bhaarateeya lipiyaaain

Bhaarat mein bahut si bhaashaaen to hain hi, unke likhne ke liye bhi alag-alag lipiyaaain prayog ki jaateen hain. kintu in sabhi lipiyon mein bahut hi saamya hai. ye sabhi varnamaalaaeain ek atyant tarkapoorn dhvanyaatmak kram (phonetic order) mein vyavasthit hain. yeh kram itna tarkapoorn hai ki antararaashtreeya dhvanyaatmak sangh (IPA) ne antararaashtreeya dhvanyaatmak lipi ke nirmaan ke liye maamooli parivrtanon ke saath isi kram ko angeekaar kar liya.

anukram

Bhaarat mein lipi ka udbhav aur vikaas

praacheen Bhaarat ki do lipiyon mein "kharoshthi" daaeain se baaeain likhi jaati thi aur braahmi baaeain se daaeain. praaya: yahaaain ke pashchimottar seemaapradeshon (Punjab, Kashmir) mein hi praacheen kaal mein kharoshthi ka prachaar tha. doosari lipi "braahmi" ka kshetr atyant vyaapak tha. bhaarateeyon ki paramparaagat maanyata ke anusaar sanskrut bhaasha (braahmi ya bhaarati) aur braahmeelipi ka pravartan srushtikrta "brahma" dvaara aaranbhik yug mein hua. kadaachit is kalpana ya maanyata ka aadhaar "braahmi" naam hai. "braahmi tu bhaarateeya bhaasha geervaagvaani sarasvati" dvaara "amarakosh" ne "braahmi" pad ke arthabodh ki vyaapak drushti ka sanket kiya hai. yeh shabd "sarasvati" ka bhi aur "bhaasha" (mukhyat: sanskrut bhaasha) ka bhi abhidhaan hai. par in pauraanik aur paramparaagat siddhaanton mein poorv aur pashchim ke aadhunik itihaasavetta aastha naheen rakhate.

"ved" ya "vaidik vaaङamaya" ke liye prachalit "shruti" shabd ke aadhaar par anek paashchaatya panditon ne siddhaant nikaala hai ki "dashopanishtkaal" tak nishchaya hi Bhaarat mein lekhanavidya ya lipikla ka abhaav tha. vaidik vaaङamaya ka adhyaapan guru shishya ki mukh parampara aur sravan parampara se hota tha. lipi ka abhaav hi usaka mukhya kaaran tha. "paanini" ko E.poo. chaturth shataabdi ka maananevaale "maiksamoolar" ke mat se us samay tak lipi ka abhaav tha. "barnel" ke anusaar (ashok) lipi ka udbhav fineeshiyaavaasiyon se likhna seekhane ke baad unheen ki lipi se hua. Europe ki bhi praaya: adhikaansh lipiyaaain usi lipi se viksit maani gayi hain. Bhaarat mein iska pravesh E.poo. 500 se 400 tak ke beech hua. ukt mat se asahamati prakat karte hue "boolar" ka kehna hai ki Bhaarat mein praacheen lipi ka vikaas "saami" (semitik) lipi se hua hai, jiske aksharon ka pravesh E.poo. 800 ke aas paas (sambhavat:) hua tha. E.poo. 500 ke lagbhag athva usase bhi poorv bhaarateeyon dvaara braahmi ke vikaas aur nirmaan ka kaarya bade shram se sampann ho gaya tha. "boolar" ne lipi-vidya-sambandhi granth mein kaha hai ki kuchh navyatam pramaanon ke aadhaar par Bhaarat mein lipi ke pravesh ka samay E.poo. 10veen shati ya usase bhi poorv sthir kiya ja sakta hai.

ashok ke shilaastanbh abhilekhon se spasht hai ki E.poo. chaturth shataabdi tak lipikla Bhaarat mein kaafi viksit ho chuki thi. pipraava, badali, sohagaura, mahasthaan aadi mein upalabdh ashokapoorvayugeen laghu lekhon ke aadhaar par Bhaarat mein lipiprayog ka kaarya E.poo. 5veen shati ke poovaardh tak chala jaata hai. praacheen yoonaani yaatri lekhakon ke anusaar kaagaj ki aur E.poo. chaturth shati mein Bhaarat ko lekhan kala ki achhi jaankaari thi. bauddh vaaङamaya ke aadhaar par E.poo. 400 ya uske bhi pehle E.poo. chhatheen shati tak us jaankaari ki baat pramaanit hai. swayam "paanini" ke dhaatupaath mein 'lipi' aur 'libi' dhaatu hain. dau॰ gaureeshankar heeraachand ojha ne anek shaastreeya granthon ke aadhaar par siddh kiya hai ki "paanini" aur "yaask" se bhi anek shataabdi poorv Bhaarat mein anek likhit granth the aur lekhan kala ka prayog bhi hota tha. boolar, "bautalik" aur "rauth" ne bhi pratyaksh athva paroksh roop se Bhaarat mein lipikla ki praacheenata sveekaar ki hai. kolabruk kaningham, gaureeshankar heeraachand ojha aadi bhi Bhaarat mein lekhanakala ka vyavahaar "buddh se anek shataabdi poorv" maanate hain.

braahmi ki utpatti

braahmi ki utpatti ko vidvaanon ka ek varg abhaarateeya maanata hai. doosra varg bhaarateeya.

  • (1) dike aseereeyaai keelaaksharon se sanbanddh "saami" se,
  • (2) "kuperi" cheeni lipi se,
  • (3) dau॰ saaha aadi "arabi lipi" se
  • (4) "senaart", "Wilson" aadi greek lipi se,
  • (5) boolar, bevarar, Taylor aadi vyaapaariyon dvaara unki "mesopotaamiya" aur "aaramayik" lipiyon se iska sambandh bataate hain. greek ka bhi isi se sambandh hai. at: William aur bevar ke mat bhi isi paksh ke poshak hain.

doosare varg ke log iska vikaas svatantr roop mein bhaarateeya seema ke bheetar hi maanate hain. idhar hadppa aur mohanajodado se upalabdh mudraaon ke lekhakhandon ke aadhaar par sindhughaati sabhyata ki lipi se "braahmi" ki utpatti bataate hain. kuchh saahasik vidvaanon ne sumeri, sindhughaati aur vaidik aarya- teenon sabhyataaon ko ek mool srot se viksit maankar kisi ek lipi se athva praacheenatam sumeri lipi se braahmi ke udbhav ka anumaan kiya hai. par yeh mat abhi ganbheerat: vichaaraneeya hai. sindhughaati ki lipi braahmi aur kharoshthi donon se vichitr aur bhinn lagti hai. nishkarsh roop mein kaha ja sakta hai ki adhikaansh bhaarateeya panditon ke mataanusaar "devanaagari" ka vikaas us "braahmi" se hua hai jo E.poo. hajaaron varshon se Bhaarat mein prachalit thi aur jiska vikaas swayam Bhaarat mein aur bhaarateeyon dvaara hua tha.

bhaarateeya lipiyon ka saamya

  • lagbhag sabhi lipiyaaain braahmi lipi se vyutpann hain.
  • sabhi ke varnon ke naam, kram, uchchaaran aadi samaan hain.
  • sabhi dhvanyaatmak hain evam kavarg, chavarg aadi mein bante hain.
  • sabhi ke likhne mein maatra ka prayog hota hai.
  • sabamein sanyuktaaksharon ka prayog hota hai.
  • sabke varn roop mein kaafi milte hain.
  • sabamein svar, vyanjan, maatra ka kaansept hai.
  • sabamein varnon ki sankhya lagbhag samaan hai.

bhaarateeya lipiyon ki visheshata

varnaatmak chihnaavali

bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein sanganak par kaarya karne ke liye unki lipiyon ki buniyaadi samajh aavashyak hai. varnanmaala mein do prakaar ke varn hote hain - svar va vyanjan. vyanjan ve varn hain jinhein ek akeli ikaai ke roop mein bina svar ki sahaayata se uchchaarit naheen kiya ja sakta, jabki svaron ka uchchaaran svatantr roop se ya vyanjan ke saath jodkar kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye yadi ham `k' varn ka akele uchchaaran karein to usamein vyanjan dhvani `k' ke saath svar dhvani `a' avashya hogi. jabki svar dhvani `a' ka uchchaaran svatantr roop se kiya ja sakta hai. bolte samay ham vaakya ya shabd mein aanevaali dhvaniyon ko shrrunkhala roop mein uchchaarit karte hain. in uchcharit dhvaniyon ko yadi ham vyanjan va svar varnon ki sahaayata se kramabaddh tareeke se likhein to hindi shabd `kamala' kuchh isaprakaar se likha jaaega :

k + a + m + a + l + aa

yahaaain par, pratyek vyanjan evam svar ko alag alag likha gaya hai. is likhne ke tareeke mein visheshata yeh hai ki ismein varnaakshar vyanjan aur svar uchchaaran kram ke anusaar likhe gaye hai.

jab shabd mein uchchaarit dhvaniyon ko varnon dvaara uchchaaran kram mein likha jaata hai tab is paddhati ko varnaatmak chihnaavali (alphabetical notation) kehte hain.

varnaatmak chihnaavali samajhne mein saral hoti hai tatha bhaasha ko lipibddh karne ki disha mein ise pehla svaabhaavik kadam maana ja sakta hai. yeh tankan (typing) ke liye bhi upayukt hai. kintu iski kami yeh hai ki ismein likhna jyaada padta hai jiske kaaran samay aur kaagaj donon hi ka jyaada kharch hota hai. angreji ki roman lipi ek varnaatmak chihnaavali hai. angreji mein 'kamala' dhvanikram is prakaar likha jaaega :

k a m a l a

(angreji mein varn va dhvani mein abhed sambandh na hone se, jo kathinaaiyaaain aati hai, vah ek pruthak vishay hai. choonki usaka sambandh varnaatmak chihnaavali se naheen hai at: usapar ham yahaaain charcha naheen kareinge.)

aksharaatmak chihnaavali (syllabic notation)

varnaatmak chihnaavali ki uparokt kamiyon ko door karne ke liye bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein aksharaatmak chihnaavali (syllabic notation) ka vikaas kiya gaya hai. iske antargat pratyek svaraant syllable ke liye ek chinh ka upayog hota hai jise akshar kehte hain. svaraant syllable se arth hai shoonya, ek ya usase adhik vyanjanon ke baad svar se milkar banane wala varn-kram. udaaharan ke liye, nimnalikhit varn-kram svaraant-syllable hain:-

0 + a = a 
k + a = k
kh + y + a = khya

shabd ke ant mein, antim vyanjanon ke kram mein svar na hone par bhi use akshar ke roop mein likh sakte hain; udaaharanaarth hindi mein praay: shabd ke antim vyanjan ke svar ka uchchaaran naheen hota parantu likhit roop mein vahaaain poornaakshar ka prayog hota hai. jaise : kamal.

at:, akshar ek ya adhik varnon ko pradarshit karta hai.

