bhaarateeya sangeet ka itihaas

pragaitihaasik kaal se hi Bhaarat mein sangeet ki samruddh parampara rahi hai. gine-chune deshon mein hi sangeet ki itni puraani evam itni samruddh parampara paayi jaati hai. maana jaata hai ki sangeet ka praarambh sindhu ghaati ki sabhyata ke kaal mein hua haalaanki is daave ke ekamaatr saakshya hain us samay ki ek nrutya baala ki mudra mein kaansya moorti aur nrutya, naatak aur sangeet ke devata rudra athva Shiv ki pooja ka prachalan. sindhu ghaati ki sabhyata ke patan ke pashchaat vaidik sangeet ki avastha ka praarambh hua jismein sangeet ki shaili mein bhajanon aur mantron ke uchchaaran se ishvar ki pooja aur archana ki jaati thi. iske atirikt do bhaarateeya mahaakaavyon - raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat ki rachana mein sangeet ka mukhya prabhaav raha. Bhaarat mein saanskrutik kaal se lekar aadhunik yug tak aate-aate sangeet ki shaili aur paddhati mein jabaradast parivartan hua hai. bhaarateeya sangeet ke itihaas ke mahaan sangeetakaaron jaise ki kaalidaas, taanasen, ameer khusaro aadi ne bhaarateeya sangeet ki unnati mein bahut yogadaan kiya hai jiski keerti ko pandit ravi shankar, bheemasen gurooraaj Joshi, pandit jasaraaj, prabha atre, sultaan Khan aadi jaise sangeet premiyon ne aaj ke yug mein bhi kaayam rakha hua hai.

bhaarateeya sangeet mein yeh maana gaya hai ki sangeet ke aadi prerak Shiv aur sarasvati hai. iska taatparya yahi jaan padta hai ki maanav itni uchch kala ko bina kisi daivi prerana ke, keval apne bal par, viksit naheen kar sakta.

anukram

sakshipt parichay

vaidik yug mein 'sangeet' samaaj mein sthaan bana chuka tha. sabse praacheen granth 'rigved' mein aaryo ke aamod-pramod ka mukhya saadhan sangeet ko bataaya gaya hai. anek vaadyon ka aavishkaar bhi rigved ke samay mein bataaya jaata hai. 'yajurved' mein sangeet ko anek logon ki aajeevika ka saadhan bataaya gaya, fir gaan pradhaan ved 'saamaved' aaya, jise sangeet ka mool granth maana gaya. 'saamaved' mein uchchaaran ki drushti se teen aur sangeet ki drushti se saat praakaar ke svaron ka ullekh hai. 'saamaved' ka gaan (saamagaan) mesopotaamiya, faildiya, akkad, sumer, baveru, asur, sur, yarushalam, Iran, arab, finishiya va mistr ke dhaarmik sangeet se paryaapt maatra mein milta-julata tha.

uttar vaidik kaal ke 'raamaayan' granth mein bheri, dundabhi, veena, mrudang va ghada aadi vaadya yantron va bhainvaron ke gaan ka varnan milta hai, to 'mahaabhaarat' mein Krishna ki baaainsuri ke jaadui prabhaav se sabhi prabhaavit hote hain. ajnyaaatavaas ke dauraan arjun ne uttara ko sangeet-nrutya sikhaane hetu bruhannala ka roop dhaaran kiya. pauraanik kaal ke 'taittireeya upanishd', 'aitareya upanishd', 'shatapath braahman' ke alaava 'yaajnyaavalkya-ratn pradeepika', 'pratibhaashyapradeep' aur 'naaradeeya shiksha' jaise granthon se bhi hamein us samay ke sangeet ka parichay milta hai. chauthi shataabdi mein bharat muni ne 'naatyashaastr' ke chh: adhyaayon mein sangeet par hi charcha ki. inmein vibhinn vaadyon ka varnan, unki utpatti, unhein bajaane ke tareekon, svar, chhand, laya va vibhinn kaalon ke baare mein vistaar se likha gaya hai. is granth mein bharat muni ne gaayakon aur vaadakon ke gunon aur doshon par bhi khulkar likha hai. baad mein chh: raag 'bhairav', 'hindol', 'kaishik', 'deepak', 'shreeraag' aur 'medh' prachaar mein aaye. paaainchaveen shataabdi ke aaspaas matang muni dvaara rachit mahattvapoorn granth 'vruhadadeshi' se pata chalta hai ki us samay tak log raagon ke baare mein jaanane lage the. logon dvaara gaaye-bajaaye jaane vaale raagon ko matang muni ne deshi raag kaha aur deshi raagon ke niyamon ko samajhaane hetu 'vruhaddeshi' granth ki rachana ki. matang hi pehle vyakti the jinhonne achhi tarah se soch-vichaar kar paaya ki chaar ya paaainch svaron se kam mein raag ban hi naheen sakta. paanini ke 'ashtaadhyaayi' mein bhi anek vaadyon jaise mrudang, jharjhar, hudk tatha gaayakon va nartakon sambandhi kai baaton ka ullekh hai. saataveen–aathaveen shataabdi mein 'naaradeeya shiksha' aur 'sangeet makarand' ki rachana hui. 'sangeet makarand' mein raag mein lagne vaale svaron ke anusaar unhein alag-alag vargon mein baaainta gaya hai aur raagon ko gaane-bajaane ke samay par bhi gambheerata se socha gaya hai.

gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein musalmaan apne saath faaras ka sangeet laae. unki aur hamaari sangeet paddhatiyon ke mel se bhaarateeya sangeet mein kaafi badlaav aaya. us daur ke raaja-mahaaraaja bhi sangeet-kala ke premi the aur doosare sangeetajnyaon ko aashray dekar unki kala ko nikhaarane-sainvaarane mein madad karte the. baadshah Akbar ke darbaar mein 36 sangeetajnya the. usi daur ke taanasen, baijoobaavara, raamadaas va taanarang khaaain ke naam aaj bhi charchit hain. jahaaaingeer ke darbaar mein khurramadaad, makkhoo, chhattar khaaain va vilaas khaaain naamak sangeetajnya the. kaha jaata hai ki shaahajahaaain to khud bhi achha gaate the aur gaayakon ko sone-chaaaindi ke sikkon se taulavaakar inaam diya karte the. mugalavansh ke ek aur baadshah muhammadashaah rangeele ka naam to kai puraane geeton mein aaj bhi milta hai. gvaaliyr ke raaja Mansingh bhi sangeet premi the. unke samay mein hi sangeet ki khaas shaili 'dhrupad' ka vikaas hua. 12veen shataabdi mein sangeetajnya jayadev ne 'geetagovind' naamak sanskrut granth likha, ise sakaaran 'ashtapadi' bhi kaha jaata hai. terahaveen shataabdi mein pandit shaarङagadev ne 'sangeetaratnaakar' ki rachana ki. is granth mein apne daur ke prachalit sangeet aur bharat va matang ke samay ke sangeet ka gahan adhyayan milta hai. saat adhyaayon mein rache hone ke kaaran is upayogi granth ko 'saptaadhyaayi' bhi kaha jaata hai. shaanragadev dvaara rachit 'sangeet ratnaakar' ke atirikt chaudahaveen shataabdi mein vidyaaranya dvaara 'sangeet saar', pandrahaveen shataabdi mein lochan kavi dvaara 'raag tarangini', solahaveen shataabdi mein pundareek vitthal dvaara 'sadraagachandrodaya', raamaamaatya dvaara 'svaramel kalaanidhi', satrahaveen shataabdi mein hrudayanaaraayan Dave dvaara 'hrudaya prakaash' va 'hrudaya kautukam', vyankatamakhi dvaara 'chaturdanrdiprakaashika', ahobal dvaara'sangeet paarijaat', Damodar pandit dvaara 'sangeet darpan,' bhaavabhatt dvaara 'anoop vilaas' va 'anoop sangeet ratnaakaar', somanaath' dvaara' ashtottarashatataal lakshanaam' aur athaarahaveen shataabdi mein shreenivaas pandit dvaara 'raag tatv vibodh:', tulajendr bhonsale dvaara 'sangeet saaraamrutan' va 'raag lakshaman' granthon ki rachana hui. svaami haridaas, vitthal, krushnadaas, tyaagaraaj, muththusvaami deekshitr aur shyaama shaastri jaise anek sant kavi–sangeetajnyaon ne bhi uttar aadi dakshin Bhaarat ke sangeet ko anginat rachanaaeain Dean. kaha ja sakta hai ki bhaarateeya sangeet shataabdiyon ke prayaas va prayog ka parinaam hai.

vaidik kaal ka sangeet

bhaarateeya sangeet ka aadi roop vedon mein milta hai. ved ke kaal ke vishay mein vidvaanon mein bahut matabhed hai, kintu usaka kaal isa se lagbhag 2000 varsh poorv tha - ispar praaya: sabhi vidvaan sahamat hai. isliye bhaarateeya sangeet ka itihaas kam se kam 4000 varsh praacheen hai.

vedon mein vaan, veena aur karkari ityaadi tantu vaadyon ka ullekh milta hai. avanaddh vaadyon mein dudunbhi, gargar ityaadi ka, ghanavaadyon mein aaghaat ya aaghaati aur sushir vaadyon mein baakur, naadi, toonav, shankh ityaadi ka ullekh hai. yajurved mein 30vein kaand ke 19vein aur 20vein mantra mein kai vaadya bajaanevaalon ka ullekh hai jisse prateet hota hai ki us samay tak kai prakaar ke vaadyavaadan ka vyavasaaya ho chala tha.

sansaar bhar mein sabse praacheen sangeet saamaved mein milta hai. us samay "svar" ko "yam" kehte the. saam ka sangeet se itna ghanishth sambandh tha ki saam ko svar ka paryaaya samajhne lag gaye the. haandogyopanishd mein yeh baat prashnottar ke roop mein spasht ki gayi hai. "ka saamno gatiriti? svar iti hovaach" (chha. u. 1. 8. 4). (prashn "saam ki gati kya hai?" uttar "svar". saam ka "sv" apanaapan "svar" hai. "tasya haitasya saamno ya: svan ved, bhavati haasya svan, tasya svar ev svam" (bru. u. 1. 3. 25) arthaat jo saam ke svar ko jaanta hai use "sv" praapt hota hai. saam ka "sv" svar hi hai.

