bhaarateeya saahitya

bhaarateeya saahitya se taatparya san 1947 ke pehle tak bhaarateeya upamahaadveep evam tatpashchaat Bhaarat ganaraajya mein nirmit vaachik aur likhit saahitya se hota hai. duniya mein sabse puraana vaachik saahitya hamein aadivaasi bhaashaaon mein milta hai. is drushti se aadivaasi saahitya sabhi saahitya ka mool srot hai. bhaarateeya ganaraajya mein 22 aadhikaarik maanyata praapt bhaashaaeain hai. jinmein maatr 2 aadivaasi bhaashaaon - santhaali aur bodo - ko hi shaamil kiya gaya hai.

anukram

bhoomika

bhaaratavarsh anek bhaashaaon ka vishaal desh hai - uttar-pashchim mein punjabi, hindi aur urdoo; poorv mein udiya, Bengal mein asamiya; madhya-pashchim mein maraathi aur gujaraati aur dakshin mein tamil, telugu, kannad aur malayalam. inke atirikt katipya aur bhi bhaashaaen hain jinka saahityik evam bhaashaavaijnyaaanik mahattv kam naheen hai- jaise Kashmiri, dogari, sindhi, konkani, tooroo aadi. inmein se pratyek ka, visheshat: pehli baarah bhaashaaon mein se pratyek ka, apna saahitya hai jo praacheenata, vaividhya, gun aur parimaan- sabhi ki drushti se atyant samruddh hai. yadi aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke hi sampoorn vaaङamaya ka sanchayan kiya jaaye to vah Europe ke sankalit vaaङamaya se kisi bhi drushti se kam naheen hoga. vaidik sanskrut, sanskrut, paali, praakruton aur apabhranshon ka samaavesh kar lene par to usaka anant vistaar kalpana ki seema ko paar kar jaata hai- gyaan ka apaar bhandaar, hind mahaasaagar se bhi gahra, Bhaarat ke bhaugolik vistaar se bhi vyaapak, himaalaya ke shikharon se bhi ooaincha aur brahm ki kalpana se bhi adhik sookshm.

bhaarateeya saahitya ki moolabhoot ekta aur uske aadhaar-tatv

Bhaarat ki pratyek bhaasha ke saahitya ka apna svatantr aur prakhar vaishishtya hai jo apne pradesh ke vyaktitv se mudraankit hai. punjabi aur sindhi, idhar hindi aur urdoo ki pradesh-seemaaeain kitni mili hui hain ! kintu unke apne-apne saahitya ka vaishishtya kitna prakhar hai ! isi prakaar gujaraati aur maraathi ka jan-jeevan paraspar otaprot hai, kintu kya unke beech mein kisi prakaar ki bhraanti sambhav hai ! dakshin ki bhaashaaon ka udgam ek hai : sabhi Dravid parivaar ki vibhootiyaaain hain, parantu kya kannad aur malayalam ya tamil aur telugu ke svaaroopya ke vishay mein shanka ho sakti hai ! yahi baat baingala, asamiya aur udiya ke vishay mein satya hai. baingaal ke gahre prabhaav ko pachaakar asamiya aur udiya apne svatantr astitv ko banaaye hue hain.

in sabhi saahityon mein apni-apni vishisht vibhootiyaaain hain. tamil ka sangam-saahitya, telagu ke dvi-arthi kaavya aur udaaharan tatha avadhaan-saahitya, malayalam ke sandesh-kaavya evam keer-geet (kalippaatu) tatha manipravaalam shaili, maraathi ke pavaade, gujaraati ke akhyaan aur faagu, baingala ka mangal kaavya, asamiya ke badgeet aur buranji saahitya, punjabi ke ramyaakhyaan tatha veeragati, urdoo ki gajal aur hindi ka reetikaavya tatha chhaayaavaad aadi apne-apne bhaasha–saahitya ke vaishishtya ke ujjval pramaan hain.

fir bhi kadaachit yeh paarthakya aatma ka naheen hai. jis prakaar anek dharmon, vichaar-dhaaraaon aur jeevan pranaaliyon ke rahate hue bhi bhaarateeya sanskruti ki ekta asandigdh hai, isi prakaar isi kaaran se anek bhaashaaon aur abhivyanjana-paddhatiyon ke rahate hue bhi bhaarateeya saahitya ki moolabhoot ekta ka anusandhaan bhi sahaj-sambhav hai. bhaarateeya saahitya ka praachurya aur vaividhya to apoorv hai hi, usaki yeh maulikta ekta aur bhi ramaneeya hai.

janmakaal

dakshin mein tamil aur udhar urdoo ko chhodkar Bhaarat ki lagbhag sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ka janm-kaal praay: samaan hi hai. telagoo-saahitya ke praacheenatam gyaat kavi hain nannaya, jinka samay hai isa ki gyaarahaveen sati. kannad ka pratham upalabdh granth hai 'kaviraajamaarg', jiske lekhak hain raashkroot-vansh ke naresh nrupatung (814-877 E.); aur malayalam ki sarvapratham kruti hain 'raamacharitm' jiske vishay mein rachanaakaal aur bhaasha-svaroop aadi ki anek samasyaaeain aur jo anumaanat: terahaveen shati ki rachana hai. gujaraati tatha maraathi ka aavirbhaav-kaal lagbhag ek hi hai. gujaraati ka aadi-granth san 1185 E. mein rachit shaalibhdr bhaarateshvar ka 'baahu-baliraas' hai aur maraathi ke aadim saahitya ka aavirbhaav baarahaveen shati mein hua tha. yahi baat poorv ki bhaashaaon mein satya hai. baingala ki charya-geeton ki rachana shaayad dasveen aur baarahaveen shataabdi ke beech kisi samay hui hogi; asamiya-saahitya ke sabse praacheen udaaharan praay: terahaveen shataabdi ke ant ke hain jinmein sarvashreshth hain hem sarasvati ki rachanaaeain 'prahlaadacharitr' tatha 'harigaureesanvaad'. udiya bhaasha mein bhi terahaveen shataabdi mein nishchit roop se vyangyaatmak kaavya aur lokageeton ke darshan hone lagte hain.

udhar chaudahaveen shati mein to udiya ke vyaas saaralaadaas ka aavirbhaav ho hi jaata hai. isi prakaar punjabi aur hindi mein gyaarahaveen shati se vyasthit saahitya upalabdh hone lagta hai. keval do bhaashaaeain aisi hain jinka janmakaal bhinn hai—atamil, jo sanskrut ke samaan praacheen hai (yadyapi tamil-bhaashi usaka udgam aur bhi pehle maanate hain) aur urdoo, jiska vaastavik aarambh pandrahaveen shati se poorv naheen maana ja sakta. haalaaainki kuchh vidvaan urdoo ka bhi udbhav 13-14 veen shati ke Baba freed, abdulla hameed naagori tatha ameer khusaro ki rachanaaon se maanane lage hain.

vikaas ke charan

janmakaal ke atirikt aadhunik bhaarateeya saahityon ke vikaas ke charan bhi praay: samaan hi hain. praay: sabhi ka aadikaal pandrahaveen shati tak chalta hai. poorvamadhyakaal ki samaapti mugal-vaibhav ke ant arthaat shati ke madhya mein tatha satrahaveen shati ke madhya mein tatha uttar madhyaakaal ki angreji satta ki sthaapana ke saath hoti hai aur tabhi se aadhunik yug ka aarambh ho jaata hai. is prakaar bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke adhikaansh saahityon ka vikaas-kram lagbhag ek-sa hi hai; sabhi praay: samakaaleen chaar charanon mein vibhkt hain. is samaanaantar vikaas-kram ka aadhaar atyant spasht hai aur vah hai Bhaarat ke raajaneetik evam saanskrutik jeevan ka vikaas-kram.

samaan raajaneetik aadhaarabhoomi

beech-beech mein vyavadhaan hone par bhi bhaaratavarsh mein shataabdiyon tak samaan raajaneetik vyavastha rahi hai. mugal-shaasan mein to lagbhag dedh sau varshon tak uttar-dakshin aur poorv-pashchim mein ghanishth sampark bana raha. mugalon ki satta khandit ho jaane ke baad bhi yeh sampark toota naheen. mugal-shaasan ke pehle bhi raajya-vistaar ke prayatn hote rahe the. raajapooton mein koi ek chhatr Bhaarat-samraat to naheen hua, kintu unke raajavansh bhaaratavarsh ke anek bhaagon mein shaasan kar rahe the. shaasan bhinn-bhinn hone par bhi unki saamanteeya shaasan-pranaali praay: ek-si thi. isi prakaar musalmaanon ki shaasan pranaali mein bhi spasht moolabhoot samaanata thi. baad mein aaingrejon ne to kendreeya shaasan-vyavastha kaayam kar is ekta ko aur bhi drudh kar diya. inheen sab kaaranon se Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaasha-bhaashi pradeshon ki raajaneetik paristhitiyon mein paryaapt saamya raha hai.

samaan saanskrutik aadhaarabhoomi

raajaneetik paristhitiyon ki apeksha saanskrutik paristhitiyon ka saamya aur bhi adhik raha hai. pichhle sahasraabd mein anek dhaarmik aur saanskrutik aandolan aise hue jinka prabhaav bhaaratavyaapi tha. bauddh-dharm ke hraas ke yug mein usaki kai shaakhaaon aur shaiv-shaakt dharmon ke sanyog se naath-sanpradaaya uth khada hua jo isa ke dviteeya sahasraabd ke aarambh mein uttar mein Tibet aadi tak, dakshin mein poorvi ghaat ke pradeshon mein, pashchim mein Maharashtra aadi mein aur poorv mein praay:sarvatr faila hua tha. yog ki pradhaanata hone par bhi in saadhuon ki saadhana mein, jinmein naath, siddh aur shaiv sabhi the, jeevan ke vichaar aur bhaav-paksh ki upeksha naheen thi aur inmein se anek saadhu aatmaabhivyakti evam siddhaant-pratipaadan donon ke liye kavi-karm mein pravrutt hote the. bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke vikaas ke pratham charan mein in sampradaayon ka prabhaav praay: vidyamaan tha. inke baad inke uttaraadhikaari sant-sampradaayon aur navaagat musalmaanon ke soofi-sant ka prasaar desh ke bhinn-bhinn bhaagon mein hone laga. sant-sanpradaaya vedaant darshan se prabhaavit the aur nirgun bhakti ki saadhana tatha prachaar karte the. soofi dharm mein bhi niraakaar brahm ki hi upaasana thi, kintu usaka maadhyam tha utkat premaanubhooti.