akshar ki sanrachana mein ek aham baat yeh hai ki akshar ka aakaar vyanjan va svaron ki maatraaon ke aakaar se milkar banta hai (k+E=ki). at: inhein seekhana aasaan hai. (kuchh vishesh aksharon ko chhodkar, jaise 'ksh'). varnaatmak va aksharaatmak chihnaavali ke kuchh saral udaaharan hain:-

varnaatmak chihnaavali aksharaatmak chihnaavali
k + a = k
m + a = m

ismein mukhya baat yeh hai ki vyanjan ke saath `a' svar ko jod kar ek "saral" akshar bana diya gaya. udaaharanaarth : yahaaain `k' prateek hai ek saral akshar ka jo 'k' vyanjan va akaaraant svar ke milne se bana hai (k + a = k). is chihnaavali ke antargat vyanjanon mein svaron ke yojan ke liye maatraaon ka vikaas hua. yadi vyanjan ke baad `a' ke atirikt koi anya svar aata hai to akshar par ek chhota sa vishesh chinh laga diya jaata hai jo us svar ka dyotak hai. isi chinh ko us svar ki maatra kehte hain, jaise `u' ki maatra `u', `A' ki maatra `A', `i' ki maatra `i' ityaadi. jab vyanjan ke baad `a' svar aata hai to kisi bhi atirikt nishaan ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. udaaharanaarth,

varnaatmak chihnaavali aksharaatmak chihnaavali
 (maatra alag se pradarshit)
ki: k + E = k + E
ku: k + u = k + u
k: k + a = k
kai: k + a + E = k + E

uparokt mein `ki' va `kai' ke antar par gaur keejiye. `ki' mein `k' par `E' svar ki maatra hai jabki `kai' mein `k' aur `E' akshar kramabaddh roop mein hain. at:, maatraaon ko akshar par ankit kiya jaata hai chaahe akshar saral ho ya sanyukt. har maatra ko lagaane ke liye vishisht sthaan hain, jo ki akshar ke chaaron or hain. jaise:-

 3 (A, ai)
 |-------------|
 1 | akshar | 2
(i) | | (aa, E, O, au)
 |-------------|
 4 (u, oo)

akshar ke baayeeain or 'i' ki maatra aati hai, isi prakaar se 'A' va 'ai' maatraaeain oopar aati hain, 'u' va 'oo' neeche tatha anya daayeen or. yeh tareeka, hast-lekhan ke liye ati laabhaprad hai. parantu tankan ki drushti se kuchh kathinaaiyaaain aati hain, jinka ullekh ham baad mein kareinge. itna karne se likhna bahut saral va sankshipt (compact) ho jaata hai. haaain, seekhane ki drushti se thodi si mehnat jyaada hai, choonki ab maatraaon ko bhi seekhana padta hai.

(sanyuktaaksharon ke prayog se lipi aur adhik sankshipt ho jaati hai, parantu saath hi unako bhi alag chihnon ke roop mein seekhana padta hai. is par charcha baad mein.)

is aavishkaar ka ek parinaam yeh hai ki ek saral akshar mein 'a' ki anupasthiti pradarshit karne ke liye ek vishesh maatra lagaani padti hai, jise ham halant kehte hai. udaaharanaarth, `kya' shabd mein `k' akshar par halant lagaana padta hai:

varnaatmak chihnaavali aksharaatmak chihnaavali
 (maatra alag se pradarshit)
kya: k + y + aa = k +_ + ya + aa

sanyuktaakshar

doosari mukhya baat yeh hai ki jab kisi shabd mein vyanjan ek ke baad ek aate hain tab unhein ek saath jodkar likha jaata hai jise sanyuktaakshar bhi kehte hai. aage aanevaale svar ke anuroop maatra isi sanyuktaakshar par lagti hai. udaaharanaarth, `kya' shabd mein shuddh vyanjan `k' tatha akshar `ya' hai jinhein kram se jodkar `kya' sanyuktaakshar banaaya jaata hai. tatpashchaat saadhaaran niyam ke anusaar us par `aa' ki maatra lagaai jaati hai.

 varnaatmak chihnaavali aksharaatmak chihnaavali
 (sanyuktaakshar sahit)
kya: k + y + aa = ky + aa = kya + aa

aitihaasik drushti se is tarah ki yaugik (compositional) syllabic-chihnaavali, ek kraanti se kam naheen hai. yahi hamaari parichit aadhunik lipi hai.

sanyuktaakshar va maatraaeain

aksharaatmak chihnaavali mein maatra lagaane ka niyam saral va sanyukt donon hi prakaar ke aksharon par ek samaan laagoo hota hai. matlab yeh hai ki akshar chaahe saral (udaaharan ke liye `k') ho ya sanyukt (udaaharan ke liye `sm'), maatra oopar diye gaye niymaanusaar hi lagegi. yaani `i' ki maatra niymaanusaar baayeen or lagti hai to vah dono prakaar ke aksharon mein baayeen or hi lagegi, jaise:- k+i=k+i=ki. aur yahi niyam sanyuktaakshar par bhi laagoo hota hai, jis kaaranavash `i' ki maatra sanyuktaakshar ke baayeen or likhi jaaegi. neeche diye sanskrut shabd `tasmin' mein sanyuktaakshar `smi' par dhyaan deejiye:-

tasmin :
 = t + a + s + m + i + n (varnaatmak chihnaavali)
 = t + sm + i + n (aksharaatmak chihnaavali - maatra alag se)
 = t + smi + n (aksharaatmak chihnaavali)

'i' maatra 'm' ke baayeen or na hokar, sanyuktaakshar 'sm' ke baayeen or lagti hai, jo niymaanusaar hai. (is niyam ko theek se na samajhne ke kaaran kaheen kaheen par yeh padhane ko milta hai ki hamaari bhaashaaoain ki lipiyaaain niymaanusaar naheeain hain. yeh baat sahi naheen hai, tatha ajnyaaanataavash kahi jaati hai.)

maatraaeain lagaane ke niyam ke antargat pratyek akshar ko ek chihnaatmak ikaai ke roop mein liya jaata hai. akshar apne aap mein svar ke bina adhoora hai. saral akshar maatr ek svar ka (a), athva ek vyanjan + ek svar ka yog (k+a) hota hai aur sanyuktaakshar ek se adhik vyanjan va ek svar (s+m+a) ka yog hota hai.

------------------------------------------------------------
I. maatraaon ko lagaane ka niyam:-
 har maatra ko akshar par lagaane ka ek vishisht sthaan hota hai, jo akshar
ke ird-gird hota hai:- baayeain, daayeain, oopar, va neeche. yeh niyam sabhi aksharon
par laagoo hota hai, akshar saral hon ya sanyukt.
------------------------------------------------------------

maatraaon ko lagaane ke niyamon ke samaan hi vyanjanon ko jodkar sanyuktaakshar banaane ke liye bhi saral kintu vishesh niyam hain:- vyanjanon ko baayein se daayein, ya oopar se neeche ki or joda jaata hai. jismein kram mein pehla vyanjan baayeen or ya oopar ki or hota hai. baayein se daayein ke udaaharan ham dekh hi chuke hain jaise, 'kya','sm' ityaadi, oopar-neeche jodne ke udaaharan neeche diye hue hain:-

siddh:- s + i + d + dh + a = s + i + ddh
 = si + ddh
vitthal:- v + i + t + th + a + l + a = va + i + tth + l
 = vi + tth + l
dvaadash:- d + v + aa + d + a + sh + a = dva + the + sh
padmanaabh:- p + a + d + m + a + n + aa + bh + a = p + dm + na + bh

uparokt mein chooainki 'd' ke pashchaat 'dh' aata hai, at: 'the' oopar va 'dh' neeche likha jaata hai. (chhapaai mein kabhi kabhi 'dh', 'the' ke baayeen or prateet hota hai, isse bhram ho sakta hai ki bhaarateeya lipiyaaain niymaanusaar naheen hain. parantu yeh samajh mein aate hi ki akshar oopar se neeche nishchit niyam se likhe jaate hai, yeh bhram door ho jaata hai.)

sanyuktaakshar banaate samay, dviteeya vyanjan ke chinh ko daayeen or likha jaae ya neeche, yeh is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki un vyanjanon ka roop kaisa hai. roop ke anusaar hi unhein uchit tareeke se jodne mein aasaani hoti hai. yadi donon vyanjanon ke chihnon mein khadi-pai (aa) naheen hai to dviteeya ko pratham ke neeche likha jaata hai, jaise 'tth'. (yadi kisi faunt mein, oopar-neeche likhne ke seemit chinh hain, to unamein halant ki sahaayata li jaati hai.)

------------------------------------------------------------
II sanyuktaakshar banaane ka niyam:-
 do vyanjanon ko jodkar sanyuktaakshar banaane ka niyam hai:- baayein se
daayein, va oopar se neeche. kaunasa tareeka kaam mein liya jaaya, yeh vyanjanon ke
roop par nirbhar karta hai.
------------------------------------------------------------

'r' ke liye vishesh niyam

`r' ke saath kuchh vishesh niyam hai jo sankshiptata ki drushti se banaaye gaye hain. yeh niyam sanyuktaakshar ke kram mein `r' ke sthaan par nirbhar karte hain. agar `r' doosare sthaan par hai aur uske pehle koi vyanjan tatha baad mein svar hai to sanyuktaakshar banaate samay `r' ke liye pehle vyanjan ke neeche ek vishesh chinh laga diya jaata hai:-

truck: t + r + a + k + a = tr + k
prakaar: p + r + a + k + aa + r + a = pr + ka + r

isi prakaar yadi `r' ke baad vyanjan hai to us vyanjan ke oopar ek vishesh chinh laga diya jaata hai:

parv: p + a + r + v + a = p + rv

at: sanyuktaakshar mein `r' vyanjanakram mein pehle hone par oopar tatha baad mein hone par neeche aata hai.

anusvaar ka prayog

hamaari lipi mein ek aur tareeka hai sankshiptata se likhne ka:- yeh hai anusvaar ka prayog. pratyek vyanjan ke varg mein antim vyanjan ke liye, anusvaar (n) ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai, jaise:-

antim = antim

vyanjanon ki naasikyata (nasalization) ke liye anusvaar (n) ka prayog hota hai tatha svaron ki naasikyata ke liye anunaasik (ain) ka prayog hota hai. udaaharan ke liye:

h + aain + s + a = hains, aur
h + a + n + s + a = hans =hans

inmein chandrabindu (ain) to svaron ki naasikyata ko chihnit karta hai parantu bindu (n) ka ekamaatr uddeshya lipi mein sankshiptata laana hai.

anya baatein

yahaaain yeh kehna aavashyak hai ki bhaasha ki drushti se shuddh vyanjan va shuddh svar ke maadhyam se hi vishleshan karna sahi hai. ISCII maanakaanusaar computer mein aantarik taur par aksharaatmak chihnaavali mein hi lekh rakha jaata hai. usamein maatraaeain bhi shaamil hain. parantu bhaasha sansaadhan ke liye, unako hataakar shuddh vyanjan va svar mein aasaani se parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai.

anusvaar ki tarah ke niyam anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein bhi hain. ek si varnan vyavastha tatha aksharaatmak lipi hone se sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein ek samaanata hai. kisi ek bhaasha ki lipi ka kampyootareekaran hone par anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ka kampyootareekaran aasaan hai. jo takaneek ek par lagaai gayi ho, vah doosari bhaashaaon ke kampyootareekaran mein bhi kaam mein aa sakti hai. jaise jist praudyogiki computer par sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki lipiyon mein ek saath kaarya karti hai.

computer mein tankan (type) karne ke liye kunjeepatal (keyboard) ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jiska design hamaari uaingaliyon ke aakaar va haath ki lanbaai par nirbhar karta hai. at: kunjiyon ki banaavat va aakaar mein atyadhik parivartan nahi ho sakta. jyaada kunjiyaaain hone par kunjiyon ko dhoondhana va yaad rakhana kathin ho jaata hai. at: ek sanyuktaakshar ka ek hi kunji se tankan karna mushkil va alaabhaprad hai. computer ke aane se poorv bane masheeni taaiparaaitar par tankan karne mein anekon kathinaaiyaaain aati theen. pehli to yeh ki yadi ham chaahate hain ki type ki hui saamagri aksharaatmak-chihnaavali mein dikhe, to usi chihnaavali mein use type karna anivaarya hai. at: sanyuktaakshar sahit anekon chihnon ko kunjeepatal par yaad rakhana padta tha. doosra, chooainki maatraaeain akshar ke chaaron or aa sakti hain, at: aisi machine banaana to jatil kaarya tha hi, saath hi output sundar naheen dikhta tha. in sab ko dekhte hue computer praudyogiki mein yeh socha gaya ki agar ham tankan to varnaatmak chihnaavali mein kar sakein, par computer screen par parichit aksharaatmak chihnaavali deekh pade to achha hoga. isi ko aadhaar maankar is praudyogiki ka safal vikaas kiya gaya hai. ye sab kamiyaaain computer ke aagaman se saamaapt ho gayi hain. parantu yeh aavashyak hai ki ham varnaatmak va aksharaatmak chihnaavali mein paarasparik sambandh ko samajhein.

man mein yeh prashn bhi uth sakta hai ki tankan ke liye yadi varnaatmak lipi ko maan liya jaata to ye saari pareshaaniyaaain door ho jaateen. parantu chooainki hast- lekhan mein aksharaatmak lipi prachalit thi, at: varnaatmak lipi ka upayog karne ka socha naheen gaya. yeh ek udaaharan hai, jahaaain ek behtar vigyaan hone ke kaaran, praudyogiki ka upayog naheen kiya gaya kyonki vah abhi us star par naheen pahuainchi thi. shaayad isi kaaranavash chhaapaakhaane ka bhi prachalan utana naheen hua jitna hona chaahiye tha.

is praudyogiki ko upayog mein na laane se jo hamein haani hui vah sarv-vidit hai. shaayad yeh bhi ek kaaran tha ki Europe ham se vigyaan mein aage nikal gaya. in baaton ke baare mein ab keval anumaan hi lagaaya ja sakta hai, nishchit roop se kuchh kehna kathin hai.

ek aur pahaloo

prashn uth sakta hai ki yadi akshar shuddh vyanjan va svar ka yog hai to maatra kya hai? m + i = mi kyon hota hai `mi_' kyon naheen ? inka uttar ek ganiteeya sameekaran ke roop mein neeche diya ja raha hai.

maatra va svar mein ganiteeya sambandh

yahaaain maatra va svar chihnon ke sambandh ko ham ek ganiteeya sameekaran ke roop mein dekheinge.

svar ka apni maatraaon se sambandh

maatra sahit va maatra rahit chihnaavaliyon ke kai udaaharan ham dekh chuke hain. jaise:-

varnaatmak chihnaavali aksharaatmak chihnaavali
 (maatra alag se pradarshit)
k_ + i = k + i -- (1)
(1.baaen) (1.daaen)

hamein yeh bhi pata hai ki 'k' ko shuddh vyanjan va svar mein toda ja sakta hai:-

k = k + a -- (2)

uparokt 'k' ke moolya ko sameekaran (1) mein daahine or rakha ja sakta hai:-

k_ + i = k_ + a + i -- (3)
(1.baaen) ke samaan (2) tatha (1.daaen) ke sammishran se
[uparokt kuchh is prakaar hai jaisa ki nimnalikhit ganit ke udaaharan se
spasht ho jaaega:-
 8 + 3 = 9 + 2 -- (1')
 9 = 8 + 1 -- (2')

tatpashchaat, sameekaran (2') ke anusaar 9 ke moolya ko sameekaran (1') mein
rakhane se:-
 8 + 3 = 8 + 1 + 2 -- (3')
(1'.baaen) ke samaan (2') tatha (1'.daaen) ke sammishran se
 
donon or se yadi ham 8 ko ghata dein to paaenge:-
3 = 1 + 2.]

isi prakaar se, sameekaran (3) ke donon or se 'k' ko ghata sakte hain, theek vaise hi, jaise ganit ke (3') udaaharan me 8 ko ghata diya gaya hai. tatha donon or se `k' ko hataane par ham paate hai:-

i = a + i -- (a)

uparokt ek mahattvapoorn sameekaran hai, jo 'i' svar ka moolya apni maatra (i) ke roop mein deta hai. (isko nikaalne mein `k' ke sthaan par kisi bhi vyanjan ka prayog kiya ja sakta tha.)

maatra ka apne svar se sambandh

uparokt mein, 'i' svar ka moolya maatraaon mein likha gaya hai. ab ham maatra ke moolya ko svar mein pradarshit kareingein.

pehle dekhatein hain ganit ke sameekaran ko. sameekaran (1') ke baane hisse mein yadi ham shoonya jod dein to hamein milta hai:-

8 + 0 + 3 = 9 + 2 -- (4')

ab yadi 0 ke sthaan par rakhein:- 1 + (-1) to:-

 8 + [1 + (-1)] + 3 = 9 + 2
ya, (8+1) + (-1) + 3 = 9 + 2
ya, 9 + (-1) + 3 = 9 + 2
ya, donon or se '9' ghataane par,
 (-1) + 3 = 2

isi prakaar se ab dekhte hain ki maatra ka apne svar se kya sambandh hai. iska pata lagaane ke liye hamein lipi ke shoonya ki aavashyakta hogi. ham jaante hain ki halant (_) 'a' ko ghataata hai, arthaat:-

a + _ = 0 (shoonya)

ab sameekaran (1) mein baayi or ke hisse mein `k' ke baad shoonya jodane se hamein milta hai:-

 k_ + 0 + i = k + i -- (4)
ya, k_ + (a + _) + i = k + i
ya, (k_ + a) + _ + i = k + i
ya, k + _ + i = k + i

donon or se 'k' ghataane par,

 _ + i = i

ya, ise aise bhi likh sakte hain:-

 i = _ + i -- (aa)

yeh sameekaran pradarshit karta hai ki maatra `i' ka moolya hai halant jama 'i'. arthaat, 'i' mein halant nihit hai tatha vah apne se poorv akshar mein se `a' ko ghataata hai.

anya maatraaen

oopar jo baat `i' ke liye kahi gayi hai, vaisi hi baat anya maatraaon ke liye bhi laagoo hoti hai. at: :-

u = _ + u
oo = _ + oo ityaadi.

nishkarsh

halant ek prakaar se ek rinaatmak (negative) vastu hai, theek vaise hi jaise ki rinaatmak sankhya (negative number). jis prakaar rinaatmak sankhya ko ek dhanaatmak sankhya mein jodane par dhanaatmak sankhya ka maan kam ho jaata hai, usi prakaar se halant ko apne se poorv akshar mein jodane par usamein se 'a' ghat jaata hai. halant ka prayog, bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki visheshata hai. halant ka aavishkaar Bhaarat mein hua, tatha kadaachit is prakaar ki avadhaarana anya kisi bhaasha mein naheen hai.

Bhaarat mein bhaasha par vishesh roop se kaarya hua hai, theek vaise hi jaise ki yoonaan (Greece) mein jyomiti par. Bhaarat ne vishv ko shoonya ki avadhaarana di, tatha is sabko dekhte hue lagta hai ki yeh aashcharya ki baat naheen hogi yadi Bhaarat mein shoonya ki avadhaarana bhaasha mein viksit hokar ganit mein gayi ho.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain