bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag


sarve of indiya
bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag
Survey of india.jpg
sanstha avlokan
sthaapana 1767
poorvavarti sansthaaen traaigonometreekal sarve of India, 1802

revenyoo sarve aur maiping sarve
adhikaar kshetr bhaarateeya bhoomi
mukhyaalaya post box.37, deharaadoon, 1845
uttaradaayi mantri pruthveeraaj chavhaan, vigyaan evam praudyogiki mantri
sanstha kaaryapaalakagan sachiv vigyaan evam praudyogiki vibhaag, Bhaarat sarkaar

major general aar S tanvar, atirikt mahaasarveyar
maatru sanstha vigyaan evam praudyogiki vibhaag, Bhaarat sarkaar

bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag, Bhaarat ki nakshe banaane aur sarvekshan karne waali kendreeya agency hai. iska gathan 1767 mein british India company ke kshetron ko sangathit karne hetu kiya gaya tha. yeh Bhaarat sarkaar ke puraatanatam abhiyaantrik vibhaagon mein se ek hai. sarvekshan vibhaag ki adbhut itihaas rachana mein vyaal/maimath mahaan trikonamiteeya sarvekshan bhi aate hain.[1]

anukram

parichay

aadhunik kaal mein kisi bhi sabhya desh ki aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye parishuddh maanachitr atyant aavashyak hai. prashaasan, suraksha, krushi, sinchaai, vanaprabandh, udyog, sanchaar, aadi vividh kshetron mein janta ki dainik aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye maanachitr pehli aavashyakta hai. is kaarya ko samuchit reeti se karne ke liye Bhaarat sarkaar ne bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag sthaapit kiya hai.

vigyaan evam praudyogiki vibhaag ke antargat sarve of India, national sarve aur maiping aargenaaijeshan of di country Bhaarat sarkaar ke sabse puraane vaigyaanik vibhaag hain. iski sthaapana captain ti ji montogomari ke nirdeshan mein ki gayi thi. desh ki mukhya maiping agency ke roop mein yeh sansthaan prashansaneeya bhoomika nibhaata aa raha hai.[2] yeh abhiyaan aur ekeekrut vikaas ke liye bhi aadhaar maanachitr upalabdh karaata hai aur sunishchit karta hai ki sabhi sansaadhanon ka upayog desh ki pragati, unnati aur suraksha ke liye ho. sarve of India traaigonometreekal sarve, revenyoo sarve aur maiping sarve naamak teen sansthaanon ka ek sanyog hai.[1]

Bhaarat ke pehle sarveyar general of sarve Colonel William lembatan ko 1802 mein traaigonometreekal sarve of India ki sthaapana ka shreya jaata hai. ise poora karne mein 40 saal lage aur yeh 2400 meal ke kshetr par faila hua hai. 1830 mein major George evarest Bhaarat ke sarveyar general of sarve bane aur unhonne masoori mein traangyooleshan ke jariye maiping ka kaam poora karaaya.[2] unhonne masoori in state, jo park kahalaata tha, mein apna aavaas rakha. yeh park 78°aad. deshaantar ki vajah se kaafi mahattvapoorn hai jo upamahaadveep ko do bhaagon mein baantata hai aur yeh is ghar se gujarata hai. sarve of India ka mukhyaalaya 1845 se hi deharaadoon mein sthit hai[3] aur iske sangrahaalaya mein lembaart aur evarest dvaara upayog kiya gaya mool thiyodolaait hai. isne vruddhi aur parivartan ka varsho se I.M.A mein sthaan praapt kar liya hai.[2]

yeh vibhaag maanachitr prakaashit karta hai aur apratibandhit varg ke maanachitr isse ati laghu moolya par praapt kiye ja sakte hain.[3] pratibndhit nakshon ke kraya hetu sarkaari saksham adhikaariyon ki anumati aavashyak hai. keval bhaarateeya naagrik hi isse topograafikl naksha kraya kar sakte hain aur ve bhi iska niryaat kisi kaaran se bhi naheen kar sakta hai. iski neetiyaan samay samay par badalateen aur adyatit hoteen rahateen hain.[3]

sarvekshan vibhaag ka mukhyaalaya deharaadoon, uttaraakhand mein sthit hai. ismein 18 naagar abhiyaantriki mandal hain, jinka kaaryakshetr jvaaron ke poorvaanumaan se havaai sarvekshan tak vistrut hai. iske Bhaarat paryant 23 bhoogarbh-speshiyl aankade kendra hain, pratyek apne prashaasanik kshetr se juda hai.

itihaas

East India company ke afsaron ne 1750 E. mein hi Mumbai, Calcutta aur Madras ke aaspaas prashaasan, raajasvanirdhaaran aur vyaapaar ki drushti se jahaaain-tahaaain sarvekshan praarambh kiya tha. 1767 E. mein major renel Bengal ke pratham mahaasarvekshak niyukt hue. inki niyukti ka uddeshya safal prashaasan aur vaanijyaprasaar ke liye Bengal ka ek bruhat‌ maanachitr taiyaar karna tha. inke sahaayak adhiktar sainik engineer the jinhein khagoleeya nireekshan dvaara maargasarvekshan ka anubhav tha aur jinhein shaanti ke dinon mein sena se mukt kiya ja saka tha. ye maanachitr san‌ 1776 mein England mein utkeern aur mudrit hue aur saare Bengal mein 60 varsho tak ye hi praapya nakshe the.

vishvast abhilekhon aur sarvekshanon ke aadhaar par bana hua renel ka 'Hindustan ka maanachitr' England mein 1782 E. mein utkeern hua. is maanachitr ka adhikaansh yaatriyon ke rojanaamachon ke aadhaar par chitrit hua tha. samudra-tat-rekha to nauchaalakon ke nireekshanon ke aadhaar par kuchh had tak shuddh ankit hui thi lekin desh ke bheetari bhaag ka rekhaankan shuddh naheen kaha ja sakta tha.

desh bhar mein dharaatal tatha bhaugolik sarvekshanon ke aadhaarbhoot parishuddh binduon ka nirdhaaran karne ke liye 1800 E. mein kainptan lainbatan niyukt hue. unhonne desh bhar mein faile hue sambandhit binduon ke akshaansh aur deshaantar ka gyaan karne ke liye aadhaararekha (base line) aur trikoneeya dhaaainche (triangulation frame work) par trikonamiteeya sarvekshan kiya. anya bhooganiteeya (geodetic) kaarya gaun mahatva ke samajhe gaye. lainbatan ki mrutyu ke baad is sarvekshan ka naam 1 January 1818 ko 'Bhaarat ka mahaan‌ trikonamiteeya sarvekshan (The Great Trignometrical Survey of India) rakha gaya aur lainbatan ki mrutyu ke pashchaat‌ Colonel aivarest ne 1840 E. ke baad is kaarya ko uttar mein himaalaya ki or badhaaya.

1815 E. tak Bengal, Madras aur Mumbai mein alag alag ek ek mahaasarvekshak tha jo sthaaneeya sarkaar ke adheen kaarya karta tha. 1815 E. mein teen svaadheen mahaasarvekshakon ke pad ko milaakar ek pad kar diya gaya, jispar Colonel maikeinji Bhaarat ke ek mahaasarvekshak niyukt hue. Colonel maikeinji ka pehla kaarya Bhaarat ka praamaanik maanachitr taiyaar karna tha. 1830 se 1861 E. aur 1878 se 1883 E. tak Bhaarat ka mahaasarvekshak hi trikonamiteeya sarvekshan ka adheekshak tha, yadyapi yeh ek svatantr vibhaag bana raha. Bhaarat ka chauthaai inch aitalas chaaloo hone par lagbhag 1825 E. mein Bhaarat ka maanachitr saamane aaya aur is maala ka pehla naksha 1827 E. mein mudrit hua. yeh naksha keval mahaan trikonamiteeya sarvekshan ke aadhaar par hi bana aur London mein sankalit tatha utkeern hua. is aitalas mein 1868 E. tak, jab utkeernan Bhaarat mein hone laga, desh ke aadhe se adhik bhaag ke maanachitron ko pradarshit kar diya gaya tha. is aitalas ka kaarya 1905 E. tak aage badhta raha. par 1905 E. mein inch ansh maanachitron ke ek nae vinyaas aur ek inch nakshon ki lagaataar maalaaon ne puraane maanachitron ka sthaan le liya.

1905 E. ke baad ke aadhunik sarvekshan aur maanachitr

1905 E. tak ke kiye gaye sthalaakruti sarvekshan aadhunik aavashyakataaon ko dekhte hue parimaan aur gun mein aparyaapt the. ataev 1904- 1905 E. mein is samasya ki jaaainch ke liye Indian sarve committee naamak samiti gathit hui. is prakaar Bhaarat mein aadhunik sarvekshan ka praarambh 1905 E. mein hua. ukt samiti ne bruhat‌ yojana banaakar bhaavi sarvekshanon ke sambandh mein neeti nishchit ki aur 'bhaarateeya sarvekshan' vibhaag ne anek rangon mein sthalaakruti maanachitr maala (jangalon ke nakshe sahit) taiyaar karne ka daayitv sainbhaala. raajasv maanachitron ka sarvekshan praanton par chhod diya gaya. is kadam se Bhaarat ke sarvekshan vibhaag ko saare desh ka maanachitr sheeghrata se taiyaar karne mein kaafi madad mili. in praarambhik kaaryo se yeh vibhaag shanai: shanai: sthalaakrutik sarvekshan, khoj aur dakshin Asia ke adhikaansh bhoobhaag ke bhaugolik maanachitron ka anurakshan tatha bhooganiteeya kaarya ke liye jimmedaar ban gaya hai. aajkal ek susthaapit sarkaari vibhaag hai jiski parishuddh bhaarateeya sarvekshan, maanachitr sarvekshan aur bhooganiteeya kaaryo ki parampara prashansaneeya hai. desh ki vikaas yojanaaon ke liye aadhunik sarvekshanon ko nishpaadit karne aur sthalaakrutik tatha bhaugolik maanachitron ke anurakshan mein iska mahatvapoorn haath hai.

bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag mein maanachitr utpaadan ke aaainkade

bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag nimnalikhit koti aur prakaar ke maanachitron ki taiyaari aur dekhbhaal karta hai :

sthalaakrutik maanachitr

  • (k) samooche Bhaarat ki vyaapti, 1:50,000 paimaane par.
  • (kh) 1:2,50,000 paimaane par maanachitron ki maala mein Bhaarat ki poorn vyaapti.

antararaashtreeya maanachitr

  • (k) Bhaarat ke liye antararaashtreeya vishishtiyon par 1:10,00,000 kaarte intaranaishanal dyoo maand maanachitr maala : vishvavyaapti ke ek bhaag ke roop mein.
  • (kh) I. si. A. O. vishishtayon ke ek bhaag ke roop mein 1:10,00,000 I. si. A. O. maanachitr
  • (g) Bhaarat ke havaai addon ke 'instrameint' aiproch chart paimaana 1:2,50,000
  • (gh) 2 inch mein 1 meal (1:31,680) paimaane par Bhaarat ke havaai addon ka avataran chart (meetrik maap 1:30,000 hogi).
  • (ch) pradhaan havaai addon ke liye 1:12,000 aur laghu havaai addon ke liye 1:20,000 paimaane par avarodh chart.

bhaugolik maanachitr

  • (k) dakshini Asia maala; paimaana 1:20,00,000,
  • (kh) Bhaarat aur seemaavarti deshon ka maanachitr tatha
  • (g) Bhaarat ka sadak maanachitr, paimaana 1:2,50,000,
  • (gh) Bhaarat ka railway maanachitr, paimaana 1 inch se 67.08 meal (meetrik maap 1:35,00,000).
  • (ch) Bhaarat ka raajaneetik maanachitr,
  • (chh) Bhaarat ka praakrutik maanachitr tatha
  • (j) Bhaarat ke paryatak maanachitr, paimaana 1 inch mein 70 meal (meetrik maap 1:40,00,000);
  • (jh) Bhaarat aur seemaavarti deshon ka maanachitr, paimaane 1 inch mein 128 meal (meetrik maap 1:80,00,000),
  • (t) Bhaarat aur seemaavarti deshon ka maanachitr, paimaane 1 inch me 192 meal (meetrik maap 1:1,20,00,000),
  • (th) Bhaarat aur seemaavarti deshon ka maanachitr, paimaana 1:10,00,000,
  • (dh) chaar inch se ek meal paimaane par chune kshetr ke van maanachitr (meetrik maap 1:25,001).

vividh maanachitr

  • (k) Bhaarat ke pramukh nagaron evam kasbon ke sandarshak maanachitr vividh paimaane ke;
  • (kh) tadarth aadhaar par keindreeya aur raajya sakaar ke vibhaagon ke liye bahuprayojani yojana maanachitr tatha
  • (g) sarkaari aur gairsarkaari sansthaaon ke liye anya vividh vibhaageeya maanachitr.

vividh maanachitr ko chhodkar 1905 E se ab tak foot pound paddhati par chhape hue anya maanak maanachitr maalaaon ki sankhya lagbhag 3,600 hai aur har 25 se 40 varsho mein inka baraabar punareekshan hota hai.

bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag ka sangathan

anek prakaar ke maanachitron ki taiyaari aur sarvekshan ke liye bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag ka sangathan neeche diya gaya hai :

Bhaarat ka mahaasarvekshak jo sainik sarvekshan ka nideshak bhi hota hai, iska prashaasanik aur takaneeki niyantran karta hai. mahaasarvekshak ka mukhya kaaryaalaya deharaadoon mein hai aur usaka kaaryaalaya upamahaasarvekshak ke adheen hai jo nideshak ki koti ka hota hai. vah Bhaarat ke mahaasarvekshak ka sahaayak hota hai aur vibhaag ke takaneeki kaam, bajat aur vinimay, evam bhandaar ka uttaradaayi hota hai. adheekshak sarvekshak ki koti ka ek afsar aur hota hai jiske pad ka naam sahaayak mahaasarvekshak hai aur vahi takaneeki kaam aur vibhaag ki nityacharya prashaasan ka uttaradaayi hota hai.

sthalaakrutik mandal nimnalikhit hain :

  • (1) maanachitr prakaashan kaaryaalaya,
  • (2) bhooganiteeya tatha anusandhaan shaakha,
  • (3) havaai sarvekshan aur prashikshan nideshaalaya

bhooganiteeya tatha anusandhaan shaakha ko chhodkar, jo upanideshak ke niyantran mein hain, shesh sabhi mandal nideshaalaya nideshak ke niyantran mein hain. ye sabhi Bhaarat ke mahaasarvekshak ke samaksh uttaradaayi hain. pratyek nideshak ke adheen ek upanideshak hota hai jiske adheen vividh kshetreeya havaai sarvekshan aur photo maap sarvekshan dal aur praaya: ek rekhan kaaryaalaya hota hai. kul teen maanachitr pun: rachana kaaryaalaya hain : do deharaadoon mein nideshak, maanachitr prakaashan ke adheen aur ek kalakatte mein nideshak, poorvi mandal ke adheen.

nideshak maanachitr prakaashan

iska mukhyaalaya deharaadoon mein hai. iske adheen ek rekhan kaaryaalaya, do maanachitr punaranchana kaaryaalaya (haathi barakala litho aafis aur fotojiko kaaryaalaya, chhapaai kaaryaalaya ko sammilit karke), ek maanachitr sangrah tatha nikaas kaaryaalaya or ek laghu motor parivhan varkashaap hai. yeh nideshak maanachitr sambandhi niyam aur neeti ke nirdhaaran me bhaaratake mahaasarvekshak ka paraamarshadaata hai. vah is baat ka uttaradaayi hai ki sab vibhaageeya maanachitron ka rekhan aur chhapaai ke kaam ka theek samanvaya karta hai. sabhi bhaugolik maanachitron ka rekhan, rekhan kaaryaalaya san. 1 mein hota hai jo iske adheen hain. maanachitr vikraya, nai Delhi ka sanchaalan bhi yahi nideshaalaya karta hai.

nideshak, uttari mandal

iska mukhyaalaya deharaadoon mein hai. vah uttar Bhaarat ke Jammu aur Kashmir, Himachal pradesh, uttarapradesh aur Punjab tatha Madhya Pradesh ke bhaagon ke kuchh sthalaakrutik, chhaavani, van aur aayojan sarvekshan ke liye uttaradaayi hai. iski dekharekh mein deharaadoon mein ek rekhan kaaryaalaya aur kai kshetreeya dal hain.

nideshak, poorvi mandal

iska mukhyaalaya Calcutta mein hai. poorvi Bhaarat mein udeesa, pashchimi Bengal, Bihar, asam (nefa sahit), sikkim, bhootaan, andaman aur nikobaar dweep ke sarvekshan aur maanachitr banaane ke liye uttaradaayi hai. iske adheen ek mandal rekhan kaaryaalaya, ek mudran kaaryaalaya aur kai kshetreeya dal hain.

nideshak, pashchimi mandal

iska mukhyaalaya aabu mein hai. yeh Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra raajyon ke sarvekshan aur maanachitr banaane ke liye uttaradaayi hai. iske adheen ek rekhan kaaryaalaya aur kai kshetreeya dal hain.

nideshak, havaai sarvekshan aur prashikshan nideshaalaya

iska mukhyaalaya deharaadoon mein hai. yeh havaai sarvekshanon ke aayojan aur kriyaanvayan ke liye uttaradaayi hai aur us kaarya ka niyantran karta hai jo fotomaapi sarvekshan ki aalekhan masheenon par bahut mitvyayita se ho sake. vah sabhi afsaron aur vibhaag ke kuchh karmachaareevrund ke prashikshan ke liye bhi uttaradaayi hai. uske adheen do prashikshan dal tatha kai fotomaapi sarvekshan ke dal kaarya karte hain.

upanideshak, bhoomaganiteeya tatha anusandhaanashaakha

iska mukhyaalaya deharaadoon mein hai. yadyapi iske pad ka naam upanideshak hai, tathaapi ise nideshak ke sabhi prashaasanik adhikaar praapt hain. yeh Bhaarat bhar mein sabhi bhooganiteeya aur bhoobhautikeeya (Geophysical) sarvekshanon ke liye uttaradaraayi hai. iske kaarya ke antargat hainsh : uchch parishuddh, pradhaan aur gaun talekshan tatha jvaareeya prekshan. vah bhooganiteeya aur bhoobhautikeeya anusandhaan kaarya, vibhaageeya kaarya, anushangi taalikaaon (auxiliary tables) aur ganana firm taiyaar karaane ke liye uttaradaayi hai. iske adheenasth ek ganana dal, ek jvaareeya dal, ek bhoobhautikeeya dal aur anya kshetreeya dal hain. deharaadoon mein iske antargat vedhashaalaaeain aur ek workshop bhi hai.

bhaarateeya sarvekshan ke maanachitron ka vikraya

maanachitron ko seedhe hi bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag ke deharaadoon, Calcutta, Bengaluru aur Delhi ke kaaryaalaya se mol liya ja sakta hai. iske atirikt maanachitr Bhaarat kein sarvatr sthaapit maanachitr vikraya agencyon se bhi khareede ja sakte hain, jo saare desh mein vikhyaat pustak vikretaaon aur prakaashakon ko di gayi hain. bhaarateeya sarvekshan ke maanachitr vikraya kaaryaalaya in paton par hain :

  • maip rikaard aind ishoo office, haatheebarakala, deharaadoon.
  • maip rikaard aind ishoo office, 13, vud street, Calcutta.
  • southern circle, sarve ov India, 22, richmand road, Bengaluru.
  • maanachitr vikraya vibhaag, Janpath bairaks, flor 'A', nai Delhi.

sandarbh

  1. a aa "abaaut as" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag. pp. 01. http://www.surveyofindia.gov.in/about%20us.html. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  2. a aa i filimor, rejinaald henari. "histaurikl rikaards af sarve of indiya" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). deharaadoon, bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag. pp. 5 khand. http://www.surveyofindia.gov.in/Activities.htm. abhigman tithi: 1945-1968.
  3. a aa i "gatividhiyaan" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag. pp. 01. http://www.surveyofindia.gov.in/Activities.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.

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