soofi-santo ka yadyapi uttar-pashchim mein adhik prabhutv tha, fir bhi dakshin ke Bijapur aur golakunda raajyon mein bhi inke anek kendra the aur vahaaain bhi anek prasiddh soofi sant hue. inke pashchaat vaishnav aandolan ka aarambh hua jo samast desh mein bade veg se vyaapt ho gaya. Ram aur Krishna ki bhakti ki anek madhur paddhatiyon ki desh-bhar mein prasaar huai aur samast bhaaratavarsh sagun ishvar ke leela-gaan se gunjaarit ho utha. udhar muslim sanskruti aur sabhyata ka prabhaav bhi nirantar badh raha tha. Irani sanskruti ke anek aakarshak tattv-jaise vaibhav-vilaas, alankaran sajja aadi bhaarateeya jeevan mein bade veg se ghul-mil rahe the aur ek nayi darabaari ya naagar sanskruti ka aavirbhav ho raha tha. raajaneetik aur aarthik prabhaav ke kaaran yeh sanskruti sheegra hi apna prasaadamaya prabhaav kho baithi aur jeevan ke utkarsh evam aanandamaya paksh ke sthaan par rugn vilaasita hai ismein rah gayi. tabhi pashchim ke vyaapaariyon ka aagaman hua jo apne saath paashchaatya-shiksha ka sanskaar laaye aur jinke peechhe-peechhe maseehi prachaarakon ke dal Bhaarat mein pravesh karne lage. unneesaveen shati mein angreji ko prabhutv saare desh mein sthaapit ho gaya aur shaasak varg sakriya roop se yojana banaakar apni shiksha, sanskruti aur unke maadhyam se pratyaksh ya paroksh roop mein apne dharm ka prasaar karne laga. praachya aur paashchaatya ke is sampark aur sangharsh se aadhunik Bhaarat ka janm hua.

samaan saahityaki aadhaarabhoomi

Bhaarat ki bhaashaaon ka parivaar yadyapi ek naheen hai, fir bhi unka saahityik aadhaarabhoomi ek hi hai. raamaayan, mahaabhaarat, puraan, Bhagwat, sanskrut ka abhijaatya saahitya - arthaat kaalidaas, bhavabhooti, baan, shreeharsh, amaruk aur jayadev aadi ki amar krutiyaaain, paali, praakrut tatha apabhransh mein likhit bauddh, jain tatha anya dharmon ka saahitya Bhaarat ki samast bhaashaaon ko uttaraadhikaar mein mila. shaastr ke antargat upanishd, shaddarshan, smrutiyaaain aadi aur udhar kaavyashaastr ke anek amar grantha—aanaatyashaastr, dhvanyaalok, kaavyaprakaash, saahityadarpan rasagaandhar aadi ki vichaar-vibhooti ka upayog bhi sabhi ne nirantar kiya hai. vaastav mein aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke ye Akshay prerana-srot hain jo praay: sabhi ko samaan roop se prabhaavit karte rahe hain. inka prabhaav nishchaya hi atyant samanvayakaari raha hai aur inse prerit saahitya mein ek prakaar ki moolabhoot samaanata svat: hi aa gayi hai.—ais prakaar samaan raajaneetik, saanskrutik aur saahityaki aadhaarabhoomi par pallavit-pushpit bhaarateeya saahitya mein janmajaat samaanata ek sahaj ghatna hai.

bhaarateeya saahitya - ek vihangam drushti

sabse puraana jeevit saahitya rigved hai jo sanskrut bhaasha mein likha gaya hai. sanskrut, paali, praakrut aur apabhransh aadi anek bhaashaaon se gujrate hue aaj ham bhaarateeya saahitya ke aadhunik yug tak pahunche hain. Bhaarat me 30 se bhi jyaada mukhya bhaashaaeain hain aur 100 se bhi adhik kshetreeya bhaashaaeain hai. lagbhag har bhaasha me saahitya ka prachur vikaas hua hai. bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke saahitya me likhit aur maukhik dono hi mahatvapoorn hain. praacheen bhaarateeya saahitya me hindu dhaarmik grantho ki aham bhoomeeka rahi. vedon ke saath-saath raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat jaise mahaagranth praacheen Bhaarat me rache gaye. anya praacheen grantho me vaastu shaastr, kautilya arth-shaastr, panchatantr, hitopadesh aadi pramukh hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

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