vaidik kaal mein teen svaron ka gaan 'saamik' kahalaata tha. "saamik" shabd se hi jaan padta hai ki pehle "saam" teen svaron se hi gaaya jaata tha. ye svar "g re s" the. dheere-dheere gaan chaar, paaainch, chhah aur saat svaron ke hone lage. chhah aur saat svaron ke to bahut hi kam saam milte hain. adhik "saam" teen se paaainch svaron tak ke milte hain. saam ke yamon (svaron) ki jo sanjnyaaaeain hain unase unki praapti ke kram ka pata chalta hai. jaisa ham kah chuke hain, saamagaayakon ko spasht roop se pehle "g re s" in teen yamon (svaron) ki praapti hui. inka naam hua - pratham, dviteeya, truteeya. ye sab avarohi kram mein the. inke anantar ni ki praapti hui jiska naam chaturth hua. adhiktar saam inheen chaar svaron ke milte hain. in chaaron svaron ke naam sankhyaatmak shabdon mein hai. inke anantar jo svar mile unke naam varnanaatmak shabdon dvaara vyakt kiye gaye hain. isse is kalpana ki pushti hoti hai ki inki praapti baad mein hui. "gaandhaar" se ek ooainche svar "madhyam" ki bhi praapti hui jiska naam "krusht" (jor se uchchaarit) pada. nishaad se ek neeche ka svar jab praapt hua to usaka naam "mand" (gambhir) pada. jab isse bhi neeche ke ek aur svar ko praapti hui to usaka naam pada "atisvaar athva atisvaarya". iska arth hai svaran (dhvanan) karne ki antim seema.

sanbhaavya svaron ke niyat kram ka jo samooh hai vah sangeet mein "saam" kahalaata hai. Europeeya sangeet mein ise "skel" kehte hain.

ham dekh sakte hain ki dheere-dheere viksit hokar saam ka poorn gram is prakaar bana-

krusht, pratham, dviteeya, truteeya, mandr, atisvaarth

yeh ham pehle hi kah chuke hain ki saam ka gram avarohi kram ka tha. neeche ham saamagram aur unako aadhunik sanjnyaaaon ko ek saarani mein dete hain :

saam aadhunik
krusht madhyam (m)
pratham gaandhaar (g)
dviteeya rishabh (re)
truteeya shadj (s)
chaturth nishaad (ni)
mandr ghaivat (dh)
atisvaarya pancham (p)

saamagaan ke praaya: saat bhaag hote hain - hunkaar athva hinkaar, prastaav, aadi udgeeth, pratihaar, upadrav aur nidhan. iske mukhya gaayak ko udgaata kehte hain. udgaata ke do sahaayak gaayak hote hain jinko prastota aur pratihrta kehte hain. gaan ek hinkaar athva hunkaar se praarambh hota hai jiska uchchaar udgaata, prastota aur pratihrta ek saath karte hain. uske mukhya bhaag ko udgaath kehte hain. ise udgaata gaata hai. iske anantar ek bhaag hota hai jise pratihaar kehte hain. ise pratihrta gaata hai. iske anantar jo bhaag aata hai use upadrav kehte hain. ise udgaata gaata hai. nidhan ya antim bhaag ko udgaata, prastota aur pratihrta teenon ek saath milkar aate hain. ant mein sab ek saath milkar pranav arthaat omkaar ka sasvar uchchaaran karte hain.

saamagaan ki svaralipi

saamagaan ki apni vishisht svaralipi (noteshan) hai. logon mein ek bhraant dhaarana hai ki bhaarateeya sangeet mein svaralipi naheen thi aur yeh Europeeya sangeet ka paridaan hai. sabhi vedon ke sasvar paath ke liye udaatt, anudaatt aur svarit ke vishisht chihr hain kintu saamaved ke gaan ke liye rishiyon ne ek poori svaralipi taiyaar kar li thi. sansaar bhar mein yeh sabse puraani svaralipi taiyaar kar li thi. sansaar bhar mein yeh sabamein puraani svaralipi hai. sumer ke gaan ki bhi kuchh svaralipi yatratatr khudi hui milti hai. kintu usaka koi saahitya naheen milta. at: uske vishay mein vishisht roop se kuchh kaha naheen ja sakta. kintu saam ke saare mantra svaralipi mein likhe milte hain, isliye ve aaj bhi usi roop mein gaae ja sakte hain.

mahaakaavya kaal mein sangeet

vaalmeeki raamaayan mein bheri, dundubhi, mrudang, patah, ghat, panav, dindim, aadanvar, veena ityaadi vaadyon aur jaatigaayan ka ullekh milta hai. jaati raag ka aadiroop hai. mahaabhaarat mein sapt svaron aur gaandhaar gram ka ullekh aata hai. mahaajanak jaatak (lagbhag 200 E. poo.) mein chaar param mahaashabdon ka ullekh hai. inhein raaja upaadhi roop mein vidvaan ko pradaan karta tha.

puranaanooroo aur pattupaatatu (100-200 E.) naamak tamil granthon mein avanaddh (chamade se madhe hue) vaadyon ka bahut mahatva diya gaya hai. aise vaadya ka vishisht sthaan hota tha jise "murasukattil" kehte the. tamil ke paripaadal (100-200 E.) granth mein svaron aur saat paalai ka ullekh hai. "paalai" moorhana se milta hai. usamein "yaal" naamak tantri vaadya ka bhi ullekh hai. "yaal" ke ek prakaar mein ek sahasr tak taar hote the.

dakshin ke ek bauddh naatak silppadigaaran (300 E.) mein bhi kuchh sangeetavishyak baaton ka samaavesh hai. ismein veena, yaal, baaainsuri, patah ityaadi vaadyon ka jikr hai. us samay ke prachalit raagon ka bhi ismein ullekh hai. usi samay ke "tivaakaram" naamak ek jain kosh mein bhi sangeet ke vishay mein kuchh jaankaari di gayi hai. ismein sampoorn shaadav aur odav raagon ka ullekh tatha hai tatha shrutiyon aur saat svaron ka bhi varnan hai.

kaalidaas ke naatakon mein sangeet ki charcha itastat: I hai. maalavikaagnimitr mein to sangeet mein do shishyon k poori pratiyogita hi dikhlaai gayi hai.

bharatamuni ka naatyashaastr

bhaarateeya sangeet ka jo sabse praacheen granth milta hai vah hai bharat ka naatyashaastr. bharat ke kaal ke vishay mein vivaad hai. yeh ek sangrah granth hai. isliye iske kaal ka nirnaya karna aur kathin ho gaya hai. vidvaan laag iska kaal lagbhag E. poo. 500 se 400 E. tak maanate hain. naatyashaastr mein shruti, svar, gram, moorhana, jaati aur taal ka vishd vivechan kiya gaya hai. bharat ne shrutiyon ka vichaar svar ki sthaapana ke liye kiya hai. unhonne 4 shrutiyon ke antaraal par shadj rakha hai, uske anantar 3 shrutiyon ke antaraal par rishabh, 2 shrutiyon ke antaraal par gaandhaar, 4 shrutiyon ke antaraal par madhyam, fir 4 shrutiyon ke antaraal par pancham, 3 shrutiyon ke antaraal par dhaivat aur 2 shrutiyon ke antaraal par nipaad rakha hai. is prakaar shrutiyon ki kul sankhya 22 maani hai. bharat ne shadjagraam aur madhyamagraam aise do gram maane hain. oopar jo shrutiyon ka antaraal diya hai vah shadj gram ka hai. yeh gram shadj se praarambh hota hai. isliye iska shadjagraam naam pada. jo gram madhyam se praarambh hota hai usaka naam hai "madhyam gram". madhyam gram mein madhyam gram mein madhyam chatu:shruti, pancham trishruti, dhaivat chatushruti, nishaad dvishruti, shadj chatu:shruti, rishabh trishruti, evam gaandhaar dvishruti hota hai. gaandhaar gram bharat ko maanya naheen hai.

moorhana ka arth hai ubhar ya chamak. saat svaron ke kramayukt prayog ki sanjnyaa moorhana hai (kramayukta svara: sapt moorchhanaastvabhisanjnyaita: bharat, va.san.a. 28 pru. 435). bharat ne shadj aur madhyam donon graamon mein saat saat moorhanaaeain maani hain. moorhanaaeain "jaati" gaan ka aadhaar theen. vishisht svar vishesh prakaar ke sannivesh mein "jaati" kahalaate the. jismein grah, ansh, taar, mandr, nyaas, apanyaas, alpatv, bahutv, shaadavatv aur auduvatv ke niyamon dvaara svarasannivesh kiya jaata tha, vah "jaati" kahalaata tha. jaatigaan sangeet ki bahut viksit avastha ka soochak hai. bharat ke samay mein jaatigaan paripoorn avastha ka soochak hai. bharat ke samay mein jaatigaan paripoorn avastha par pahuaincha hua tha. jaati hi raag ki janani hai. bharat ne saat graamaraag bhi ginaae hain aur yeh batalaaya hai ki ve jaati se praadurbhoot hote hain.

naatyashaastr mein chachchatput, chaachaput athva chanchooput, shatapitaaputr athva panchapaani, sanpatkeshtak, udbaddh athva udghat taalon ka ullekh hai. ye kramash: 8, 6, 12, 12 aur 6 maatraaon ke taal the.

bharat ke anantar

Tamil Nadu ke kudumiymaalai sthaan mein ek utkeern lekh mila hai jo sambhavat: 7veen E. shati ka hai. ismein saat jaatiyon, saat svaron aur kuchh shrutiyon ka tatha antar gaandhaar aur kaakali nishaad ka ullekh hai. isse yeh siddh hota hai ki Bhaarat mein saataveen shati tak sangeet ki paryaapt unnati ho chuki thi aur uske mukhya vishay uttar se dakshin tak prasiddh aur graahya ho chuke the.

kuchh log naaradeeya shiksha ko bhi 7veen shati ke aaspaas ka granth maanate hain. is granth ke dekhne se to yahi pata chalta hai ki yeh bharat ke naatyashaastr se adhik praacheen hai. ismein shruti, svar, gram ka ullekh to hai hi, vaidik sangeet aur gaatraveena ka bhi vishd varnan hai. naatyashaastr mein vaidik sangeet ka varnan naheen hai.

bharat ke anantar matang ne sangeet par bahut prakaash daala hai. unka kaal lagbhag 850 E. hai. unki bruhaddeshi jaati aur raag, gaandharv aur deshi sangeet ke beech ki ek mahatvapoorn kadi hai. unhonne "dvaadashasvar moorchhana" paddhati chalaai, jiska lagbhag 200 varsh tak prabhutv raha. Abhinav gupt (lagbhag 1000 E.) ne apne granth Abhinav bhaarati mein dvaadash svar moorhanaavaad ka khandan kiya hai.

11veen shati mein mithila ke raaja naanyadev ne "sarasvati hrudayaalankaar" granth ki rachana ki. yeh bharat ke sangeet par ek vistrut aur saaragarbh bhaashya hai. is granth ke abhi tak thode se hi bhaag mile hain.

pashchimi chaalukyon ke vanshaj mahaaraaj someshvar sangeet ke prakaand vidvaan the. unhonne apne "abhilshitaarth chintaamani" ke chauthe prakaran mein ek hajaar ek sau solah shlok sangeet par likhe hain. bhinn prakaar ke prabandhon ka udaaharan is granth ki visheshata hai. inak raajyakaal 1127-1134 E. hai.

someshvar ke putr prataapachakravarti hue jinka doosra naam jagadekamall tha. inka raajyakaal 1134 se 1143 E. tak raha. inhonne "sangeet choodaamani" naamak granth ki rachana ki. yeh bahut praamaanik granth tha. ab yeh keval khandit roop mein milta hai. badoda oriental instityoot ne is khandit granth ko 1958 mein prakaashit kiya hai. ismein svar, prabandh, taal aur raag ke prakaran diye hue hain. taal ka varnan ismein bahut vistrut hai.

chaalukyavansheeya sauraashtranaresh mahaaraaj haripaal sangeet ke prasiddh vidvaan the. inka kaal 1175 E. hai. inhonne "sangeet sudhaakar" naamak granth ki rachana ki hai jo abhi tak aprakaashit hai. ismein lagbhag 70 raagon ka varnan hai. ismein nrutya, vaadya aur geet teenon ka pratipaadan hua hai.

somaraaj Dave ne 1180 mein "sangeetaratnaavali" ki rachana ki. inka doosra naam somabhoopaal tha. yeh samraat ajayapaal ke vetradhar the. inke granth mein svar, gram, prabandh, raag, taal, sabhi ka vishd varnan hai. inhonne ekatantri aur aalaapini veena ke bhi lakshan diye hain.

12veen shati E. mein jayadev ne "geetagovind" ki rachana ki. inka janm bolapur ke paas keindula gram mein hua tha. jayadev ne vibhinn raag aur taalon mein prabandh likhe hain. unhonne maalav, gurjari, vasant, raamakari, maalavagaud, karnaat, deshaakhya, desheevaraadi, gondakari, bhairavi, varaadi, vibhaas, ityaadi raagon aur roopak, yati, ekataal, ityaadi taalon ka prayog kiya hai. apne prabandhon ki unhonne svaralipi naheen di hai, at: yeh kehna kathin hai ki vah inhein kis prakaar gaate the. kintu itna spasht hai ki 12veen shati tak prabandh ki gaayanashaili khyaati praapt kar chuki thi aur kai raag aur taal lokapriya ho gaye the.

paalkuriki somanaath ne telagu mein 1270 E. mein "panditaaraadhyacharitm" naamak ek granth likha. ismein lagbhag 32 prakaar ki veenaaon ka ullekh hai aur mrundag mein samahast aur vaishalam ityaadi ki charcha hai. iske atirikt gamak, thaaya, nrutya ityaadi ka bhi ismein vistrut varnan hai.

bhaarateeya sangeet ka "naatyashaastr" ke annatar sabse prasiddh granth shaarङagadev ka "sangeetaratnaakar" hai. shaarङagadev ke poorvaj Kashmir se aae the aur dakshin ke yaadavavansh ke devagiri ke raaja ke yahaaain niyukt ho gaye. at: shaarङagadev ko uttar aur dakshin donon ki sangeetapaddhatiyon ke adhyayan ka suavasar praapt hua aur unhonne samast bhaarateeya sangeet ka vistrut shaastr "sangeetaratnaakar" mein diya hai. ismein shruti, svar, gram, jaati, raag, prabandh, nrutya, taal sabhi par prakaash daala gaya hai. ismein sandeh naheen ki yeh bhaarateeya sangeet ka aakar granth hai. iski rachana 13veen shati mein hui thi.

shaakanbhari ke raaja hammeer ne lagbhag 1300 E. mein "shrrungaarahaar" ki rachana ki. ismein bhaashaaraagon aur deshi raagon ka varnan hai. 120 taal aur ekatantri, nakula, kinnari aur aalaapini ityaadi veenaaon ki bhi charcha hai. jain aachaarya paarshvadev ne lagbhag 1300 mein "sangeet-samay-saar" ki rachana ki, jismein us samay ke sangeet ka bahut hi vishd varnan hai.


