bhaarateeya communist party

bhaarateeya communist party
CPI-banner.svg
mahaasachiv S. sudhaakar Reddy
gathan 26 December 1925
mukhyaalaya nai Delhi, Bhaarat
gathabandhan vaamamorcha
Loksabha me seaton ki sankhya
1 / 545
Rajyasabha me seaton ki sankhya
3 / 245
vichaaradhaara vaamapanthi
prakaashan new ej (angreji),
mukti sangharsh (hindi),
kaalaantar (bangaali),
janayugam dainik (malayalam),
janashakti dainik" (tamil)
rang laal
vidyaarthi shaakha all India student federation
yuva shaakha all India yooth federation
mahila shaakha national freedom of Indian vomen
shramik shaakha all India trade union Congress and bhaarateeya khet majadoor union
kisaan shaakha all India kisaan sabha
jaalasthal communistparty.in
Bhaarat ki raajaneeti
raajanaitik dal
chunaav

bhaarateeya communist party (bhaakapa) (angreji: Communist Party of India) Bhaarat ka ek saamyavaadi dal hai. is dal ki sthaapana 26 December 1925 ko Kanpur nagar mein hui thi.[1] bhaarateeya kamyunisht party ki sthaapana M N rai ne ki. 1928 E. mein communist intaraneshanal ne hi Bhaarat mein communist party ki kaarya pranaali nishchit ki. is dal ke mahaasachiv S. sudhaakar Reddy hai. yeh Bhaarat ki sabse puraani communist party hai. chunaav aayog dvaara ise raashtreeya dal ke roop mein maanyata praapt hai.

yeh dal 'new ej' (New Age) ka prakaashan karta hai. is dal ka yuva sangathan 'aal India yooth federation' hai. 2004 ke sansadeeya chunaav mein is dal ko 5 434 738 mat (1.4%, 10 seatein) mile. 2009 ke sansadeeya chunaav mein is dal ko maatr 4 seatein mili. 2014 ke sansadeeya chunaav mein dal ko maatr 1 seatein mili.

anukram

parichay evam itihaas

communist aandolan mein bhaakapa ki sthaapana tithi ko lekar kuchh vivaad hai. khud bhaakapa ka maanana hai ki usaka gathan 25 December 1925 ko Kanpur mein hui party Congress mein hua tha. lekin maarksavaadi communist party, jo 1964 mein hue party-vibhaajan ke baad bani thi, ka maanana hai ki party ka gathan 1920 mein hua tha. maakapa ke daave ke anusaar Bhaarat ki is sabse puraani communist party ka gathan 17 October 1920 ko communist intaranaishanal ki doosari Congress ke turant baad hua tha. baharahaal, yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki 1920 se hi party ke gathan ki prakriya chal rahi thi aur is sambandh mein kai samooh bhi ubhar kar saamane aaye the. lekin aupachaarik roop se 1925 mein hi party ka gathan hua. iske shuruaati netaaon mein maanavendr naath rai, abani mukharji, mohammad Ali aur shafeek Siddiqui aadi pramukh the.

shuruaati daur mein party ki jadein majboot karne ki koshish mein M.N. rai ne desh ke doosare hisson mein sakriya communist samoohon se sampark kiya. desh ke kai shaharon mein chhote-chhote communist samooh the, lekin ye sabhi bhaakapa ka ang naheen bane. 1920 aur 1930 ke dashak ke dauraan party ka sangathan kamzor haalat mein raha. bhaakapa ke aupachaarik roop se gathan hone se pehle hi angrejon ne kai sakriya kamyuniston ke khilaaf Kanpur bolshevik shadyantr ke antargat mukadama daayar kar diya tha. M.N. rai, S.A. daange sahit kai kamyuniston par raajadroh ke aarop lagaaye gaye. isse communist charchit ho gaye aur pehli baar Bhaarat mein aam logon ko inke baare mein pata chala. 20 March 1929 ko bhaakapa se jude bahut se mahattvapoorn netaaon ko Meerut shadyantr case mein giraftaar kar liya gaya. nateeje ke taur par party netrutvaviheen ho gayi.

1933 mein pramukh netaaon ke Meerut shadyantr case se riha hone ke baad party ka punargathan kiya gaya. iski keindreeya samiti bani aur 1934 mein ise communist intaranaishanal ke bhaarateeya bhaag ke roop mein sveekaar kiya gaya. 1934 mein Congress ke bheetar vaamapanthi rujhaan rakhane vaale netaaon ne Congress soshalist party (seeesapi) ka gathan kiya. iske gathan ke samay bhaakapa ke netaaon ne ise 'saamaajik faaseevaad' ki sanjnyaa di. lekin kaumintarn dvaara upaniveshon mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress jaise dalon ke prati drushtikon badalne se bhaakapa ke Congress ke prati drushtikon mein bhi badlaav aaya. ab bhaakapa Congress ki raajaneeti ko pragatisheel maanane lagi. iske sadasyon ne Congress ki vaamapanthi dhaara arthaat seeesapi ki sadasyata grahan ki. 1936-1937 ke dauraan soshaliston aur kamyuniston ke beech mein aapasi sahayog kaafi badh gaya. January 1936 mein seeesapi ki doosari Congress mein yeh theesis sveekaar ki gayi ki maarksavaad-leninvaad ke aadhaar par ek sanyukt bhaarateeya soshalist party ki sthaapana ki aavashyakta hai. isi tarah, seeesapi ki teesari Congress ke baad bani raashtreeya kaaryakaarani samiti mein kai kamyuniston ko shaamil kiya gaya.

baharahaal, yeh najdeeki lambe samay tak naheen chal paayi. 1940 mein Congress ke raamagadh adhiveshan mein bhaakapa ne 'prauliteriyn path' sheershak se ek dastaavej jaari kiya. ismein yudgh ke kaaran aupaniveshik raajya ki kamzor haalat ka havaala dete hue uske khilaaf sashastr aandolan chhedne ki baat ki. bhaakapa ki is ikatarafa ghoshana se naaraaj hokar seeesapi ne communist sadasyon ko apni party se baahar kar diya. is beech, dviteeya vishv-yudgh mein soviyt union aur Britain ke sambandhon ke achhe hone ke kaaran July, 1942 mein is par lagi paabandi hata di gayi. isne Congress ki upaniveshavaad virodhi rananeeti ka virodh karna shuroo kar diya. isne 1942 ke Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ki aalochna ki aur subhaash chandra Bose ki teekhi ninda ki. is daur mein bhaakapa ki ek mahattvapoorn upalabdhi yeh bhi rahi ki usane Congress ke majadoor sangathan aal indiya trade union Congress par apna varchasv kaayam kar liya. bhaakapa ne 1946 mein hue praanteeya chunaavon mein bhaageedaari ki lekin ise poore desh ke 1585 praanteeya vidhaanasabha ki seaton mein se kul aath seaton par jeet mili.

apne gathan ke baad se desh ki aajaadi tak bhaakapa ki raajaneeti mein kai utaar-chadhaav aaye. isne ek samay Congress aur mahaatma gaaaindhi ko pratikriyaavaadi ki sanjnyaa di. fir unke saath milkar kaam bhi kiya aur dubaara unase alag hokar unki raajaneeti ka virodh kiya. yeh virodh is seema tak pahuainch gaya ki unhonne Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ke samay british shaasan ka samarthan kar daala. iske peechhe ek mukhya kaaran yeh bhi tha ki bhaakapa ki raajaneeti mein bhaarateeya paristhitiyon ko kam ahamiyt di jaati thi. adhikaansh maukon par communist intaranaishanal ya soviyt union ke nirdeshon ne party ki rananeeti tay karne ka kaam kiya. isi kaaran kai baar iski rananeetiyaaain ulti disha mein aage badheen.

in gadbadiyon ke baavajood Congress ke majdoor sangathan aur desh ke kuchh bhaagon mein iski sthiti kaafi majboot ho gayi thi. Bengal mein hue tebhaaga aandolan aur Andhra pradesh mein hue telangaana aandolan mein bhi kamyuniston ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaayi. 1946 mein hue tebhaaga aandolan mein Bengal ke jotadaaron ne is baat ke liye sangharsh kiya ki unke paas apni kheti ke utpaad ka do-tihaai bhaag hona chaahiye. is aandolan mein bhaakapa ke kisaan morche kisaan sabha ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaayi. kuchh jagahon par yeh aandolan hinsak bhi ho gaya. aandolan safal raha aur raajya ki musalim league sarkaar ne yeh kaanoon banaaya ki jameendaaron ko kul utpaad ke ek- tihaai se zyaada hissa naheen diya jaaega. lekin yeh kaanoon sahi tareeke se laagoo naheen hua.

telangaana aandolan Hyderabad rajavaade mein hua. yahaaain Andhra mahaasabha ke banner tale Hyderabad ke nijaam ke khilaaf pehle hi aandolan chal raha tha. Andhra mahaasabha mein kamyuniston ki achhi-khaasi upasthiti thi. inhonne kisaanon ko nijaam aur sthaaneeya jmeendaaron (jinhein 'Deshmukh' ke naam se jaana jaata tha) ke khilaaf jaagruk banaaya. naalagonda, Warangal aur khammam jilon mein kisaanon ne karj maafi, bandhuaa majdoori khtm karne aur bhoomi punarvitran ke liye aandolan chalaaya. yeh aandolan 1945 mein shuroo hua aur 1946 aate-aate isne kaafi jor pakad liya. nijaam ki senaaon aur jmeendaaron ke lathaiton ne iska kroorata se daman kiya. hajaaron kisaanon ki hatya kar di gayi. lekin kisaanon ke sashastr daston ne jam kar is daman ka mukaabala kiya. in daston ka bahut se gaaainvon par niyantran ho gaya aur unhonne vahaaain bhoomi sudhaar ki neetiyon par amal kiya. 1948 tak unhonne 3,000 gaaainvon ki takareeban 16,000 varg meal bhoomi ko mukt kara liya aur usaka gaaainv ke logon ke beech vitran kar diya. sitmbar, 1948 mein bhaarateeya sena ke dakhl se nijaam ke shaasan ka ant ho gaya. iske baavajood kisaanon ka vidroh jaari raha. bhaarateeya sena ne bhi iska hinsak daman kiya. antat:, 1951 mein bhaakapa dvaara aadhikaarik roop se yeh aandolan vaapas le liya gaya. iske baad yeh aandolan dheema padte hue khtm ho gaya. tebhaaga aur telangaana aandolan ka bhaarateeya vaamapanth ke itihaas mein kaafi mahattv hai. isne jmeeni star par kamyuniston ke prabhaav ko dikhaaya. vartamaan mein kamyuniston ke sabhi samooh in aandolanon ki viraasat ka daava karte hain.

Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke samay aajaadi aur bhaarateeya raajya ki prakruti ke baare mein bhaakapa mein gahan aur rochak vaad-vivaad hua. isi kaaran party ne samvidhaan sabha mein bhi bhaag naheen liya. jab Bhaarat ko aajaadi mili us samay pi.si. Joshi bhaakapa ke mahaasachiv the. unhonne is baat par jor diya ki satta ka hastaantaran vaastavik hai aur Nehru ki sarkaar se yeh spasht sanket milta hai ki vah saamraajyavaad-virodhi taakaton ka pratinidhitv karti hai. isliye unhonne aagrah kiya ki bhaakapa ko Congress ke baare mein apne vichaaron ka punarmoolyaankan karna chaahiye. lekin party ke bheetar ise paryaapt samarthan naheen mila. bi.ti. ranadive ke netrutv mein ek kheme ne yeh tark diya ki Bhaarat mein jan-vidroh jor pakad raha hai. isliye bhaakapa lokataantrik aur samaajavaadi charanon ko mila kar poore raashtra mein majdooron ke sashastr sangharsh dvaara satta par kabja karne ki koshish kar sakti hai. party ke bheetar kuchh logon ne telangaana anubhav ki tulana cheen mein maao ke sangharsh se ki aur bhaarateeya raajya ke khilaaf lok-yudgh chhedne ki vakaalat ki. ise 'aandhra line' kaha gaya. 1948 ki Calcutta Congress mein ranadive line ki jeet hui. lekin doosari or Bhaarat mein Nehru sarkaar dvaara telangaana aandolan ke sashastr daman ki ijaajt dene aur doosari or cheeni kraanti ke safal hone ke kaaran party mein 'aandhra line' ki sthiti majboot ho gayi. iske chalte 1950 mein Andhra ke neta si. raajeshvar Rao ne party ka netrutv sambhaala. lekin party ke bheetar pi.si. Joshi kheme ne is tarah ke kadam ko vaamapanthi bhatakaav ki sanjnyaa di. is kheme ne 'aaainkh mooaindakar' aur kattar tareeke se cheeni raaste ka anusaran karne ki aalochna ki. Joshi ne Nehru sarkaar ki deshi-videshi neeti ka vishleshan karte hue yeh saabit karne ki koshish ki ki ismein saamraajyavaad-virodhi pravrutti hai.

party ke is aantarik vivaad ko sulajhaane ke liye party ke kuchh varishth neta Moscow gaye aur vahaaain ke communist party netaaon se lambi charcha ki. iske baad teen dastaavej taiyaar hue. in dastaavejon mein yeh spasht kiya gaya ki Bhaarat ek nirbhar aur ardh-aupaniveshik desh hai aur Nehru sarkaar jmeendaaron, bade ekaadhikaaravaadi boorjva aur british saamraajyavaad ke hiton ko poora kar rahi hai. bhaarateeya boorjva ki prakruti spasht karte hue yeh kaha gaya ki praathamik roop se saamraajyavaadi boorjva par nirbhar hone ke baavajood ismein raashtravaadi aur a-sahayogi (naun- kolaibairetiv) tattv maujood hain. iske baad madhyamaargi neta Ajay ghosh ne party ki kamaan sambhaali. is daur mein party ne Bhaarat ki aajaadi ko maanyata di aur samvidhaan ko sveekaar karte hue chunaavon mein bhaag lene ka faisala kiya gaya.

pehle aam chunaavon mein party ka pradarshan bahut shaanadaar naheen maana ja sakta, lekin Loksabha mein 16 seaton par jeet haasil karke yeh mukhya vipakshi dal ke roop mein ubhari. bhaakapa ne khaasataur par sangathit kshetr mein kaam karne vaale majdooron ke beech apni sthiti majboot karne par dhyaan diya. iske majdoor sangathan all indiya trade union Congress ki majdooron ke beech mein achhi paith thi. lekin us samay desh ki raajaneeti mein Congress aur Nehru ke varchasv ko chunauti dena mushkil tha. fir bhi bhaakapa ne kuchh raajyon mein apni sthiti majboot kar li. doosare aam chunaavon mein fir se Congress ko spasht bahumat mila, lekin bhaakapa ki seaton mein bhi badhotri hui. in chunaavon mein ise 27 Loksabha kshetron mein jeet mili. Kerala mein 1957 ke vidhaanasabha chunaavon ke baad E.M.S. namboodareepaad ke netrutv mein bhaakapa ki sarkaar bani. yeh vishv ki pehli chuni hui communist sarkaar thi. lekin 1959 mein Nehru sarkaar ne ise barkhaast kar diya. isse bhaakapa ke ek dhade ke bheetar Nehru ke prati kaafi naaraajgi paida ho gayi. lekin is samay bhaakapa ke kaaryakarta bhram ki sthiti mein the, kyonki Nehru sarkaar ka soviyt union ke saath kaafi achha sambandh tha. soviyt party ki yeh apeksha thi ki bhaakapa Nehru sarkaar ke prati naram ravaiya apnaaye. is beech antarraashtreeya star par aisi ghatanaaeain ghateen jiske kaaran na sirf antarraashtreeya communist ekta prabhaavit hui, balki bhaakapa ka bhi vibhaajan ho gaya.

saath ka dashak aate-aate tak soviyt union ki communist party aur cheen ki communist party ke beech ke sambandh khraab hone lage. cheen ki communist party ne soviyt union ki communist party par aarop lagaaya ki vah sanshodhanavaadi ho kar maarksavaad-leninvaad ke raaste se bhatak chuki hai. idhar cheen aur Bhaarat ke sambandh bhi kaafi khraab ho gaye. seema vivaad ke kaaran 1962 mein Bhaarat-cheen ke beech yudgh bhi hua. bhaakapa ke ek dhade ne Bhaarat sarkaar ki neeti ka samarthan kiya. vaheen party ke ek doosare dhade ne yeh daava kiya ki yeh samaajavaadi aur pooainjeevaadi raajya ke beech takaraav hai. asal mein, bhaakapa ke in dhadon ki rananeeti mein antarraashtreeya star par kamyuniston ke beech chal rahi tanaatani ki bhi mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi. bhaakapa ke soviyt samarthak dhade ne us samay ki sattaadhaari party bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke saath sahayog karne ke vichaar ko aage badhaaya. lekin bhaakapa ke ek doosare dhade, jo aage chalakar maakapa bani, ne ise 'varg-sahayog' ke sanshodhanavaadi vichaar ki sanjnyaa di.

gauratalab hai ki Bhaarat ke teesare aam chunaavon mein bhaakapa ko 29 seaton par jeet mili. bhaakapa ab bhi sansad mein Congress ke baad doosari sabse badi party thi. lekin party ke ek kheme ke bheetar yeh vishvaas prabal ho gaya tha ki asal mein Nehru sarkaar ke prati zyaada sakht ravaiya na rakhane kaaran hi bhaakapa ka prasaar naheen ho raha hai. ek samay ke baad yeh takaraav kaafi badh gaya. 1964 mein bhaakapa ka vibhaajan ho gaya aur ek nayi party maakapa ka ubhaar hua. bhaakapa ke kai jujhaaroo neta masalan namboodareepaad, jyoti Basu, harakishn Singh surajeet aadi maakapa mein shaamil ho gaye. isse pashchim Bengal jaise raajyon mein bhaakapa ke aadhaar par nakaaraatmak prabhaav pada. Kerala mein party ke vibhaajan ke shuruaati kuchh dashakon tak bhaakapa ka bhi achha-khaasa prabhaav raha. 1970-77 ke beech bhaakapa ne Congress se gathajod kiya aur uske saath milkar sarkaar bhi banaayi jismein bhaakapa ke si. achyut Menon raajya ke mukhyamantri bane (4 October 1970-25 March 1977). iske baad, kisi raajya mein bhaakapa ko satta mein aane ka mauka naheen mila. 1970-77 ke daur mein Congress se gathajod hone ke kaaran bhaakapa ne indira gaaaindhi ki Congress dvaara lagaaye gaye aapaatakaal ka samarthan kiya. lekin assi ka dashak aate-aate maakapa zyaada majboot communist party ban gayi. desh ke doosare kai bhaagon mein bhaakapa ki achhi upasthiti rahi, lekin kuchh kshetron mein zyaada majboot upasthiti ke kaaran maakapa aage nikal gayi. 1977 ke baad bhaakapa ne maakapa aur doosari chhoti communist paartiyon ke saath milkar vaam morche ka gathan kiya. vyaavahaarik taur par Kerala sahit adhikaansh jagahon par yeh party maakapa ke ek chhote sahayogi dal mein badal gayi. adhikaansh maukon par iska pradarshan vaam morche ke pradarshan par nirbhar raha.

nabbe ke baad ke daur mein bhaakapa ne secular aur gair-bhaajapa, gair-Congress dalon ki raajaneeti ko majbooti dene par kaafi dhyaan diya hai. maakapa ke netrutv vaale vaam morche ke saath milkar isne Congress ki nav-udaaravaadi neetiyon ka virodh kiya. 1996 ke Loksabha chunaavon ke baad kisi dal ko bahumat naheen mila. sabse badi party bhaajapa ki sarkaar Loksabha mein apna bahumat saabit naheen kar paayi. iske baad H.di. devegauda ke netrutv mein sanyukt morche ki sarkaar bani. bhaakapa ne ek aitihaasik faisala lete hue is sarkaar mein shaamil hone ka faisala kiya. yeh faisala maakapa ke faisale se kaafi alag tha jisne jyoti Basu ko pradhaanamantri banaane ka prastaav thukara diya tha. is tarah vaam morche ka bhaag hote hue bhi isne apni raajaneetik svaayatta pradarshit ki. sanyukt morche ki donon sarkaaron (H.di. devegauda aur Indra Kumar gujaraal) ki sarkaar mein iske neta shaamil hue aur unhonne gruh mantraalaya (indrajeet gupt) aur krushi mantraalaya (chaturaanan mishr) jaise mahattvapoorn mantraalaya sambhaale. sanyukt morche ki sarkaar ke patan ke baad kendra mein raajag ki sarkaar bani. is sarkaar ke kaaryakaal (1998-2004) ke dauraan bhaakapa ne vaam morche ke ek ghatak ke roop mein jimmedaar vipaksh ki bhoomika nibhaayi. 2004 sanyukt pragatisheel gathabandhan (samprag) ki sarkaar ko vaam morche ne samarthan diya. isne yeh sunishchit karne ki koshish ki yeh sarkaar apne nyoonatam saajha kaaryakram ke anusaar hi kaam kare. is dauraan bhaakapa ne bhi sarkaar par kai janonmukhi kaaryakram apnaane ka dabaav banaaya. aamtaur prekshak yeh maanate rahe hain ki samprag-ek ki sarkaar ke dauraan bane bahut pragatisheel aur janonmukhi kaanoonon ke peechhe vaam morche ke dabaav ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi. 2008 mein vaam morche ne sanyukt raajya America se parmaanu samjhaute ke mudde par samprag sarkaar se samarthan vaapas le liya. 2009 ke aam chunaavon mein vaam morche ka pradarshan 2004 ke aam chunaavon ki tulana mein kaafi khraab raha. iska kaaran tha ki pashchim Bengal mein vaam morche ke pradarshan mein aayi giraavat. khaasataur par singoor aur nandeegraam jaisi jagahon mein raajya sarkaar dvaara jbaradasti bhoomi adhigrahan ki koshish aur uske virodh ka bal-prayog dvaara daman karne jaisi ghatnaaon ne vaam morche ki chhavi kaafi khraab ki. iska asar bhaakapa ke chunaavi pradarshan par bhi pada aur ise Loksabha mein 2004 ki 10 ki tulana mein sirf 4 seaton par hi jeet mili.

bhaakapa ki raajaneeti ki kai seemaaeain ab spasht ho chuki hain : pehla, bhaakapa ne vaam morche ki raajaneeti mein khud ka is tarah samaahit kar liya hai ki kai gambheer masalon par bhi isne ek seema se zyaada maakapa ka virodh naheen kiya hai. sirf kuchh maukon par hi isne apni svaayattata dikhaai hai, lekin adhikaansh masalon par iski rananeeti vaam morche ki rananeeti ka bhaag hoti hai. doosra, yadyapi maakapa desh ke teen raajyon mein kaafi majboot sthiti mein hai, lekin bhaakapa ka vistaar desh ke doosare bhaagon mein zyaada raha hai. masalan, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, aur Tamil Nadu jaise raajyon mein bhi bhaakapa ki majboot upasthiti rahi hai. lekin Bihar jaise raajyon mein isne apna aadhaar kaafi had tak kho diya hai, kyonki ab pehchaan ki raajaneeti ke saamane vah apni praasangikta saabit karne mein naakaam rahi hai. teesara, bhaakapa doosare sansadeeya vaamapanthi dalon ki tarah hi naye kshetron mein apna vistaar karne mein naakaam rahi hai. yeh ek tarah se thahari hui party ban gayi hai. ya to yeh kuchh jagahon par apna aadhaar bachaane mein safal rahi hai, ya us aadhaar ko bhi kho rahi hai. naye kshetron mein bhaakapa ka prasaar naheen ho raha hai. 1980 ke baad hue Loksabha ke har chunaav mein ise 15 se kam seaton par hi jeet mili. masalan, 1980 ke sansadeeya chunaavon mein 11, 1984 mein 6, 1989 mein 12, 1991 mein 14, 1996 mein 12, 1998 mein 9, 1999 mein 4, 2004 mein 10 aur 2009 mein 4 seaton par jeet haasil hui. chautha, yeh bhi aarop lagaaya jaata hai ki bhaakapa ne jmeeni star par sangharsh ki raajaneeti se muainh mod liya hai. yadyapi is aalochna ko poori tarah se sahi naheen maana ja sakta, kyonki jin kshetron mein bhaakapa ka astitv hai, vahaaain usane raajya daman ke khilaaf kaafi sangharsh kiya hai. masalan, Chhattisgarh ke dantevaada jile mein bhaakapa ne raajya praayojit salava judoom abhiyaan ka teekha pratirodh kiya. paaainchavaaain, bhaakapa ki raajaneeti ki aalochna ka ek aadhaar yeh bhi raha hai ki isne pooainjeevaadi raajya ki lokataantrik vyavastha ko poori tarah sveekaar kar liya hai. ab yeh raashtravaadi rooparekha ke bheetar hi kaam kar rahi hai aur pooainjeevaadi raajya ko ukhaad feinkane jaisi rananeeti iski raajaneeti ka bhaag naheen hai.

baharahaal, in aalochanaaon ke baavajood is baat se inkaar naheen kiya ja sakta hai ki bhaarateeya raajaneeti mein bhaakapa ke paas ek lambi viraasat hai. bhaarateeya communist raajaneeti ki adhikaansh dhaaraaeain isi party se nikleen. isne sansadeeya raajaneeti me vaamapanthi dalon ke beech ekajutata kaayam karne ke bhi gambheer prayaas kiye hain. iski koshish rahi hai ki Bhaarat mein gair-Congressi, gair-bhaajapaayi raajaneeti ko majbooti aur aam logon ke hiton ko badhaava mile. bhrashtaachaar jaise aaropon se bhaakapa har star par poori tarah se mukt rahi hai. asal mein, bhaakapa ki mukhya chunauti yeh hai ki yeh vaam morche ka bhaag hote hue bhi maakapa ki 'foto kaupi' ya chhota sahayogi hone se bache aur apni svaayatt raajaneeti kaayam kare. iske alaava, desh ke vibhinn bhaagon apna prasaar karna bhi bhaakapa ke liye ek badi chunauti hai.

sandarbh

  • manoranjan mohanti (1986) 'aaidiyaulaiji aind straiteji of communist movement in indiya',
  • Thomas paintham aur kaineth L. dyush (sampa.), paulitikl thaut in modern indiya, sej, nayi Delhi.
  • mohan Ram (1969), kamyunijm : split vidin a split, vikaas, nayi Delhi.
  • bipn chandra (1983), lekrat : a kritikl aprejl, vikaas, nayi Delhi.

inhein bhi dekhein

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