bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki uddeshika

samvidhaan ke uddeshyon ko prakat karne hetu praaya: unase pehle ek uddeshika (Preamble) prastut ki jaati hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki uddeshika ameriki samvidhaan se prabhaavit tatha vishv mein sarvashreshth maani jaati hai. uddeshika samvidhaan ka saar maani jaati hai; uske lakshya prakat karti hai; samvidhaan ka darshan bhi iske maadhyam se prakat hota hai.

samvidhaan kin aadarshon, aakaakshaaon ko prakat karta hai, iska nirdhaaran bhi uddeshika se ho jaata hai. sarvochch nyaayaalaya ke mataanusaar uddeshika ka prayog samvidhaan nirmaataao ke mastishk me jhaankane aur unke uddeshya ko jaanane me prayog ki ja sakti hai. uddeshika yeh ghoshana karti hai ki samvidhaan apni shakti seedhe janta se praapt karta hai. isi kaaran yeh 'ham Bhaarat ke log' se praarambh hoti hai. kehar Singh banaam Bhaarat sangh ke vaad me kaha gaya ki samvidhaan sabha bhaarateeya janta ka seedha pratinidhitv nahi karti thi at: samvidhaan vidhi ki vishesh anukrupa praapt nahi kar sakta hai parantu nyaayaalaya ne ise khaarij karte hue samvidhaan ko sarvopari maana hai jis par koi prashn nahi uthaaya ja sakta hai.

anukram

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki uddeshika

ham, Bhaarat ke log, Bhaarat ko ek sampoorn prabhutvasanpann samaajavaadi panthanirpeksh lokatantraatmak ganaraajya[1] banaane ke liye, tatha uske samast naagrikon ko:
saamaajik, aarthik aur raajanaitik nyaaya, vichaar, abhivyakti, vishvaas, dharm aur upaasana ki svatantrata, pratishtha aur avsar ki samata, praapt karaane ke liye,
tatha un sabamein,
vyakti ki garima aur raashtra ki ekta aur akhandata[2] sunishchit karaane waali, bandhuta badhaane ke liye,
drudh sankalp hokar apni sanvidhaanasabha mein aaj taareekh 26 November 1949 isvi (miti maaghasheersh shukl saptami, samvat do hajaar chhah vikrami) ko etad dvaara is samvidhaan ko angeekrut, adhiniymit aur aatmaarpit karte hain.

uddeshika ki prakruti

  • (1) yeh samvidhaan ka mahatvapoorn ang nahi hai kyonki yeh raajya ke teenon ango ko koi shakti nahi deti hai. ve apni shaktiyaaain samvidhaan ke anya anuchhedon se praapt karti hai. isi prakaar yeh unki shakti par koi rok bhi nahi lagaati hai.
  • (2) samvidhaan ke kisi bhaag par yeh koi vishesh bal naheen deti hai samvidhaan ke anuchhed tatha ismein sangharsh hone par anuchhed ko vareeyata milegi.
  • (3) nyaayaalaya mein is ke aadhaar par koi vaad naheen laaya ja sakta hai na hi ve ise laagoo kar sakte hai.
  • (4) is kaaran ise kai baar maatr shobhaatmak aabhooshan bhi kaha gaya hai. sarvochch nyaayaalaya bhi is ki seemit bhoomika maanata hai iska prayog samvidhaan mein vidhyamaan aspashtata door karne hetu kiya ja sakta hai.

uddeshika ke uddeshya

  • (1) yeh bataati hai ki samvidhaan janta ke liye hai tatha janta hi antim samprabhu hai.
  • (2) uddeshika logo ke lakshyon-aakaakshaon ko prakat karti hai.
  • (3) iska prayog kisi anuchhed mein vidyamaan aspashtata ko door karne mein ho sakta hai.
  • (4) yeh jaana ja sakta hai ki samvidhaan kis taareekh ko bana tatha laagoo hua tha.

uddeshika samvidhaan ke ek bhaag ke roop mein

paramparaagat mat -- uddeshika ko samvidhaan ka bhaag nahi maanata hai kyonki yadi ise vilopit bhi kar de to bhi samvidhaan apni vishesh stithi banaaye rakh sakta hai
ise pustak ke poorv parichay ki tarah samjha ja sakta hai yeh mat sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne berubaari union vaad 1960 mein prakat kiya tha

naveen mat-- ise samvidhaan ka ek bhaag bataata hai keshavaanand bhaarati banaam Kerala raajya 1973 mein diye nirnaya mein sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne ise samvidhaan ka bhaag bataaya hai. samvidhaan ka ek bhaag hone ke kaaran hi sansad ne ise 42vein samvidhaan sanshodhan se ise sashodhit kiya tha tatha samaajavaadi, panthanirpeksh shabd jod diye the. vartamaan mein naveen mat hi maanya hai .

uddeshika ke aadarsh

kam ya adhik maatra mein praapt kar liye gaye hain
apekshaaen (svatantrata, nyaaya, samaanata hai), lakshya hai jabki aadarsh (janataantrik, samaajavaadi) upaaya hain.

uddeshika ke shabdon ka vishleshan

samprabhu -- raajya ki sarvopari raajanaitik shakti hai ki ghoshana karti hai, raajya ki raajanaitik seemaaon ke bheetar iski satta sarvopari hai, tatha yeh kisi baahari shakti ki prabhuta sveekaar nahi karti hai.

samaajavaadi-- bhaarateeya samaajavaad anivaarya roop se janataantrik hona chaahiye. samaajavaadi lakshyon ki praapti janataantrik maadhyamon se honi chaahiye. yeh shabd Bhaarat ko ek janaklyaankaari raajya ke roop mein sthaapit kar deta hai.

panthanirpekshata-- iska arth laukikta ko aadhyaatimkata par vareeyata dena hai, dharm par aadhaarit bhedon ka sammaan karna, anya dharmon ke prati raajya dvaara tatasthata baratana hi dharm nirpekshata hai, aise raajya kisi ek dharm ko protsaahan na dekar vividh dharmo ke madhya sahishnuta tatha sahayog badhaane ka kaarya karein yeh ek kartavya hai jiske paalan se vibhinn dharmo ke beech sahastitv sveekaar kiya jaata hai. iska laabh yeh hai ki raajya kisi dharm ke adheen nahi hota hai jaise islaamik ganatantr Iran me islaam ganatantr se bhi adhik mahatvapoorn hai.
is prakaar ke raajya vidhi ke samaksh samata baratate hai tatha naagrikon ke madhya dhaarmik aadhaar par vibhed nahi baratate, unako samaan avsar bhi upalabdh karavaaya jaata hai
is prakaar ke raajya dharmavirodhi, athva adhaarmik na hokar dharmanirpeksh hote hain. ve apne naagrikon ko ichha anusaar dharm paalan ka adhikaar dete hain. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke anuchhed 25 se 28 is se samabandhit hai
panthanirpekshata koi udhaar liya gaya shabd naheen hai. bhaarateeya saahitya mein sarvadharm samabhaav ke aadarsh ke roop mein yeh maujood tha . yahaaain dharm par aadhaarit vibhed ka virodh kiya gaya hai na ki raajya ka dharm se sambandh ka

jantantra -- anuchhed 19 tatha anu 326 jantantra se sambandhit hai Bhaarat mai bahudaleeya lokatantr hai

ganatantr -- raajapramukh nirvaachit hoga na ki vanshaanugat

apekshaaeain

(1) nyaaya-- saamaajik aarthik tatha raajanaitik nyaaya ke ve prakaar hai jo samvidhaan mai bhaarateeya naagarikau ko dene ki vakaalat ki gayi hai,1 vyakti 1 vote raajanaitik nyaaya ki praapti hetu aavashyak hai[19,326], saamaajik nyaaya ki praapti hetu asprushyata ka unmoolan, upaadhi ka unmoolan kiya gaya hai,[anu 15,16,17,18], aarthik nyaaya hetu raajya hetu neeti nirdeshak tatvau praavadhaan rakha gaya hai

(2) svatantrata-- iska arth naagrik par baadhyakaari tatha baahari pratibandhon ka abhaav hai, ek naagarika dvaara doosare ke adhikaaron ka ullaghann karna nishedhit hai, naagrik svatantrata anuchhed 19 mein tatha dhaarmik svatantrata anu 25-28 mai varnit hai.

(3)samaanata-- star tatha avsaron ki samaanata sthaapit karna anu 15 se 18 mai varnit hai.

(4) bandhutv -- bhaarateeya naagrikon ke madhya bandhutv ki bhaavana sthaapit karna, kyauki is ke bina desh me ekta sthaapit nahi ki ja sakti hai

sandarbh

  1. samvidhaan (bayaaleesavaan sanshodhan) adhiniyam, 1976 ki dhaara-2 dvaara (3-1-1977 se) sampoorn prabhutv lokatantraatmak ganaraajya ke sthaan par pratisthaapit
  2. samvidhaan (bayaaleesavaan sanshodhan) adhiniyam, 1976 ki dhaara-2 dvaara (3-1-1977 se) "raashtra ki ekta" ke sthaan par pratisthaapit.

inhein bhi dekhein