bhaarateeya darshan

tattvon ke anveshan ki pravrutti bhaaratavarsh mein us sudoor kaal se hai, jise ham 'vaidik yug' ke naam se pukaarate hain. rigved ke atyant praacheen yug se hi bhaarateeya vichaaron mein dvividh pravrutti aur dvividh lakshya ke darshan hamein hote hain. pratham pravrutti pratibha ya prajnyaaamoolak hai tatha dviteeya pravrutti tarkamoolak hai. prajnyaa ke bal se hi pehli pravrutti tattvon ke vivechan mein krutakaarya hoti hai aur doosari pravrutti tark ke sahaare tattvon ke sameekshan mein samarth hoti hai. angreji shabdon mein pehli ki ham 'intyooshanistik' kah sakte hain aur doosari ko raishanalistik. lakshya bhi aarambh se hi do prakaar ke the-dhan ka upaarjan tatha brahm ka saakshaatkaar.

prajnyaaamoolak aur tark-moolak pravruttiyon ke paraspar sammiln se aatma ke aupanishdishth tattvajnyaaan ka sfut aavirbhaav hua. upanishdon ke gyaan ka paryavasaan aatma aur paramaatma ke ekeekaran ko siddh karne vaale pratibhaamoolak vedaant mein hua.

bhaarateeya maneeshiyon ke urvar mastishk se jis karm, gyaan aur bhaktimya tripthaga ka pravaah udbhoot hua, usane door-door ke maanavon ke aadhyaatmik kalmash ko dhokar unheinne pavitra, nitya-shuddh-buddh aur sada svachh banaakar maanavata ke vikaas mein yogadaan diya hai. isi patitpaavani dhaara ko log darshan ke naam se pukaarate hain. anveshakon ka vichaar hai ki is shabd ka vartamaan arth mein sabse pehla prayog vaisheshik darshan mein hua.

anukram

'darshan' shabd ka arth

'darshan' shabd paanineeya vyaakaran ke anusaar 'drushir prekshane' dhaatu se lyut pratyaya karne se nishpann hota hai. ataev darshan shabd ka arth drushti ya dekhna, 'jiske dvaara dekha jaaya' ya 'jismein dekha jaaya' hoga. darshan shabd ka shabdaarth keval dekhna ya saamaanya dekhna hi naheen hai. iseeliye paanini ne dhaatvarth mein 'prekshan' shabd ka prayog kiya hai. prakrusht ikshan, jismein antashchakshuon dvaara dekhna ya manan karke sopapattik nishkarsh nikaalna hi darshan ka abhidheya hai. is prakaar ke prakrusht ikshan ke saadhan aur fal donon ka naam darshan hai. jahaaain par in siddhaanton ka sankalan ho, un granthon ka bhi naam darshan hi hoga, jaise-nyaaya darshan, vaisheshik darshan meemaansa darshan aadi-aadi.

darshan granthon ko darshanashaastr bhi kehte hain. yeh shaastr shabd 'shaasu anushishtau' se nishpann hone ke kaaran darshan ka anushaasan ya upadesh karne ke kaaran hi darshan-shaastr kahalaane ka adhikaari hai. darshan arthaat saakshaatkrut dharma rishiyon ke upadeshak granthon ka naam hi darshan shaastr hai.

bhaarateeya darshan ka pratipaadya vishay

darshanon ka upadesh vaiyaktik jeevan ke sammaarjan aur parishkaran ke liye hi adhik upayogi hai. aadhyaatmik pavitrata evam unnayan, bina darshanon ko hona durlabh hai. darshan-shaastr hi hamein pramaan aur tark ke sahaare andhakaar mein deepajyoti pradaan karke hamaara maarg-darshan karne mein samarth hota hai. geeta ke anusaar kin karm kimkarmeti kavayoऽpyatr mohita: (sansaar mein karaneeya kya hai aur akaraneeya kya hai ? is vishay mein vidvaan bhi achhi tarah naheen jaan paate.) param lakshya evam purushaarth ki praapti daarshanik gyaan se hi sambhav hai, anyatha naheen.

