | 17 poona haars | | 15 October, +1965 | | Phillora , siyaalakot sector, Pakistan - Lance naayak [[albart ekka] | 14 battalion, gaardas briged | | | 3 December, 1971 | | Gangasagar - 2/Lieutenant Arun kshetrapaal | | 17 poona haars | | 16 December, 1,971 | | Jarpal, [ [shakaragadh sector]] - major hoshiyaar Singh | | 3 battalion, the grenediyrs | | 17 December, 1971 | | basantar nadi, [ [shakaragadh]] sector - naayab soobedaar baana Singh | 8 battalion, Jammu aur Kashmir laait infaintari | | | 23 June, 1987 | | siyaachin himnad Jammu aur Kashmir, Bhaarat - major [[raamaasvaami Parmeshwaran] | 8 battalion, mahaar regiment | | | 25 November, 1,987 | | Sri Lanka - kaptaan vikram batra | | 13 veen battalion, Jammu evam Kashmir rifles | | July 6, [1999]]] | | point point 5140, 4875, [[Kargil] kshetr - lieutenant manoj Kumar Pande | 1 battalion, [11 veen gorakha rifles]] | | | July 3, [1999]]] | | / Khaluber Juber sheersh bataalik kshetr, Kargil kshetr, Jammu aur Kashmir, Bhaarat - Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav | 18 battalion, grenediyrs | | | 4 July, [1999]]] | | tiger hil [[Kargil] kshetr - raayafalamain sanjaya Kumar | | 13 veen battalion, Jammu evam Kashmir rifles | | 5 July, [1999]]] | | area flat top Kargil kshetr -

inhein bhi dekhein

  • bhaarateeya senaaen sashastr
  • [[british bhaarateeya sena]
  • Indian national army
  • bhaarateeya praadeshik sena