bhaarateeya sthaapatyakala

saanchi ka stoop
ajanta gufa 26 ka chaitya

Bhaarat ke sthaapatya ki jadein yahaaain ke itihaas, darshan evam sanskruti mein nihit hain. Bhaarat ki vaastukala yahaaain ki paramparaagat evam baahari prabhaavon ka mishran hai.

bhaarateeya vaastu ki visheshata yahaaain ki deevaaron ke utkrusht aur prachur alankaran mein hai. bhittichitron aur moortiyon ki yojana, jismein alankaran ke atirikt apne vishay ke gambhir bhaav bhi vyakt hote hain, bhavan ko baahar se kabhi kabhi poornataya lapet leti hai. inmein vaastu ka jeevan se sambandh kya, vaastav mein aadhyaatmik jeevan hi ankit hai. nyoonaadhik ubhaar mein utkeern apne alaukik krutyon mein lage hue desh bhar ke devi devata, tatha yugon puraana pauraanik gaathaaeain, moortikla ko prateek banaakar darshakon ke sammukh atyant rochak kathaaon aur manohar chitron ki ek pustak si khol deti hain.

'vaastu' shabd ki vyutpatti sanskrut ke 'vas' dhaatu se hui hai jiska arth 'basana' hota hai. choonki basane ke liye bhavan ki aavashyakta hoti hai at: 'vaastu' ka arth 'rahane hetu bhavan' hai. 'vas' dhaatu se hi vaas, aavaas, nivaas, basati, basti aadi shabd bane hain.

anukram

sindhughaati ka sthaapatya

mohanajodado mein khudaai se praapt vishaal snaanaagaar

do-teen hajaar varsh E. poo. viksit sindhu ghaati sabhyata ki khoj se ek aashcharyajanak tathya prakaash mein aaya hai ki Bhaarat ki praacheenatam kala saundarya ki drushti se aisi hi shoonya thi, jaisi aajkal ki koi bhi sabhyata. jab aajkal ki koi bhi sabhyata jaagaran ki aaingadaai bhi na le pai thi tab Bhaarat ki yeh kala itni viksit thi. in bastiyon ke nirmaataaon ka nagar niyojan sambandhi gyaan itna paripakva tha, unke dvaara prayukt saamagri aisi utkrusht koti ki thi aur rachana itni sudrudh thi ki us sabhyata ka aarambh bahut pehle, lagbhag chaar paaainch hajaar varsh, isa poorv, maanane ko baadhya ho padta hai. hadppa aur mohanajodado ki khudaaiyon se praapt avashesh tatkaaleen bhautik samruddhi ke soochak hain aur unamein kisi mandir, devaalaya aadi ke abhaav se yeh anumaan hota hai ki vahaaain dhaarmik vichaaron ka kuchh vishesh sthaan na tha, athva yadi tha to vah niraakaar shakti mein aastha ke roop mein hi tha. fir bhi, vilkshan pratibha aur utkrusht vaastukaushal se aadyopaant pariplaavit bhaarateeya janajeevan ke itihaas ka aisa aadanbaraheen aarambh aashcharyajanak hone ke saath-saath aur adhik gaveshan ki apeksha rakhata hai, jisse aarya sabhyata se, jo isse bhi praacheen maani jaati hai, iska sambandh jodnevaali kadi ka pata lag sake.

praacheen bhaarateeya sthaapatya

aadinaatah ko samarpit ranakapur ke jain mandir mein vaastukala ka namoona
Abu parvat par sthit delavaada jain mandir
khajuraaho ka kandaariya mahaadev mandir
madurai ka meenaakshi mandir

seemit aavashyakataaon mein vishvaas rakhanevaale, apne krushikrm aur aashramajeevan se santusht aarya praaya: graamavaasi the aur shaayad iseeliye, apne paripakva vichaaron ke anuroop hi, samasaamayik sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke vilaasi bhautik jeevan ki chakaachaundh se aprabhaavit rahe. kuchh bhi ho, unke asthaayi nivaason se hi baad ke bhaarateeya vaastu ka janm hua prateet hota hai. iska aadhaar dharati mein aur vikaas vrukshon mein hua, jaisa vaidik vaaङamaya mein mahaavan, toran, gopur aadi ke ullekhon se vidit hota hai. at: yadi us asthaayi rachanaakaal ki koi smaarak kruti aaj dekhne ko naheen milti, to koi aashcharya naheen.

