bhaarateeya cinema ka itihaas

Bhaarat mein pichhle ek sau saalon se chalachitron ka nirmaan hota chala aa raha hai tatha bhaarateeya cinema ne apne sau varshon ki yaatra safalta poorvak sampann kiya hai. aaiye ham yeh jaanane ka prayaas karein ki is safar ki shuruvaat kaise hui aur iske kaun kaun se padaav rahe-

anukram

aarambh

7 July 1886 bhaarateeya cinema ke itihaas mein ek mahatvapoorn din hai. isi din tatkaaleen Mumbai ke vaatakins hautal mein lyumere brothers ne chh: laghu chalachitron ka pradarshan kiya tha. in chhoti-chhoti filmon ne dhvanirhit hone baavajood bhi darshakon ka manoranjan kiya tha. in laghu chalachitron se prabhaavit hokar shri H.S. bhatavadekar aur shri heeraalaal sen naamak vyaktiyon ne lyumere brothers ki tarah kramash: Mumbai (poorv naam Mumbai) aur Kolkata (poorv naam Calcutta) mein laghu chalachitron ka nirmaan praarambh kar diya. san 1899 me shri bhatavadekar ne Bhaarat ke pratham laghu chalachitr banaane mein safalta praapt ki.

daada saaheb faalake ne apne London pravaas ke dauraan isa maseeh ke jeevan par aadhaarit ek chalachitr dekha. vah film lyumere brothers ki filmon ki tarah laghu chalachitr na hokar lambi film thi. us film ko dekh kar daada saaheb faalake ke man mein pauraanik kathaaon par aadhaarit chalachitron ke nirmaan karne ki prabal ichha jaagrut hui. svadesh aakar unhonne raaja harishchandr banaai jo ki Bhaarat ki pehli lambi film thi aur san 1913 mein pradarshit hui. us chalachitr ne (dhvanirhit hone ke baavajood bhi) logon ka bharpoor manoranjan kiya aur darshakon ne usaki khoob taareef ki.

fir to chalachitr nirmaan ne Bhaarat ke ek udyog ka roop dhaaran kar liya aur teevrata poorvak usaka vikaas hone laga. un dinon himaanshu rai Germany ke you.ef.A. studio mein nirmaata ke roop mein kaaryarat the. ve apni patni devika raani ke saath svadesh vaapas aa gaye aur apne desh mein chalachitron ka nirmaan karne lage. unki patni devika raani swayam unki filmon mein naayika (heroine) ka kaarya karti thi. pati-patni donon ko khoob safalta mili aur donon ne milkar baanbe taakeej studio ki sthaapana ki.

bolte chalachitr (taakeej) ka aagaman

ab tak keval mook filmein hi bana karti theen par 1930 ke aaspaas chalachitron mein dhvani ke samaavesh karne ka takaneek viksit ho jaane se savaak (bolti) filmein banane lageen. aalam aara Bhaarat ki pehli savaak film thi jo ki san 1931 mein pradarshit hui. 1933 mein pradarshit film karma itni adhik lokapriya hui ki us film ki naayika devika raani ko log film star ke naam se sambodhit karne lage aur ve Bhaarat ki pratham mahila film star bani.

mook filmon ke jamaane tak Mumbai (poorv naam Mumbai) desh mein chalachitr nirmaan ka kendra bana raha parantu savaak filmon ka nirmaan shuroo ho jaane se aur hamaare desh mein vibhinn bhaashaaon ka chalan hone ke kaaran chennai (poorv naam Madras) mein dakshin bhaarateeya bhaashaaon waali chalachitron ka nirmaan hone laga. is tarah Bhaarat ka chalachitr udyog do bhaagon mein vibhkt ho gaya.

un dinon prabhaat, baanbe taakeej aur new thiyetars Bhaarat ke pramukh studio the aur ye praay: gambhir kintu manoranjak filmein bana kar darshakon ka manoranjan kiya karti theen. ye teenon studio desh ke bade bainars kahalaate tha. un dinon saamaajik anyaaya ke viruddh aavaaj uthaane waali, dhaarmik tatha pauraanik, aitihaasik, deshaprem se sambandhit chalachitron ka nirmaan hua karta tha aur unhein bahut adhik pasand bhi kiya jaata tha. us samay ke kuchh prasiddh evam lokapriya filmein hain - vi. shaantaaraam ki film "duniya na maane", frainj ostan ki film "achhoot kanya", daamale aur fatehalaal ki film "sant tukaaraam", mehaboob Khan ki filmein "vatan", "ek hi raasta" aur "aurat", ardesheer Irani ki film "kisaan kanya" aadi.

vhi. shaantaaraam ki "dau॰ kotanees ki amar kahaani", mehaboob Khan ki "roti", chetan aanand ki "neecha nagar", udaya shankar ki "kalpana", khvaaja Ahmad Abbas ki "dharati ke laal", soharaab Modi ki "sikandar", "pukaar" aur "pruthvi vallabh", J.bi.H. vaadiya ki "court daansar", S.S. vaasan ki "chandralekha", vijay bhatt ki "bharat milaap" aur "Ram raajya", raaj Kapoor ki "barasaat" aur "aag" un dinon ki avismaraneeya filmein hain.

aarambh mein studio paddhati ka prachalan raha. harek studio ke apne vetanabhogi nirmaata, nirdeshak, sangeetakaar, naayak, naayika tatha anya kalaakaar hua karte the. par baad chalachitr nirmaan mein ruchi rakhane vaale log svatantr nirmaata ke roop mein film banaane lage. in svatantr nirmaataaon ne studion ko kiraaye par lena tatha kalaakaaron se theke par kaam karavaana shuroo kar diya. chooainki theke mein kaam karne mein adhik aamdani hoti thi, kalaakaaron ne vetan lekar kaam karna lagbhag band kar diya. is prakaar studio paddhati ka chalan samaapt ho gaya aur studion ko keval kiraaye par diya jaane laga.

inhein bhi dekhein

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