bhaarateeya kala

ajanta gufa mein chitrit bodhi
bhaarateeya kala ka ek namoona - baneethani ; kishnagadh, Jaipur, Rajasthan

kala, sanskruti ki vaahika hai. bhaarateeya sanskruti ke vividh aayaamon mein vyaapt maanaveeya evam rasaatmak tatv uske kala-roopon mein prakat hue hain. kala ka praan hai rasaatmakata. ras athva aanand athva aasvaadya hamein sthool se chetan satta tak ekaroop kar deta hai. maanaveeya sanbandhon aur sthitiyon ki vividh bhaavaleelaaon aur uske maadhyam se chetna ko kala ujaagaar karti hai. astu chetna ka mool 'ras' hai. vahi aasvaadya evam aanand hai, jise kala udghaatit karti hai. bhaarateeya kala jahaaain ek or vaigyaanik aur takaneeki aadhaar rakhati hai, vaheen doosari or bhaav evam ras ko sadaiv praanatatvan banaakar rakhati hai. bhaarateeya kala ko jaanane ke liye upaved, shaastr, puraan aur puraatattv aur praacheen saahitya ka sahaara lena padata hai.

anukram

bhaarateeya kala ki visheshataaeain

  • (1) praacheenata : bhaarateeya kala ka itihaas atyant praacheen hai. bhaarateeya chitrakaari ke praarambhik udaaharan praagaitihaasik kaal ke hain, jab maanav gufaaon ki deevaaron par chitrakaari kiya karta tha. bheemabetaka ki gufaaon mein ki gayi chitrakaari 5500 E.poo. se bhi jyaada puraani hai. 7veen shataabdi mein ajanta aur elora gufaaon ki chitrakaari bhaarateeya chitrakaari ka sarvottam udaaharan hain. praagatihaasik kaal mein bhaarateeyon ne jangali jaanvaron baarahasingha, bhaaloo, haathi aadi ke chitr banaana seekh liya tha.
  • (2) bhaarateeya kala 'sanskruti pradhaan' hone se 'dharmapradhaan' ho gayi hai. vaastav mein dharm hi bhaarateeya kala ka praan hai. bhaarateeya kala dhaarmik evam aadhyaatmik bhaavanaaon se sada anupraanit rahi hai. kintu bhaarateeya kalaakaaron ne pratyek yug mein 'dhaarmik krutiyon' ke saath-saath laukik evam dharmetar krutiyon ka bhi srujan kiya hai kyonki bhaarateeya saamaajik jeevan mein inhein bhi samaan roop se mahatva diya gaya tha. at: bhaarateeya kala ko 'saamaanya jeevan ki sachchi digdarshika' bhi kaha ja sakta hai. bhaarateeya chitrakaari mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ki bhaanti hi praacheenakaal se lekar aaj tak ek vishesh prakaar ki ekta ke darshan hote hain. praacheen va madhyakaal ke dauraan bhaarateeya chitrakaari mukhya roop se dhaarmik bhaavana se prerit thi, lekin aadhunik kaal tak aate-aate yeh kaafi had tak laukik jeevan ka nirupan karti hai. aaj bhaarateeya chitrakaari lokajeevan ke vishay uthaakar unhein moort kar rahi hai.
  • (3) anaamikta : praacheen shilpiyon aur sthaapatiyon ne apna naam aur parichay adhikaanshat: gupt rakha kyonki srujanakarta ke bajaay srujan ka mahatva diya jaata tha. is kaaran adhikaansh kalaakrutiyaaain 'anaam' hain.
  • (4) bhaarateeya kala shaashvat satya ka prateek hai kyonki 'satyan shivan sundaram' ki bhaavana se yukt hone ke kaaran usamein nitya naveenata dikhti hai- kshane kshane yad navataamupaiti tadev roopn ramaneeyataayaa: (jo kshan-kshan naveen hota rahe, yahi ramaneeyata hai.)
  • (5) parampara : bhaarateeya kala mein parampara ka sarvatr sammaan hua hai kintu kisi bhi kaal mein andhaanukaran ko prashraya naheen diya gaya.
  • (6) bhaarateeya kala mein vaahya saundarya ke saath-saath aantarik saundarya ke bhaav ki pradhaanata hai.
  • (7) prateekaatmakata : bhaarateeya kala ki anya visheshataaon mein prateekaatmakata ka bhi mahatvapoorn sthaan raha hai. kala ke maadhyam se sookshm dhaarmik evam daarshanik bhaavon ko 'sthoolaroop' pradaan karke janasaamaanya ke liye saras, saral aur sugraahya banaaya gaya hai.

sandarbh

  1. bhaarateeya sthaapatya evam kala (Google pustak, lekhak - udayanaaraayan upaadhyaaya, Gautam tivaari)

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