dheere-dheere nagaron ki bhi rachana hui aur sthaayi nivaas bhi bane. Bihar mein magadh ki rajdhani raajagruh shaayad 8veen shati isa poorv mein unnati ke shikhar par thi. yeh bhi pata lagta hai ki bhavan aadikaaleen jhopadiyon ke namoone par praaya: gol hi bana karte the. deevaaron mein kachchi intein bhi lagne lagi theen aur chaukor darvaaje khidkiyaaain banane lagi theen. bauddh lekhak dhammapaal ke anusaar, paaainchaveen shati isa poorv mein mahaagovind naamak sthapati ne uttar Bhaarat ki anek raajadhaaniyon ke vinyaas taiyaar kiye the. chaukor nagariyaaain beechobeech do mukhya sadkein banaakar chaar chaar bhaagon mein baaainti gayi theen. ek bhaag mein raajamahal hote the, jinka vistrut varnan bhi milta hai. sadkon ke chaaron siron par nagaradvaar the. mauryakaal (4thi shati E. poo.) ke anek nagar kapilvastu, kusheenagar, urubilv aadi ek hi namoone ke the, yeh inke nagaradvaaron se prakat hota hai. jagah-jagah par baahar nikle hue chhajjon, stambhon se alankrut gavaakshon, jaingalon aur kataharon se kataharon se bauddhakaaleen pavitra nagariyon ki bhaavukata ka aabhaas milta hai.

raajya ka aashray paakar anek stoopon, chaityon, bihaaron, stambhon, toranon aur gufaamandiron mein vaastukala ka charam vikaas hua. tatkaaleen vaastukaushal ke utkrusht udaaharan patthar aur int ke saath-saath lakdi par bhi milte hain, jinke vishay mein sar John maarshal ne "Bhaarat ka puraataatvik sarveinkshan, 1912-13" mein likha hai ki "ve tatkaleen krutiyon ki adviteeya sookshmata aur poornata ka digdarshan karaate hain. unke kaareegar aaj bhi yadi sansaar mein aa sakte, to apni kala ke kshetr mein kuchh vishesh seekhane yogya shaayad na po." "saaainchi, bharahut, kusheenagar, besanagar (vidisha), tigaavaaain (jabalapur) udayagiri, prayaag, kaarli (Mumbai), ajanta, ilora, vidisha, amaraavati, Nasik, junaar (poona), kanheri, bhuj, konden, gaandhaar (vartamaan kandhaar-Afghanistan), takshashila pashchimottar seemaant mein chauthi shati E. poo. se chauthi shati E. tak ki vaastukrutiyaaain kala ki drushti se anoothi hain. dakshin Bhaarat mein guntoopalle (Krishna jila) aur shankaran pahaadi (vijgaapattam jila) mein shailakrutt vaastu ke darshan hote hain. saaainchi, naalanda aur saaranaath mein apekshaakrut baad ki vaastukrutiyaaain hain.

paaainchaveen shati se int ka prayog hone laga. usi samay se braahman prabhaav bhi prakat hua. tatkaaleen braahman mandiron mein bheetaagaaainv (Kanpur jila), budharaamaoo (fatehapur jila), seerapur aur kharod (Raipur jila), tatha ter (sholaapur ke nikat) ke mandiron ki shrunkhala ullekhaneeya hai. bheetaagaaainv ka mandir, jo shaayad sabse praacheen hai, 36 foot varg ke ooainche chabootare par burj ki bhaaainti 70 foot ooaincha khada hai. budharaamaoo ka mandir bhi aisa hi hai. anya hindu mandiron ki bhaaainti khada hai. budharaamaoo ka mandir bhi aisa hi hai. anya hindu mandiron ki bhaaainti inmein mandap aadi naheen hai, keval garbhagruh hain. bheetar deevaarein yadyapi saadi hain, tathaapi unamein patte, kingariyaaain, dilhe, aale aadi, rachana ki kuchh vishishtataaeain imaaraton ki praacheenata ki drushti se atyant mahatvapoorn hain. inke vibhinn bhaagon ka anupaat sundar hai aur vaastu prabhaav kaushalapoorn. aalon mein bauddhachaityon ki daaton ka prabhaav avashya pada dikhaai padta hai. inki shailiyon ka anukaran shataabdiyon baad bananevaale mandiron mein bhi hua hai.

hindu vaastukaushal ka vistaar mahalon, samaadhiyon, durgon aur ghaaton mein bhi hua, kintu desh bhar mein bikhre mandiron mein yeh vishesh mukhar hua hai. guptakaal (350-650 E.) mein mandirvaastu ke svaroop mein sthirta I. 7veen shati ke ant mein shikhar mahatvapoorn aur anivaarya ang samjha jaane laga. mandirvaastu mein uttar ki or aarya shaili aur dakshin ki or Dravid shaili spasht deekhati hai. gvaaliyr ke "teli ka mandir" (11 veen shati) aur bhuvaneshvar ke "baitaal deval mandir" (9 veen shati) uttari shaili ka pratinidhitv karte hain aur somangalam, manimangalam aadi ke chol mandir (11 veen shati) dakshini shaili ka. kintu ye shailiyaaain kisi bhaugolik seema mein baindhi naheen hain. chaalukyon ki rajdhani pattadakal ke das mandiron mein se chaar (pappaanaath - 680 E., janbuling, karasiddheshvar, kaasheevishvanaath) uttari shaili ke aur chhah (sangameshvar - 75 E., viroopaaksh - 740 E., mallikaarjun-740 E., galaganaath-740 E., sunameshvar aur jain mandir) dakshini shaili ke hain. 10 veen - 11 veen shati mein pallav, chol, paandya, chaalukya aur raashtrakoot sabhi raajavanshon ne dakshini shaili ka poshan kiya. donon hi shailiyon par bauddh vaastu ka prabhaav hai, visheshakar shikharon mein.

Bhaarat ki aitihaasik imaaraton ki maaya aur rahasya ke peechhe anek kinvadantiyaaain hain. madhya Bhaarat ke kuchh sarvashreshth mandir ek kaalpanik Rajkumar janakaachaarya dvaara banaae kahe jaate hain, jise brahmahatya ke praayashchitt svaroop bees varsh is kaam mein lagaane pade the. ek anya kinvadanti ke anusaar ye asaadhaaran imaaratein ek hi raat mein paandavon na khadi ki theen. uttari Gujarat ka vishaal mandir (1125 E.) Gujarat naresh siddharaaj dvaara aur khaanadesh ke mandir gavaali raajavansh dvaara nirmit kah jaate hain. dakshin ke anek mandir raaja raamachandr ke mantri hemadapant ke dhaarmik utsaah se bane kahe jaate hain aur 13veen shati ke kuchh mandiron ki shaili hi hemadapanti kahalaane lagi hai. ise agyaat nirmaataaaan ki shaaleenata kahein, ya aitihaasik tamisr, kintu ismein sandeh naheen ki mandirvaastu, jise anoothe udaaharan bhuvaneshvar ke lingaraaj (1000 E.), mukteshvar (975 E.), brahmeshvar (1075 E.), raameshvar (1075 E.), parameshvar, uttareshvar, ishvareshvar, bharateshvar, lakshmaneshvar aadi mandir, konaark ka sooryamandir, mamallipuram ke saptarath, kaancheevaram ka kailaashanaath mandir, shri nivaasanaalur (trichnaapalli jila) ka koranganaath mandir, trichnaapalli ka janbukeshvar mandir, daaraasuram (tanjaurajila) ka airaavateshvar mandir, tanjaur ke subrahmanyam evam bruhadeshvar mandir, vijyanagar ka vitthalasvaami mandir (16 veen shati), tiruvalloor evam madura ke vishaal mandir, traavanakor ka shacheendram mandir (16 veen shati), raameshvar ke vishaal mandir (17 vi shati) veloor (Mysore) ka channakeshav mandir (12 veen shati), somanaathapur (Mysore) ka keshav mandir (1268 E.), puri ka jagannaath mandir (1100 E.), khajuraaho ki aadinaath, vishvanaath, paarshvanaath aur kandariya mahaadev mandir, kiraadoo (mevaad) ke Shiv mandir (11 veen shati), Abu ke tejapaal (13 veen shati) tatha viml mandir (11 vi shati), gvaliyr ka saasabahoo mandir evam udayeshvar mandir (donon 11 veen shati) sejaakapur (kaathiyaavaad) ka navalakha mandir (11 veen shati), pattan ka somanaath mandir (12 veen shati), modhera (badoda) ka soorya mandir (11 veen shati), anbaranaath (thaanaajila) ka mahaadev mandir (11 veen shati), jogada (Nasik jila) ka maanakeshvar mandir, Mathura vrundaavan ka govindadev mandir (1590 E.), shatrunjaya pahaadi (kaathiyaavaad) ke jain mandir, ranapur (saadari Jodhpur) ka aadinaath mandir (1450 E.) aadi aadi desh bhar mein bikhre pade hain, jo bhavyata, vishaalata, utkrushtata aur sarthakata sabhi drushtiyon se anupam hai. desh mein saath saath viksit hote hue bauddhavaastu, jain vaastu, hindu vaastu, tatha dravin braastu ki ye jhaaainkiyaaain vishaal Bhaarat ki paramparaagat dhaarmik sahishnuta ka pramaan hain.