darshan dvaara vishyon ko ham sankshep mein do vargon mein rakh sakte hain. laukik aur alaukik athva bhautik aur aadhyaatmik. darshan ya to vistrut srushti prapanch ke vishay mein siddhaant ya aatma ke vishay mein hamse charcha karta hai. is prakaar darshan ke vishay jad aur chetan donon hi hain. praacheen rigvaidik kaal se hi darshanon ke mool tattvon ke vishay mein kuchh na kuchh sanket hamaare aarsh saahitya mein milte hain.

bhaarateeya darshan ki vikaas yaatra

vedon mein jo aadhaar tattv beej roop mein bikhre dikhaai padte the, ve braahmanon mein aakar kuchh ubhare; parantu vahaaain karmakaand ki lataaon ke prataanon mein fainsakar bahut adhik naheen badh paaye. aaranyakon mein ye ankurit hokar upanishdon mein khoob pallavit hue. darshanon ka vikaas jo hamein upanishdon mein hamein drushtigochar hota hai, aalochakon ne usaka shreeganesh lagbhag dau sau varsh isa poorv sthir kiya hai. mahaatma buddh se yeh praacheen hain. itna hi naheen vidvaanon ne saankhya, yog aur meemaansa ko bhi buddh se praacheen maana hai. sambhav hai ki ye darshan vartamaan roop mein us samay na hon, tathaapi ve kisi roop mein avashya vidyamaan the. vaisheshikdarshan bhi shaayad buddh se praacheen hi hai; kyonki jaisa aaj ke yug mein nyaaya aur vaisheshik samaan tantr samajhe jaate hain, usi prakaar pehle poorv meemaans aur vaisheshik samajhe jaate the. bauddhadarshan paddhati ka aavirbhaav isa se poorv do sau varsh maana jaata hai, parantu jain darshan, bauddh darshan se bhi praacheen thaharata hai. iski pushti mein yeh pramaan diya jaata hai ki praacheen jain darshanon mein na to buddh darshan aur na kisi hindu darshan ka hi khandan upalabdh hota hai. mahaaveer svaami, jo jain sampradaaya ke pravartak maane jaate hain, ve bhi buddh se praacheen the. ataev jain darshan ka buddh darshan se praacheen hona yuktiyukt anumaan hai.

bhaarateeya darshanon ka aitihaasik kram nishchit karna kathin hai. in sab bhinn-bhinn darshanon ka lagbhag saath hi saath samaan roop se praadurbhaav evam vikaas hua hai. idhar-udhar tatha beech mein bhi kai kadiyaaain chhinn-bhinn ho gayi hain. at: jo kuchh shesh hai, usi ka aadhaar lekar chalana hai. is kram mein shuddh aitihaasikta na hone par bhi kramik vikaas ki shrrunkhala aadi se ant tak chalti rahi hai. isliye praaya: vidvaanon ne isi kram ka anusaran kiya hai.

bhaarateeya darshan ka srot

bhaarateeya darshan ka aarambh vedon se hota hai. "ved" bhaarateeya dharm, darshan, sanskruti, saahitya aadi sabhi ke mool srot hain. aaj bhi dhaarmik aur saanskrutik krutyon ke avsar par ved-mantron ka gaayan hota hai. anek darshan-sanpradaaya vedon ko apna aadhaar aur pramaan maanate hain. aadhunik arth mein vedon ko ham darshan ke granth naheen kah sakte. ve praacheen bhaaratavaasiyon ke sangeetamaya kaavya ke sankalan hai. unamein us samay ke bhaarateeya jeevan ke anek vishyon ka samaavesh hai. vedon ke in geeton mein anek prakaar ke daarshanik vichaar bhi milte hain. chintan ke inheen beejon se uttarakaaleen darshanon ki vanaraajiyaaain viksit hui hain. adhikaansh bhaarateeya darshan vedon ko apna aadistrot maanate hain. ye "aastik darshan" kahalaate hain. prasiddh shaddarshan inheen ke antargat hain. jo darshanasanpradaaya apne ko vaidik parampara se svatantr maanate hain ve bhi kuchh seema tak vaidik vichaaradhaaraaon se prabhaavit hain.

vedon ka rachanaakaal bahut vivaadagrast hai. praaya: pashchimi vidvaanon ne rigved ka rachanaakaal 1500 E.poo. se lekar 2500 E.poo. tak maana hai. iske vipreet bhaarateeya vidvaan jyotish aadi ke pramaanon dvaara rigved ka samay 3000 E.poo. se lekar 75000 varsh E.poo. tak maanate hain. itihaas ki vidit gatiyon ke aadhaar par in praacheen rachanaaon ke samay ka anumaan karna kathin hai. praacheen kaal mein itne vishaal aur samruddh saahitya ke vikaas mein hajaaron varsh lage honge, ismein koi sandeh naheen. upalabdh vaidik saahitya sampoorn vaidik saahitya ka ek chhota sa ansh hai. praacheen yug mein rachit samast saahitya sankalit bhi naheen ho saka hoga aur sankalit saahitya ka bahut sa bhaag aakramanakaariyon ne nasht kar diya hoga. vaastavik vaidik saahitya ka vistaar itna adhik tha ki uske rachanaakaal ki kalpana karna kathin hai. nissandeh vah bahut praacheen raha hoga. vedon ke sambandh mein yeh spasht karna aavashyak hai ki Quraan aur baaibil ki bhaaainti "ved" kisi ek granth ka naam naheen hai aur na ve kisi ek manushya ki rachanaaeain hain. "ved" ek sampoorn saahitya hai jiski vishaal parampara hai aur jismein anek granth sammilit hain. dhaarmik parampara mein vedon ko nitya, apaurusheya aur ishvareeya maana jaata hai. aitihaasik drushtikon se ham unhein rishiyon ki rachana maan sakte hain. vedamantron ke rachanevaale rishi anek hain.

vaidik saahitya ka vikaas chaar charanon mein hua hai. ye sanhita, braahman, aaranyak aur upanishd kahalaate hain. mantron aur stutiyon ke sangrah ko "sanhita" kehte hain. rigved, yajurved, saamaved aur atharvaved mantron ki sanhitaaeain hi hain. inki bhi anek shaakhaaeain hain. in sanhitaaon ke mantra yagya ke avsar par devataaon ki stuti ke liye gaae jaate the. aaj bhi dhaarmik aur saanskrutik krutyon ke avsar par inka gaayan hota hai. in vedamantron mein Indra, agni, varun, soorya, som, usha aadi devataaon ki sangeetamaya stutiyaaain surakshit hain. yagya aur devopaasana hi vaidik dharm ka mool roop tha. vedon ki bhaavana uttarakaaleen darshanon ke samaan sanyaasapradhan naheen hai. vedamantron mein jeevan ke prati aastha tatha jeevan ka ullaas otaprot hai. jagat ki asatyata ka vedamantron mein aabhaas naheen hai. rigved mein laukik moolyon ka paryaapt maan hai. vaidik rishi devataaon se ann, dhan, santaan, svaasthya, deerghaayu, vijay aadi ki abhyarthana karte hain.

vedon ke mantra praacheen bhaarateeyon ke sangeetamaya lokakaavya ke uttam udaaharan hain. braahman, aaranyak aur upanishd granthon mein gadya ki pradhaanata hai, yadyapi unka yeh gadya bhi layayukt hai. braahman granthon mein yajnyaon ki vidhi, unke prayojan, fal aadi ka vivechan hai. aaranyakagranthon mein aadhyaatmikta ki or jhukaav dikhaai deta hai. jaisa ki is naam se hi vidit hota hai, ye vaanaprasthon ke upayog ke granth hain. upanishdon mein aadhyaatmik chintan ki pradhaanata hai. chaaron vedon ki mantrasanhitaaon ke braahman, aaranyak aur upanishd alag alag milte hain. shatapath, taandaya aadi braahman prasiddh aur mahatvapoorn hain. aitareya, taittireeya aadi ke naam se aaranyak aur upanishd donon milte hain. inke atirikt ish, ken, kath, prashn, mundak, maandookya aadi praacheen upanishd bhaarateeya chintan ke aadistrot hain.

upanishdon ka darshan aadhyaatmik hai. brahm ki saadhana hi upanishdon ka mukhya lakshya hai. brahm ko aatma bhi kehte hain. "aatma" vishyajagat, shareer, indriyon, man, buddhi aadi sabhi avagamya tatvon s pare ek anirvachaneeya aur ateendriya tatv hai, jo chitsvaroop, anant aur aanandamaya hai. sabhi parichhedon se pare hone ke kaaran vah anant hai. aparichhann aur ek hone ke kaaran aatma bhedamoolak jagat mein manushyon ke beech aantarik abhed aur advait ka aadhaar ban sakta hai. aatma hi manushya ka vaastavik svaroop hai. usaka saakshaatkaar karke manushya man ke samast bandhanon se mukt ho jaata hai. advaitabhaav ki poornata ke liye aatma athva brahm se jad jagat ki utpatti kaise hoti hai, iski vyaakhya ke liye maaya ki anirvachaneeya shakti ki kalpana ki gayi hai. kintu srushtivaad ki apeksha aatmik advaitabhaav upanishdon ke vedaant ka adhik mahatvapoorn paksh hai. yahi advaitabhaav bhaarateeya sanskruti mein otaprot hai. darshan ke kshetr mein upanishdon ka yeh brahmavaad aadi shankaraachaarya, raamaanujaachaarya aadi ke uttarakaaleen vedaant maton ka aadhaar bana. vedon ka antim bhaag hone ke kaaran upanishdon ko "vedaant" bhi kehte hain. upanishdon ka abhimt hi aage chalakar vedaant ka siddhaant aur sanpradaayon ka aadhaar ban gaya. upanishdon ki shaili saral aur gambhir hai. anubhav ke gambhir tatv atyant saral bhaasha mein upanishdon mein vyakt hue hain. unako samajhne ke liye anubhav ka prakaash apekshit hai. brahm ka anubhav hi upanishdon ka lakshya hai. vah apni saadhana se hi praapt hota hai. guru ka sampark usamein adhik sahaayak hota hai. tap, aachaar aadi saadhana ki bhoomika banaate hain. karm aatmik anubhav ka saadhak naheen hai. karm pradhaan vaidik dharm se upanishdon ka yeh matabhed hai. sanyaas, vairaagya, yog, tap, tyaag aadi ko upanishdon mein bahut mahatva diya gaya hai. inmein shraman parampara ke kathor sanyaasavaad ki prerana ka srot dikhaai deta hai. tapovaadi jain aur bauddh mat tatha geeta ka karmayog upanishdon ki aadhyaatmik bhoomi mein hi ankurit hue hain.

hindu darshan parampara

hindu dharm mein darshan atyant praacheen parampara rahi hai. vaidik darshanon mein shaddarshan adhik prasiddh aur praacheen hain. geeta ka karmavaad bhi inke samakaaleen hai. shadadarshanon ko 'aastik darshan' kaha jaata hai. ve ved ki satta ko maanate hain. hindu daarshanik parampara mein vibhinn prakaar ke aastik darshanon ke alaava aneeshvaravaadi aur bhautikvaadi daarshanik paramparaaeain bhi vidyamaan raheen hain.

chhah darshan

nyaaya darshan

maharshi Gautam rachit is darshan mein padaarthon ke tatvajnyaaan se moksh praapti ka varnan hai. padaarthon ke tatvajnyaaan se mithya gyaan ki nivrutti hoti hai. fir ashubh karmo mein pravrutt na hona, moh se mukti evam dukhon se nivrutti hoti hai. ismein paramaatma ko srushtikrta, niraakaar, sarvavyaapak aur jeevaatma ko shareer se alag evam prakruti ko achetan tatha srushti ka upaadaan kaaran maana gaya hai aur spasht roop se traitavaad ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. iske alaava ismein nyaaya ki paribhaasha ke anusaar nyaaya karne ki paddhati tatha usamein jaya-paraajaya ke kaaranon ka spasht nirdesh diya gaya hai.

vaisheshik darshan

maharshi kanaad rachit is darshan mein dharm ke sachche svaroop ka varnan kiya gaya hai. ismein saansaarik unnati tatha nishshreya siddhi ke saadhan ko dharm maana gaya hai. at: maanav ke kalyaan hetu dharm ka anushthaan karna paramaavashyak hota hai. is darshan mein dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya vishesh aur samavaaya in chh: padaathon ke saadhamrya tatha vaidhamrya ke tatvaadhaan se moksh praapti maani jaati hai. saadhamrya tatha vaidhamrya gyaan ki ek vishesh paddhati hai, jisko jaane bina bhraantiyon ka niraakaran karna sambhav naheen hai. iske anusaar chaar pair hone se gaaya-bhains ek naheen ho sakte. usi prakaar jeev aur brahm donon hi chetan hain. kintu is saadhamrya se donon ek naheen ho sakte. saath hi yeh darshan vedon ko, ishvarokt hone ko param pramaan maanata hai.

saankhya darshan

is darshan ke rachayita maharshi Kapil hain. ismein satkaaryavaad ke aadhaar par is srushti ka upaadaan kaaran prakruti ko maana gaya hai. iska pramukh siddhaant hai ki abhaav se bhaav ya asat se sat ki utpatti kadaapi sambhav naheen hai. sat kaaranon se hi sat kaaryo ki utpatti ho sakti hai. saankhya darshan prakruti se srushti rachana aur sanhaar ke kram ko vishesh roop se maanata hai. saath hi ismein prakruti ke param sookshm kaaran tatha uske sahit khb kaarya padaathon ka spasht varnan kiya gaya hai. purush khbh vaan tatv maana gaya hai, jo prakruti ka vikaar naheen hai. is prakaar prakruti samast kaarya padaatho ka kaaran to hai, parantu prakruti ka kaaran koi naheen hai, kyonki usaki shaashvat satta hai. purush chetan tatv hai, to prakruti achetan. purush prakruti ka bhokta hai, jabki prakruti swayam bhokti naheen hai.

yog darshan

is darshan ke rachayita maharshi patanjali hain. ismein ishvar, jeevaatma aur prakruti ka spasht roop se varnan kiya gaya hai. iske alaava yog kya hai, jeev ke bandhan ka kaaran kya hai? chitt ki vruttiyaan kaun si hain? iske niyantran ke kya upaaya hain ityaadi yaugik kriyaaon ka vistrut varnan kiya gaya hai. is siddhaant ke anusaar paramaatma ka dhyaan aantarik hota hai. jab tak hamaari indriyaan bahirgaami hain, tab tak dhyaan kadaapi sambhav naheen hai. iske anusaar paramaatma ke mukhya naam o3m ka jaap na karke anya naamon se paramaatma ki stuti aur upaasana apoorn hi hai.

meemaansa darshan

is darshan mein vaidik yajnyaon mein mantron ka viniyog tatha yajnyaon ki prakriyaaon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. is darshan ke rachayita maharshi jaimini hain. yadi yog darshan ant: karan shuçaaddh ka upaaya bataata hai, to meemaansa darshan maanav ke paarivaarik jeevan se raashtreeya jeevan tak ke kattaüaavyon aur akattaüaavyon ka varnan karta hai, jisse samast raashtra ki unnati ho sake. jis prakaar sampoorn karmakaand mantron ke viniyog par aadhaarit hain, usi prakaar meemaansa darshan bhi mantron ke viniyog aur uske vidhaan ka samarthan karta hai. dharm ke liye maharshi jaimini ne ved ko bhi param pramaan maana hai. unke anusaar yajnyaon mein mantron ke viniyog, shruti, vaakya, prakaran, sthaan evam samaakhya ko maulik aadhaar maana jaata hai.

vedaant darshan

vedaant ka arth hai vedon ka antim siddhaant. maharshi vyaas dvaara rachit brahmasootr is darshan ka mool granth hai. is darshan ko uttar meemaansa bhi kehte hain. is darshan ke anusaar brahm jagat ka karta-dharta va sanhaar karta hone se jagat ka nimitt kaaran hai. upaadaan athva abhinn kaaran naheen. brahm sarvajnya, sarvashaktimaan, aanandamaya, nitya, anaadi, anantaadi gun vishisht shaashvat satta hai. saath hi janm maran aadi kleshon se rahit aur niraakaar bhi hai. is darshan ke pratham sootr `athaato brahm jijnyaaasaa´ se hi spasht hota hai ki jise jaanane ki ichha hai, vah brahm se bhinn hai, anyatha swayam ko hi jaanane ki ichha kaise ho sakti hai. aur yeh sarvavidit hai ki jeevaatma hamesha se hi apne dukhon se mukti ka upaaya karti rahi hai. parantu brahm ka gun isse bhinn hai.

aage chalakar vedaant ke anekaanek sampradaaya (advait, dvait, dvaitaadvait, vishishtaadvait aadi) bane.

anya hindu darshan

shad darshanon ke alaava lokaayat tatha shaiv evam shaakt darshan bhi hindu darshan ke abhinn ang hain.

chaarvaak darshan

vedavirodhi hone ke kaaran naastik sanpradaayon mein chaarvaak mat ka bhi naam liya jaata hai. bhautikvaadi hone ke kaaran yeh aadar na pa saka. iska itihaas aur saahitya bhi upalabdh naheen hai. "bruhaspati sootr" ke naam se ek chaarvaak granth ke uddharan anya darshan granthon mein milte hain. chaarvaak mat ek prakaar ka yathaarthavaad aur bhautikvaad hai. iske anusaar keval pratyaksh hi pramaan hai. anumaan aur aagam sandigdh hote hain. pratyaksh par aashrit bhautik jagat hi satya hai. aatma, ishvar, svarg aadi sab kalpit hain. bhooton ke sanyog se deh mein chetna utpann hoti hai. deh ke saath maran mein usaka ant ho jaata hai. aatma nitya naheen hai. usaka punarjanm naheen hota. jeevanakaal mein yathaasanbhav sukh ki saadhana karna hi jeevan ka lakshya hona chaahiye.

shaiv aur shaakt sanpradaaya

avaidik darshanon ka vikaas

upanishdon ke adhyaatmavaad tatha tapovaad mein hi vaidik karmakaand ke viruddh ek prakat kraanti ka roop grahan kar liya. upanishd kaal mein ek or bauddh aur jain dharmon ki avaidik paranparaaon ka aavirbhaav hua tatha doosari or vaidik darshanon ka udaya hua. isa ke janm ke poorv aur baad ki ek do shataabdiyon mein anek darshanon ki samaanaantar dhaaraaeain bhaarateeya vichaarabhoomi par pravaahit hone lageen. bauddh aur jain darshanon ki dhaaraaeain bhi inmein sammilit hain.

jain dharm ka aarambh bauddh dharm se pehle hua. mahaaveer svaami ke poorv 23 jain teerthakar ho chuke the. mahaaveer svami ne jain dharm ka prachaar kiya. bauddh dharm ke pravartak Gautam buddh unke samakaaleen the. donon ka samay E.poo. chhathi shataabdi maana jaata hai. inhonne vedon se svatantr ek naveen dhaarmik parampara ka pravartan kiya. vedon ko na maanane ke kaaran jain aur bauddh darshanon ko "naastik darshan" bhi kehte hain. inka maulik saahitya kramash: mahaaveer aur buddh ke upadeshon ke roop me hai jo kramash: praakrut aur paali ki lokabhaashaaon mein milta hai tatha jiska sangrah in mahaapurushon ke nirvaan ke baad kai sangeetiyon mein unke anuyaayiyon ke paraamarsh ke dvaara hua. buddh aur mahaaveer donon himaalaya pradesh ke Rajkumar the. yuvaavaya mein hi sanyaas lekar unhone apne dharmo ka upadesh aur prachaar kiya. unka yeh sanyaas upanishdon ki parampara se prerit hai. jain aur bauddh dharmon mein tap aur tyaag ki mahima bhi upanishdon ke dasharn ke anukool hai. ahinsa aur aachaar ki mahatta tatha jaatibhed ka khandan in dharmon ki visheshata hai. ahinsa ke beej bhi upanishdon mein vidyamaan hain. fir bhi ahinsa ki dhvaja ko dharm ke aakaash mein faharaane ka shreya jain aur bauddh sanpradaayon ko dena hoga.

jain darshan

mahaaveer svaami ke upadeshon se lekar jain dharm ki parampara aaj tak chal rahi hai. mahaaveer svaami ke upadesh 41 sootron mein sankalit hain, jo jainaagamon mein milte hain. umaasvaati ka "tatvaarthaadhigm sootr" (300 E.) jain darshan ka praacheen aur praamaanik shaastr hai. siddhasen divaakar (500 E.), haribhdr (900 E.), merutung (14veen shataabdi), aadi jain darshan ke prasiddh aachaarya hain. siddhaant ki drushti se jain darshan ek or adhyaatmavaadi tatha dasari or bhautikvaadi hai. vah aatma aur pudgal (bhautik tatv) donon ko maanata hai. jain mat mein aatma prakaash ke samaan vyaapak aur vistaarasheel hai. punarjanm mein naveen shareer ke anusaar aatma ka sankoch aur vistaar hota hai. svaroop se vah chaitanya svaroop aur aanandamaya hai. vah man aur indriyon ke maadhyam ke bina paroksh vishyon ke gyaan mein samarth hai. is alaukik gyaan ke teen roop hain - avadhijnyaaan, man:paryaaya aur kevalajnyaaan. poorn gyaan ko kevalajnyaaan kehte hain. yeh nirvaan ki avastha mein praapt haata hai. yeh sab prakaar se vastuon ke samast dharmon ka gyaan hai. yahi gyaan "pramaan" hai. kisi apeksha se vastu ke ek dharm ka gyaan "naya" kahalaata hai. "naya" kai prakaar ke hote hain. gyaan ki saapekshata jain darshan ka siddhaant hai. yeh saapekshata maanaveeya vichaaron mein udaarata aur sahishnuta ko sambhav banaati hai. sabhi vichaar aur vishvaas aanshik satya ke adhikaari ban jaate hain. poorn satya ka aagrah anuchit hai. vah nirvaan mein hi praapt ho sakta hai. nirvaan atma ka kaivalya hai. karm ke prabhaav se pudgal ki gati aatma ke prakaash ko aachhaadit karti hai. yeh "aasrav" kahalaata hai. yahi aatma ka bandhan hai. tap, tyaag aur sadaachaar se is gati ka avarodh "sanvar" tatha sanchit karmapudgal ka kshaya "nirjara" kahalaata hai. iska ant "nirvaan" mein hota hai. nirvaan mein aatma ka anant gyaan aur anant aanand prakaashit hota hai.

bauddh darshan

buddh ke upadesh teen pitkon mein sankalit hain. ye sutt pitk, vinaya pitk aur abhidhmm pitk kahalaate hain. ye pitk bauddh dharm ke aagam hain. kriyaasheel satya ki dhaarana bauddh mat ki maulik visheshata hai. upanishdon ka brahm achal aur aparivrtanasheel hai. buddh ke anusaar parivartan hi satya hai. pashchimi darshan mein hairaaklaaitas aur bargasaaain ne bhi parivartan ko satya maana. is parivartan ka koi aparivrtaneeya aadhaar bhi naheen hai. baahya aur aantarik jagat mein koi dhruv satya naheen hai. baahya padaarth "svalakshanon" ke sanghaat hain. aatma bhi manobhaavon aur vijnyaaanon ki dhaara hai. is prakaar bauddhamat mein upanishdon ke aatmavaad ka khandan karke "anaatmavaad" ki sthaapana ki gayi hai. fir bhi bauddhamat mein karm aur punarjanm maanya hain. aatma ka na maanane par bhi bauddhadharm karuna se otaprot hain. du:kh se dravit hokar hi buddh ne sanyaas liya aur du:kh ke nirodh ka upaaya khoja. avidya, trushna aadi mein du:kh ka kaaran khojakar unhonne inke uchhed ko nirvaan ka maarg bataaya.

anaatmavaadi hone ke kaaran bauddh dharm ka vedaant se virodh hua. is virodh ka fal yeh hua ki bauddh dharm ko Bhaarat se nirvaasit hona pada. kintu Asia ke poorvi deshon mein usaka prachaar hua. buddh ke anuyaayiyon mein matabhed ke kaaran kai sanpradaaya ban gaye. jain sanpradaaya vedaant ke samaan dhyaanavaadi hai. iska cheen mein prachaar hai.

siddhaantabhed ke anusaar bauddh parampara mein chaar darshan prasiddh hain. inmein vaibhaashik aur sautraantik mat heenayaan parampara mein hain. yeh dakshini bauddhamat hain. iska prachaar bhi lanka mein hai. yogaachaar aur maadhyamik mat mahaayaan parampara mein hain. yeh uttari bauddhamat hai. in chaaron darshanon ka udaya isa ki aaranbhik shabtaabdiyon mein hua. isi samay vaidik parampara mein shaddarshanon ka udaya hua. is prakaar bhaarateeya panrapara mein darshan sanpradaayon ka aavirbhaav lagbhag ek hi saath hua hai tatha unka vikaas paraspar virodh ke dvaara hua hai. pashchimi darshanon ki bhaaainti ye darshan poorvaapar kram mein udit naheen hue hain.

vasubandhu (400 E.), kumaaralaat (200 E.) maitreya (300 E.) aur naagaarjun (200 E.) in darshanon ke pramukh aachaarya the. vaibhaashik mat baahya vastuon ki satta tatha svalakshanon ke roop mein unka pratyaksh maanata hai. at: use baahya pratyakshavaad athva "sarvaastitvavaad" kehte hain. saitraantik mat ke anusaar padaarthon ka pratyaksh naheen, anumaan hota hai. at: use baahyaanumeyavaad kehte hain. yogaachaar mat ke anusaar baahya padaarthon ki satta naheen. hame jo kuchh dikhaai deta hai vah vigyaan maatr hai. yogaachaar mat vijnyaaanavaad kahalaata hai. maadhyamik mat ke anusaar vigyaan bhi satya naheen hai. sab kuchh shoonya hai. shoonya ka arth nirsvabhaav, ni:svaroop athva anirvachaneeya hai. shoonyavaad ka yeh shoonya vedaant ke brahm ke bahut nikat aa jaata hai.

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