musalmaanon ke aagaman ke pashchaat

14veen aur 15veen shati mein uttari Bhaarat ke sangeet par musalmaanon ke prabhutv ke kaaran Irani sangeet ka prabhaav padne laga. sultaan alaauddeen (1295-1316 E.) ke darbaar mein ameer khusaron sangeet ke achhe jnyaaata the. unhonne kavvaali maan ka prachaar kiya. kaha jaata hai, sitaar vaadya ka bhi nirmaan inheen ne kiya. kintu "sahataar" vaadya Iran mein pehle se vartamaan tha. ho sakta hai, iska kuchh roopaantar karke unhonne ise Bhaarat mein protsaahan diya ho. kaha jaata hai, tabala bhi inheen ka nirmaan kiya hua hai. khyaal gaayaki ka bhi aarambh inhonne kiya. inhonne Irani dhunon ka mishran karke kuchh nae raag bhi banaae.

jaunapur ke sulataan ibraaheem sharki (1400-1440 E.) ke samay malik sulataan kada (prayaag ke sameep) ke adhipti the. inke putr bahaadur malik sangeet ke bahut premi the. inhonne praaya: sabhi sangeetagranthon ko ekatr kiya aur saare Bhaarat se sangeet ke vidvaanon ko aamantrit kiya. unako aadesh diya ki sab granthon ka adhyayan karke ek aise granth ki rachana karein jismein sangeet sambandhi matabhedon ka nirnaya ho. in panditon ne bahut kuchh vichaar vimarsh ke anantar ek granth ki rachana ki jiska naam unhonne "sangeetashiromani" rakha. bhaarateeya sangeet ke itihaas mein yeh pehla prayatn tha jab vividh maton par vichaar karke ek samanvayaatmak granth likha gaya. is drushti se yeh granth bahut hi mahatvapoorn hai. durbhaagyavash is granth ke is samay keval pratham aur chaturth adhyaaya hi praapya hai. yadi sapoorn granth mil jaae to bhaarateeya sangeet par bahut bada prakaash pad sakta hai.

mevaad ke mahaaraana Kumbh (1431-1469 E.) jaise veer the vaise hi sangeet ke bhi bahut prakhyaat vidvaan the. yeh bharat paddhati se poornataya parichit the. inhonne "geetagovind" par rasikpriya naam ki ek teeka likhi aur sangeet par "sangeetaraaj" naamak granth ki rachana ki. yeh granth 16 sahasr shloko mein poorn hua hai aur geet, vaadya, nrutya sabhi par ismein poorn prakaash daala gaya hai.

lochan kavi ne raagatarangini ka pranayan sambhavat: 15veen shati mein kiya. ismein raagon ka vargeekaran baarah thaathon mein kiya gaya hai. 15veen shati mein chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke prabhaav se Bengal mein bhaktisangeet ka adhik prachaar hua aur sankeertan bahut hi lokapriya ho gaya.

gvaaliyr ke raaja Mansingh tomar (15veen shati) ne dhruvapad shaili ke gaayan ka vikaas kiya. sambhavat: naayak baijoo inke darbaar mein the. inhonne hindi mein "maanakutoohal" naamak granth ki rachana ki. sangeet par hindi mein kadaachit yeh pehla granth hai. ismein us samay ke raagon par paryaapt prakaash daal gaya hai.

mugal baadashaahon mein Akbar (1556-1605 E.) ne sangeet ko sabse adhik protsaahan diya. is kaal mein vrundaavan mein svaami haridaas sangeet ke bahut hi prakhyaat aachaarya the. kaha jaata hai, taanasen ne sangeet mein shiksha pai thi. inhonne saikadon dhruvapad aur dhamaar ki rachana ki. sooradaas, nandadaas, kunbhanadaas, govindasvaami ityaadi vaishnav kaviyon ne "vishnupad" ki rachana ki jo mandiron mein gaae jaate the. ye chhand mein aabaddh the, kintu dhruvapad ki shaili mein gaae jaate the.

taanasen pehle reevaaain ke mahaaraaj raamachandr baghel ke darbaar mein the. Akbar ne unhein vahaaain se bulavaakar apna darabaari gaayak niyukt kiya. taanasen ki prachalit gaanapaddhati ka gyaan to tha hi, vah praacheen sangeet paddhati se bhi parichit the. inhonne darabaari kaanada, miyaaain ki todi, miyaaainpallaar ityaadi raagon ka nirmaan kiya. vah anupam gaayak the. unke vanshajon ne dhruvapad dhamaar ki gaayaki aur veena aur ravaav vaadan ko 20veen shati tak jeevit rakha.

16veen shati mein pundareek vitthal sangeetashaastr ke achhe vidvaan hue hain. vah karnaatak ke shivganga naamak gaaainv mein paida hue the kintu unka adhik samay beeta khaanadesh praant ke burahaanapur nagar mein. jab Akbar ne khaanadesh ko 1599 mein jeet liya to sambhavat: vah Delhi aae. vah uttar bhaarateeya aur karnaatak sangeet donon ke pandit the. unke lekh se aisa jaan padta hai ki burahaan khaaain ne unhein donon ke samanvaya ka aadesh diya tha. unhonne shadraagachandrodaya, raagamaala, raagamanjari aur nartananirnaya naam ke chaar granth likhe. unke granthon mein svayanbhoo svar ka ullekh milta hai.

karnaatak sangeet ke vidvaan raamaamaala ne 1550 E. ke lagbhag "svaramelakalaanidhi" ki rachana ki. unhonne 19 melon mein raagon ka vargeekaran kiya. unke granth mein bhi svayanbhoo svar ka ullekh milta hai.

1609 E. mein somanaath ne raagavibodh likha. yeh dakshin mein sambhavat: raajamundri ke paas ke rahanevaale the. inhonne rudraveena, shuddh aur madhyam mel veena ka vistrut varnan diya hai. inhonne janak aur janya ke aadhaar par raagon ka vargeekaran kiya hai.

tanjor ke raaja raghunaath ne apne mantri govind Dixit ki sahaayata se 1620 E. mein "sangeetasudha" ka pranayan kiya. unhonne pandrah mukhya melon aur pachaas mukhya raagon ka vistrut varnan kiya hai. unhonne 264 raagon ka saadhaaran parichay diya hai.

san 1630 E. mein vyankatamakhi ne "chaturdandeeprakaashika" likhi. yeh tanjor ke raaja raghunaath ke suputr vijyaraaghav ke aashray mein the. yeh govind Dixit ke suputr the. inhonne 72 melon mein raagon ka vargeekaran kiya hai aur shuddh tatha madhyamamel veena ka varnan kiya hai.

lagbhag san 1630 E. mein Damodar mishr ne "sangeetadarpan" likha jo us samay ke uttari bharat ke sangeet par achha prakaash daalata hai. inhonne geet, taal aur nrutt teenon ka vistrut varnan kiya hai.

17veen shati mein govind ne "sangrahachoodaamani" likha. ismein 72 melakarta aur veena ka vistrut varnan hai. govind dakshin ke nivaasi the. unhonne sambhavat: 1680 aur 1700 ke beech mein uparyukt granth likha.

17veen shati mein hi ahobal ne "sangeetapaarijaat" naamak granth likha. is granth ka mahatva yeh hai ki ismein veena ke taar ki lanbaai ke dvaara svaron ke antaraal samajhaae gaye hain.

18veen shati mein shreenivaas ne "raagatatvavibodh" likha. inhonne bhi veena ke taar dvaara shuddh aur vikrut svaron ke sthaan batalaae hain. 17veen-18veen shati ke beech bhaavabhatt ne anoopavilaas, anoop sangeetaratnaakar aur anoopaankush ki rachana ki. yeh Bikaner ke mahaaraaj anoopasinh (1674-1709 E.) ke darbaar ke pandit the. inke granth uttar Bhaarat ke sangeet par achha prakaash daalte hain. apne granth mein inhonne dhruvapad ka bhi ullekh kiya hai.

vaise to khyaal ki gaayaki ameer khusaro se praarambh ho gayi thi, kintu jaunapur ke sharki raajaaon ke samay mein yeh adhik panapi aur muhammad shaah (1719) ke samay mein pushpit hui. ine darbaar mein adaarang aur sadaarang do prasiddh beenakaar aur gaayak the. in logon ne sabse adhik khyaal gaayaki ko protsaahan diya aur saikadon khyaalon ki vibhinn raagon mein rachana ki.

18veen shati mein tanjor ke maraatha raaja tulaja ji ne "sangeetasaaraamrutam" ki rachana ki. yeh sangeet ke achhe vidvaan the. inhonne 21 mel maane hain.

1823 E. mein Patna ke muhammad raja ne "nagamaate asafi" ki rachana ki. inhonne mukhya samaanataaon ke aadhaar par raagon ka vargeekaran kiya hai aur bilaabal ko shuddh thaath maana hai.

Jaipur ke mahaaraaj prataapasinh (1779-1804 E.) ne desh bhar ke sangeet ke vidvaanon ko ekatr kiya. un sabke paraamarsh se "sangeetasaar" naamak granth racha gaya. ismein bhi bilaabal shuddh thaath maana gaya hai.

19veen shati mein dakshin mein tyaagaraaj ne bahut si krutiyon aur keertanon ki rachana ki. inhonne apni rachanaaon mein raagon ki svarasangatiyon ko bahut sundar reeti se granthit kiya hai. muttusvaami Dixit aur shyaam shaastri unke samakaaleen the. inhonne bhi bahut si sundar krutiyon aur keertanon ki rachana ki.

19veen shati ke antim bhaag mein Bengal ke raaja shaureendr mohan thaakur ne bhaarateeya sangeet ko bahut protsaahan diya aur "yoonivrsal histari aaf myoojik" naamak granth likha.

20veen shati mein pandit vishnu diganbar paluskar ne shaastreeya sangeet ke prachaar ke liye bahut prayatn kiya aur lagbhag 35-40 pustakon mein geeton ko svaralipi mein prakaashit kiya.

pandit vishnu Narayan bhaatakhande ne sangeetashaastr par "hindustaani sangeet paddhati" naamak granth chaar bhaagon mein prakaashit kiya aur dhruvapad, dhamaar, tatha khyaat ka sangrah karke "hindustaani sangeet krameek" naamak granth ke chhah bhaag prakaashit kiye.

tat vaadyon mein Bhaarat mein is samay mukhyat: veena, sitaar, isaraaj aur sarod tatha saarangi upayog mein aa rahe hain. sushir vaadyon mein baaainsuri, alagoja, shahanaai, toor ya turahi, singi (shrrungi) aur shankh, avanaddh ya aanaddh vaadyon mein mrudang (pakhaavaj), mardal (maadal ya maadilra) hudukk, dundubhi (nagaada), dholak ya dhol, damaroo, daf, khanjari, tatha dhan vaadyon mein kathataal, jhaaainjh aur manjeera prachalit hain.

aadhunik kaal

18 veen shataabdi mein gharaane ek prakaar se aupachaarik sangeet shiksha ke kendra the parantu british shaasanakaal ka aavirbhaav hone par gharaanon ki rooparekha kuchh shithil hone lagi kyonki paashchaatya sanskruti ke vyavasthaapak kala ki apeksha vaigyaanik pragati ko adhik maanyata dete the aur aadhyaatm ki apeksha is sanskruti mein bhautikvaad prabal tha.

bhaarateeya sanskruti ki aadhyaatmik prushthabhoomi ke antargat kala ko jo pavitrata evam aastha ka sthaan praapt tha tatha jise kuchh musalmaan shaasakon ne bhi prashraya diya aur sangeet ko manoranjan ka upakaran maanate hue bhi iske saadhana paksh ko vismrut na karte hue sangeetajnyaon tatha shaastrakaaron ko raajya athva riyaasaton ki or se sahaayata de kar sangeet ke vikaasaatmak paksh ko vismrut naheen kiya. parantu british raajya ke vyasthaapakon ne sangeet kala ke prati bhautikvaadi drushtikon apnaakar use yadyapi vyaktitv ke vikaas ka ang maana parantu yeh drushtikon aadhyaatmikta ke dharaatal par sthit na tha. unhonne anya vishyon ke samaan hi ek vishay ke roop mein hi ise sveekaar kiya, parantu vaigyaanik pragati ki prabhaavasheelata ke kaaran yeh vishay anya paathya vishyon ke beech lagbhag upekshit hi raha.

Bhaarat mein rachit sangeet granth

naatyashaastr bharat muni
bruhaddesheeya matang muni
naaradeeya shiksha
sangeet makarand
sarasvati hrudayaalankaar mithila ke raaja naanyadev 11veen shati
abhilshitaarth chintaamani someshvar 12veen shati
sangeetachoodaamani someshvar ke putr prataapachakravarti ya jagadekamall 12veen shati
sangeetasudhaakar chaalukyavansheeya sauraashtranaresh mahaaraaj haripaal 1175 E.
sangeetaratnaavali somaraaj Dave ya somabhoopaal 1180
geetagovind jayadev 12veen shati E.
panditaaraadhyacharitm paalkuriki somanaath telagu mein, 1270 E.
sangeetaratnaakar shaarङagadev 13veen shati
shrungaarahaar shaakanbhari ke raaja hammeer lagbhag 1300 E.
sangeet-samay-saar jain aachaarya paarshvadev lagbhag 1300
sangeetasaar vidyaaranya chaudahaveen shataabdi
raagatarangini lochan kavi pandrahaveen shataabdi
sangeetashiromani anek panditon ka yogadaan malik sulataan ke aahvaan par, pandrahaveen shataabdi
rasikpriya mevaad ke mahaaraana Kumbh geetagovind ki teeka, 1431-1469 E.
sangeetaraaj mahaaraana kumbh
maanakutoohal gvaaliyr ke raaja Mansingh tomar hindi mein, 15veen shati
shadraagachandrodaya pundareek vitthal solahaveen shataabdi
raagamaala pundareek vitthal
raagamanjari pundareek vitthal
nartananirnaya pundareek vitthal
svaramelakalaanidhi karnaatak sangeet ke vidvaan raamaamaala 1550 E.
svaramel kalaanidhi raamaamaatya solahaveen shataabdi
raagavibodh somanaath 1609 E.
sangeetasudha tanjor ke raaja raghunaath apne mantri govind Dixit ki sahaayata se 1620 E. mein
chaturdandeeprakaashika vyankatamakhi san 1630 E.
sangeetadarpan Damodar mishr lagbhag san 1630 E.
hrudaya prakaash hrudayanaaraayan Dave satrahaveen shataabdi
hrudaya kautukam hrudayanaaraayan Dave satrahaveen shataabdi
sangrahachoodaamani govind 1680-1700
sangeet paarijaat ahobal 17veen shati
sangeet darpan Damodar pandit
anoopavilaas bhaavabhatt
anoopasangeetaratnaakaar bhaavabhatt
anupaankush bhaavabhatt
sangeetasaar Jaipur ke mahaaraaj prataapasinh 1779-1804 E.
ashtottarashatataalalakshanaam somanaath
raagatatvavibodh shreenivaas 18veen shati
raagatatvavibodh: shreenivaas pandit athaarahaveen shataabdi
sangeetasaaraamrutam tanjor ke maraatha raaja tulajendr bhonsale 18veen shati
raagalakshaman tulajendr bhonsale
lakshyasangeetam‌ vishnu Narayan bhaatakhande sanskrut ; 1910, 1934
abhinvaraagamanjari vishnu Narayan bhaatakhande sanskrut ; 1910, 1934
hindustaani sangeet paddhati vishnu Narayan bhaatakhande maraathi mein
hindustaani sangeet krameek (chhah bhaagon mein) vishnu Narayan bhaatakhande
sangeet tattvadarshak vishnu diganbar paluskar 20veen shati

inhein bhi dekhein

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