madhyakaaleen muslim vaastu

yamuna ke doosare paar se Tajmahal ka drushya

vaastukala par musalmaanon ke aakraman ka jitna prabhaav Bhaarat mein pada utana anyatr kaheen naheen, kyonki jis sabhyata se muslim sabhyata ki takkar hui, kisi se usaka itna virodh naheen tha jitna bhaarateeya sabhyata se. chir pratishthit bhaarateeya saamaajik aur dhaarmik pravruttiyon ki tulana mein muslim sabhyata bilkul nai to thi hi, uske maulik siddhaat bhi bhinn the. donon ka sangharsh yathaarthavaad ka aadarshavaad se, vaastavikta ka svapnadarshita se aur vyakt ka avyakt se sangharsh tha, jiska pramaan masjid aur mandir ke bhed mein spasht hai. masjidein khuli hui hoti hain, unka kendra sudoor makka ki disha mein hota hai; jabki mandir rahasya ka ghar hota hai, jiska kendra anek deevaaron evam galiyaaron se ghira hua beech ka devasthaan ya garbhagruh hota hai. majisd ki deevaarein praaya: saadi ya pavitra aayaton se utkeern hoti hain, unamein maanav aakrutiyon ka chitran nishiddh hota hai; jabki mandiron ki deevaaron mein moortikla aur maanavakruti chitran uchchatam shikhar par pahuaincha, par likhaai ka naam na tha. pattharon ke sahal rangon mein hi is chitran dvaara mandiron ki sajeevata I; jabki masjidon mein rangabirange pattharon, sangamarmar aur chitr vichitr palastar ke dvaara deevaarein mukhar ki gayi.

gurutvaakarshan ke siddhaant par ek hi prakaar ki bhaari bharakam sanrachanaaeain khadi karne mein siddhahast, bhaarateeya kaareegaron ki yugon yugon se ek hi leek par padi, nishpravaah pratibha, vijetaaon dvaara anya deshon se laae hue nae siddhaant, nai paddhatiyaaain aur nai disha paakar sfoort ho uthi. falasvaroop dhaarmik imaaraton, jaise masjidon, makabaron, raujon aur daragaahon ke atirikt anya anek prakaar ki dharmanirpeksh imaaratein bhi, jaise mahal, mandap, nagaradvaar, koop, udyaan aur bade bade kile, yahaaain tak ki saara shahar gheranevaale parakote tak taiyaar hue. desh mein uttar se dakshin tak jaise jaise muslim prabhatv badhta ga, vaastukala ka yug bhi badalta gaya.

muslim vaastu ke chaar charan

muslim vaastu ke teen kramik charan spasht hain. pehla charan, jo bahut thode samay raha, vijyadarp aur dharmaandhata se prerit "nirmoolan" ka tha, jiske baare mein hasan nijaami likhta hai ki pratyek kila jeetne ke baad uske stambh aur neenv tak mahaakaaya haathiyon ke pairon tale raundavaakar dhool mein mila dene ka rivaaj tha. anek durg, nagar aur mandir isi prakaar astitvaheen kiye gaye. tadanantar doosra charan soddeshya aur aanshik vidhvans ka aaya, jismein imaaratein isliye todi gain ki vijetaaon ki masjidon aur makabaron ke liye taiyaar maal upalabdh ho sake. badi-badi dharanein aur stambh apne sthaan se hataakar nai jagah le jaane ke liye bhi haathiyon ka hi prayog hua. praya: isi kaal mein mandiron ko vishesh kshati pahuainchi, jo vijit praanton ki nai nai raajadhaaniyon ke nirmaan ke liye taiyaar maal ki Khan ban gaye aur uttar Bhaarat se hindu vaastu ki praaya: safaai hi ho gayi. antim charan tab aarambh hua, jab aakraanta anek bhaagon mein bhali bhaaainti jag gaye the aur unhonne pratyavasthaapan ke bajaay yojanaabaddh nirmaan dvaara suvinyast aur utkrusht vaastukrutiyaaain vastut keen.

muslim vaastu ki teen shailiyaaain

shailiyon ki drushti se bhi muslim vaastu ke teen varg ho sakte hain. pehli Delhi shaili, athva shahanshaahi shaili hai, jise praaya: "pathaan vaastu" (1193-1554) kehte hain (yadyapi iske sabhi poshak "pathaan" naheen the). is varg mein Delhi ki kutubameenaar (1200), sultaan gadhi (1231), altamash ka makabara (1236), alaai daravaaja (1305), nijaamuddeen (1320), gayaasuddeen tugalak (1325) aur feerojashaah tugalak (1388) ke makabare, Kotla feerojashaah (1354-1490), mubaarakashaah ka makabara (1434), Meerut ki masjid (1505), sherashaah ki masjid (1540-45) sahasaraam ka sherashaah ka makabara (1540-45) aur Ajmer ka adhaai din ka jhonpada (1205) aadi ullekhaneeya hain.

doosare varg mein praanteeya shailiyaaain hain. inmein Punjab shaili (1150-1325 E.); jaise multaan ke shrakane aalam (1320) aur shaahayoosuf gardiji (1150), tabriji (1276), bahaaulahak (1262) ke makabare; Bengal shaili (1203-1573) : jaise panduaa ki adeena masjid (1364), gaur ke fatehakhaaain ka makabara (1657), kadam rasool (1530), taanteemaara masjid (1475); Gujarat shaili (1300-1572) : jaise khanbe (1325), Ahmedabad (1423), bhadoch aur chamaane (1523) ki jaama masjidein, nageena masjid makabara (1525); jaunapur shaili (1376-1479) : jaise ataala masjid (1408), laal darvaaja masjid (1450), jaama masjid (1470); maalava shaili (1405-1569) : jaise maadoo ke jahaajamahal (1460), hoshang ka makabara (1440), jaama masjid (1440), hindola mahal (1425), dhaar ki laat masjid (1405), chanderi ka badal mahal faatak (1460), kushak mahal (1445), shahajaadi ka rauja (1450); dakshini shaili (1347-1617) : jaise gulabarg ki jaama masjid (1367) aur haft gunbaj (1378), beedar ka madarasa (1481), Hyderabad ki Charminar (1591) aadi; Bijapur khaanadesh shaili (1425-1660), jaise Bijapur ke golagunbaj (1660), rauja ibraaheem (1615) aur jaama masjid (1570), thaalaner khaanadesh ke faarooki vansh ke makabare (15 veen shati); aur Kashmir shaili (15-17 veen shati) : jaise shreenagar ki jaama masjid (1400), shaah hamadan ka makabara (17 veen shati) aadi, sammilit hain.

teesare varg mein mugal shaili aati hai, jiske utkrushtatam namoone Delhi, Agra, fatehapur seekari, Lucknow, Lahore aadi mein kilon, makabaron, raajamahalon, udyaan mandapon aadi ke roop mein maujood hain. isi kaal mein kala patthar se badhkar sangamarmar tak pahuainchi aur Delhi ke deevaane khaas, moti masjid, jaama masjid aur Agra ke Tajmahal jaisi vishvavishrut krutiyaaain taiyaar hui.

bruhattar Bhaarat ka vaastu

ankoravaat mandir dekhein

bhaarateeya kala ke utkrusht namoone Bhaarat ke baahar Sri Lanka, Nepal, barama, syaam, jaava, baali, hindacheen aur kanbodiya mein bhi milte hain. Nepal ke shanbhunaath, bodhanaath, maamanaath mandir, lanka mein anuraadhaapur ka stoop aur lankaatilk mandir, barama ke bauddh math aur pagoda, kanbodiya mein ankor ke mandir, syaam mein bainkaak ke mandir, jaava mein praanbanaam ka Bihar, kalaasan mandir aur borobandar stoop aadi hindu aur bauddh vaastu ke vyapak prasaar ke pramaan hain. jaava mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ke pravesh ke kuchh pramaan 4 vi shati isavi ke milte hain. vahaaain ke anek smaarakon se pata lagta hai ki madhya jaava mein 625 se 928 E. tak vaastukala ka svarnakaal aur poorvi jaava mein 928 se 1478 E. tak rajatakaal tha.

beesaveen shati ka vaastu

sachivaalaya, nayi Delhi

san 1911 E. mein british raajya unnati ke shikhar par tha. usi samay Delhi darbaar mein ghoshana ki gayi aur saamraajya ki rajdhani ke anuroop ek nai Delhi mein aur saare Bhaarat ke jila sadar sthaanon tak mein, sundar imaaratein banvaai, jinmein anek kaaryaalaya bhavan, girje aur isaai kabristaan kala ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hain. sarkaari prayaas se nai Delhi mein Rajbhavan (ab raashtrapati bhavan), sachivaalaya bhavan, sansad bhavan jaisi bhavya imaaratein bani, jinmein paashchaatya kala ke saath hindu, bauddh aur muslim kala ka sukhad sammishran dikhaai deta hai.

mandir vaastu bhi, jo keval vyaktigat prayaas se apna astitv banaae raha, kuchh kuchh isi disha mein jhuka. muslim vaastu ke anukaran par ashokakaaleen shilaalekhon ki pratha pun: pratishthit hui aur mandiron me bheetar baahar, moortiyon aur chitron ke saath lekhon ko bhi sthaan milne laga. Delhi ka lakshmeenaaraayan mandir aur hindu vishvavidyaalaya, Varanasi, ka shivmandir beesaveen shati ke mandirvaastu ki utkrusht krutiyaaain hain. mandiron ke atirikt raajaaon ke mahal aur vidyaalaya aadi bhi kala ko prashraya dete rahe. kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya ki sabhi imaaratein aur Varanasi ka bhaaratamaata mandir, kaashi vishvanaath ki mandironvaali nagari mein darshakon ke liye vishesh aakarshan ke kendra hain. kusheenagar mein bane nirvaan Bihar, buddh mandir aur sarkaari vishraamagruh mein bauddh kala ko punarjeevan mila hai. Delhi mein lakshmeenaaraayan mandir ke saath bhi ek buddh mandir hai. is prakaar kisi shaili vishesh ke pati anaagrah aur utkrushtata ke liye samanvaya 20 veen shati ki visheshata samajhi ja sakti hai.

vaastushaastreeya granth

dekhein, shilpashaastr

chhabideergha

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain