bhaarateeya chunaav

Bhaarat
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yeh lekh yeh shreni ke sambandh mein hai:

Bhaarat ki raajaneeti


Bhaarat sarkaar

samvidhaan

vidhaayika

kaaryapaalika

nyaayapaalika

sthaaneeya

bhaarateeya chunaav


anya desh • praveshadvaar:raajaneeti
praveshadvaar:Bhaarat sarkaar
dekhein samvaad sanpaadan

chunaav lokatantr ka aadhaar stambh hain. aajaadi ke baad se Bhaarat mein chunaavon ne ek lamba raasta tay kiya hai.

1951-52 ko hue aam chunaavon mein matadaataaon ki sankhya 17,32,12,343 thi, jo 2014 mein badhkar 81,45,91,184 ho gayi hai.[1] 2004 mein, bhaarateeya chunaavon mein 670 million matadaataaon ne bhaag liya (yeh sankhya doosare sabse bade Europeeya sansadeeya chunaavon ke dogune se adhik thi) aur iska ghoshit kharch 1989 ke mukaabale teen guna badhkar $300 million ho gaya. in chunaavon mein das lakh se adhik electronic voting masheenon ka istemaal kiya gaya.[2] 2009 ke chunaavon mein 714 million matadaataaon ne bhaag liya[3] (America aur Europeeya sangh ki sanyukt sankhya se bhi adhik).[4]

matadaataaon ki vishaal sankhya ko dekhte hue chunaavon ko kai charanon mein aayojit kiya jaana aavashyak ho gaya hai (2004 ke aam chunaavon mein chaar charan the aur 2009 ke chunaavon mein paanch charan the). chunaavon ki is prakriya mein charanbaddh tareeke se kaam kiya jaata hai, ismein bhaarateeya chunaav aayog dvaara chunaavon ki tithi ki ghoshana, jisse raajanaitik dalon ke beech "aadarsh aachaar sanhita" laagoo hoti hai, se lekar parinaamon ki ghoshana aur safal ummeedavaaron ki soochi raajya ya kendra ke kaaryakaari pramukh ko saunpana shaamil hota hai. parinaamon ki ghoshana ke saath chunaav prakriya ka samaapan hota hai aur nai sarkaar ke gathan ka maarg prashast hota hai.

anukram

raashtreeya chunaavon ki soochi

raajya sabha chunaav (matadaata → vidhaan sabha evam naamaankan → raajya sabha)

raajya sabha ke sadasyon ka chayan apratyaksh roop se hota hai aur ye lagbhag poori tarah se alag-alag raajyon ki vidhaanasabha ke sadasyon dvaara nirvaachit kiye jaate hain, jabki 12 sadasyon ka naamaankan Bhaarat ke raashtrapati dvaara kiya jaata hai, ismein aamtaur par Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri ki salaah aur sahamati shaamil hoti hai. raajya sabha ke baare mein adhik jaankaari http://rajyasabha.nic.in/rsnew/about_parliament/rajya_sabha_introduction.asp par paayi ja sakti hai.

raashtrapati chunaav (Loksabha evam raajya sabha aur vidhaan sabha → raashtrapati)

Bhaarat ke raashtrapati ka chunaav 5 saal ke liye apratyaksh roop se kiya jaata hai. iske liye nirvaachan mandal ka prayog kiya jaata hai jahaan lok sabha va raajya sabha ke sadasya aur Bhaarat ke sabhi pradeshon tatha kshetron ki vidhaan sabhaaon ke sadasya apna vote daalte hain.

bhaarateeya chunaav pranaali

bhaarateeya sansad mein raashtrapramukh- Bhaarat ke raashtrapati - aur do sadan shaamil hain jo vidhaanamandal hote hain. Bhaarat ke raashtrapati ka chunaav paanch varsh ki avadhi ke liye nirvaachak mandal dvaara kiya jaata hai jismein sangh aur raajya ke vidhaanamandalon ke sadasya shaamil hote hain.

Bhaarat ki sansad ke do sadan hain. lok sabha mein 545 sadasya hote hain, 543 sadasyon ka chayan paanch varshon ki avadhi ke liye ekal seat nirvaachan kshetron se hota hai aur do sadasyon ko englo-bhaarateeya samudaaya ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye chuna jaata hai (bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein ullekh ke anusaar, ab tak lok sabha mein 545 sadasya hote hain, 543 sadasyon ka chayan paanch varshon ki avadhi ke liye hota hai aur do sadasyon ko englo-bhaarateeya samudaaya ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye chuna jaata hai). 550 sadasyon ka chayan bahumat nirvaachan pranaali ke tahat hota hai.

raajyon ki parishad (raajya sabha) mein 245 sadasya hote hain, jinmein 233 sadasyon ka chayan chhah varsh ki avadhi ke liye hota hai, jismein har do saal mein ek tihaai avakaash grahan karte hain. in sadasyon ka chayan raajya aur kendra (sangh) shaasit pradeshon ke vidhaayakon dvaara kiya jaata hai. nirvaachit sadasyon ka ka chayan aanupaatik pratinidhitv pranaali ke tahat ekal antaraneeya mat ke maadhyam se kiya jaata hai. baarah naamit sadasyon ko aamtaur par prakhyaat kalaakaaron (abhinetaaon sahit), vaigyaaniko, nyaayavidon, khilaadiyon, vyaapaariyon aur patrakaaron aur aam logon mein se chuna jaata hai.

raajanaitik paartiyon ka itihaas

bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ka prabhutv pehli baar 1977 mein toota jab indira Gandhi ke netrutv mein party ko anya sabhi bade dalon ke gathabandhan se haar ka saamana karna pada, ye sabhi dal 1975-1977 mein vivaadit aapaatakaal laagoo karne ka virodh kar rahe the. isi prakaar vishvanaath prataap Singh ke netrutv mein ke ek gathabandhan ne 1989 mein bhrashtaachaar ke aarop jhel rahe Rajiv Gandhi ko haraakar satta mein pravesh kiya. ise bhi 1990 mein satta se hatna pada.

1992 mein, Bhaarat mein ab tak chali aa rahi ek party ke prabhutv waali raajaneeti ne gathabandhan pranaali ko raasta diya, jismein koi ek party sarkaar banaane ke liye sansad mein bahumat ki ummeed naheen kar sakti thi, lokin use anya paartiyon ke saath gathabandhan karna hota tha aur sarkaar banaane ke liye bahumat siddh karna hota tha. isse majaboot kshetreeya dalon ka mahatva badh gaya jo ab tak keval kshetreeya aakaankshaaon tak hi seemit the. ek taraf jahaan tedepa aur annaadramuk jaise dal paaramparik roop se majaboot kshetreeya daavedaar bane hue the vaheen doosari or 1990 ke dashak mein lok dal, samaajavaadi party, bahujan samaaj party aur janta dal jaise anya kshetreeya dalon ka bhi udaya hua. ye dal paaramparik roop se kshetreeya aakaankshaaon par aadhaarit hote the, (jaise telangaana raashtra samiti) ya poori tarah se jaati aadhaarit hote the, (jaise bahujan samaaj party jo daliton ka pratinidhitv karne ka daava karti hai).

chunaav aayog

Bhaarat mein chunaavon ka aayojan bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke tahat banaaye gaye bhaarateeya nirvaachan aayog dvaara kiya jaata hai. yeh ek achhi tarah sthaapit parampara hai ki ek baar chunaav prakriya shuroo hone ke baad koi bhi adaalat chunaav aayog dvaara parinaam ghoshit kiye jaane tak kisi bhi prakaar ka hastakshep naheen kar sakti hai. chunaavon ke dauraan, chunaav aayog ko badi maatra mein adhikaar saunp diye jaate hain aur jarurat padne par yeh civil court ke rup mein bhi kaarya kar sakta hai.

chunaavi prakriya

Bhaarat ki chunaavi prakriya mein raajya vidhaanasabha chunaavon ke liye kam se kam ek maheene ka samay lagta hai jabki aam chunaavon ke liye yeh avadhi aur adhik badh jaati hai. matadaata soochi ka prakaashan ek mahatvapoorn chunaav poorv prakriya hai aur yeh Bhaarat mein chunaav ke sanchaalan ke liye bahut mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke anusaar koi bhi vyakti jo Bhaarat ka naagrik hai aur jiski umr 18 varsh se adhik hai, vah matadaata soochi mein ek matadaata ke rup mein shaamil hone ke yogya hai yeh yogya matadaata ki jimmedaari hai ki ve matadaata soochi mein apna naam shaamil karaae. aamtaur par, ummeedavaaron ke naamaankan ki antim tithi se ek saptaah pehle tak matadaata panjeekaran ke liye anumati di gayi hai.

chunaav ke pehle

chunaav se pehle naamaankan, matadaan aur ginti ki tithiyon ki ghoshana ki jaati hai. chunaavon ki tithi ki ghoshana ke din se aadarsh aachaar sanhita laagoo ho jaati hai.

kisi bhi party ko chunaav prachaar ke liye sarkaari sansaadhanon ko upayog karne ki anumati naheen hoti hai. aachaar sanhita ke niyamon ke anusaar matadaan ke din se 48 ghante pehle chunaav prachaar band kar diya jaana chaahiye. bhaarateeya raajyon ke liye chunaav se pehle ki gatividhiyaan atyant aavashyak hoti hain. aachaar sanhita ke anusaar chunaav prachaar ke liye pratyaashi 10 chaupihya vaahan hi rakh sakta hai, jabki matadaan vaale din teen chaupahiya vaahanon ki anumati hai.

matadaan ka din

matadaan ke din se ek din pehle chunaav prachaar samaapt ho jaata hai. sarkaari schoolon aur collegeon ko matadaan keindron ke roop mein chuna jaata hai. matadaan karaane ki jimmedaari pratyek jile ke jilaadhikaari ki hoti hai. bahut se sarkaari karmachaariyon ko matadaan keindron mein lagaaya jaata hai. chunaav mein dhokhaadhadi rokane ke liye matadaan petiyon ke bajaay electronic voting masheenon (iveeem) ka prayog adhik maatra mein kiya jaata hai, jo Bhaarat ke kuchh bhaagon mein adhik prachalit hai. Mysore peints aur vaarnish limited dvaara taiyaar ek amit syaahi ka prayog aamtaur par matadaan ke sanket ke roop mein matadaata ke baain tarjani anguli par nishaan lagaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. is kaaryapranaali ka upayog 1962 ke aam chunaav ke baad se farji matadaan rokane ke liye kiya ja raha hai.

chunaav ke baad

chunaav ke din ke baad, iveeem ko bhaari suraksha ke beech ek majaboot kamre mein jama kiya jaata hai. chunaav ke vibhinn charan poore hone ke baad, maton ki ginti ka din nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai. aamtaur par vote ki ginti mein kuchh ghanton ke bheetar vijeta ka pata chal jaata hai. sabse adhik vote praapt karne vaale ummeedavaar ko nirvaachan kshetr ka vijeta ghoshit kiya jaata hai.

sabse adhik seatein praapt karne vaale party ya gathabandhan ko raashtrapati dvaara nai sarkaar banaane ke liye aamantrit kiya jaata hai. kisi bhi party ya gathabandhan ko sadan mein voton ka saadhaaran bahumat (nyoonatam 50%) praapt karke vishvaas mat ke dauraan sadan (lok sabha) mein apna bahumat saabit karna aavashyak hota hai.

matadaata panjeekaran

Bhaarat ke kuchh shaharon mein, online matadaata panjeekaran firm praapt kiye ja sakte hain aur niktatam chunaavi kaaryaalaya mein jama kiye ja sakte hain. [www.jaagore.com] jaisi kuchh saamaajik roop se praasangik vebasaaitein, matadaata panjeekaran ki jaankaari praapt karne ke liye achha sthaan hain.

doorasth matadaan

ab tak, Bhaarat mein doorasth matadaan pranaali naheen hai. jan pratinidhitv adhiniyam (aarapeee) -1950 ke anuchhed 19 ke tahat ek vyakti ko apne mat ka panjeekaran karaane ka adhikaar hai yadi usaki umr 18 saal se adhik hai aur vah nirvaachan kshetr mein rahane wala 'aam naagrik' hai, arthaat chhah maheene ya usase adhik samay se maujooda pate par rah raha hai.[5] ukt adhiniyam ki dhaara 20 kisi apravaasi bhaarateeya (enaaaraaai) ko matadaata soochi mein apna naam darj karaane ke liye ayogya thaharaati hai. isliye, sansad aur raajya vidhaanasabha ke chunaav mein enaaaraaai ko vote daalne ki anumati naheen di gayi hai.

August 2010 mein, jan pratinidhitv bill (sanshodhit)-2010 ko lok sabha mein 24 November 2010 ki baad ki raajapatr adhisoochanaaon ke saath paarit kar diya gaya, is bill mein enaaaraaai ko vote daalne ka adhikaar diya gaya hai.[6] iske saath hi ab enaaaraaai bhaarateeya chunaavon mein vote karne ke yogya ho jaaenge, lekin unke liye matadaan ke samay shaareerik rup se upasthit hona aavashyak hai. bahut se saamaajik sangathanon ne sarkaar se aagrah kiya tha ki doorasth matadaan pranaali ke dvaara enaaaraaai aur door sthit logon dvaara matadaan karne ke liye aarapeee mein sanshodhan karna chaahiye.[7][8] peepal for lok satta, sakriyta se is baat par bal deti rahi hai ki Internet aur daakapatr matadaan ka enaaaraaai matadaan ke ek vyavahaarya saadhan ke roop mein prayog kiya jaae.[9]

Bhaarat mein chunaavon ka itihaas

Loksabha janta ke pratinidhiyon se milkar bani hoti hai jinhein vayask mataadhikaar ke aadhaar par pratyaksh nirvaachan ke dvaara chuna jaata hai. samvidhaan mein ullikhit sadan ki adhiktam kshamata 552 sadasyon ki hai, jinmein 530 sadasya raajyon ke va 20 sadasya kendra shaasit pradeshon ka pratinidhitv karte hain aur do sadasyon ko englo-bhaarateeya samudaayon ke pratinidhitv ke liye raashtrapati dvaara naamaankit kiya jaata hai; aisa tab kiya jaata hai jab raashtrapati ko lagta hai ki us samudaaya ka sadan mein paryaapt roop se pratinidhitv naheen ho raha hai.

saaraansh:

tithi bahumat paane waali party ya gathabandhan pradhaan mantri
1 1952 Congress javaaharalaal Nehru
2 1957 Congress javaaharalaal Nehru
3 1962 Congress javaaharalaal Nehru, gulajaareelaal nanda, laal bahaadur shaastri, indira Gandhi
4 1967 Congress indira Gandhi
5 1971 Congress indira Gandhi
6 1977 janta party moraar ji Desai, charan Singh
7 1980 Congress indira Gandhi, Rajiv gaaaindhi
8 1984 Congress Rajiv gaaaindhi
9 1989 raashtreeya morcha vishvanaath prataap Singh, chandrashekhar Singh
10 1991 Congress pi vi narasinh Rao
11 1996 United fraant atal bihaari Vajpayee, H di devegauda, indr Kumar gujaraal
12 1998 raajag atal bihaari Vajpayee
13 1999 raajag atal bihaari Vajpayee
14 2004 UPA Manmohan Singh
15 2009 UPA Manmohan Singh
16 2014 raajag Narendra Modi

pratham Loksabha (1952)

August 1947 mein svatantr hone aur 26 January 1950 ko apna samvidhaan laagoo karne ke baad 1951 mein Bhaarat ka pehla aam chunaav sampann hua. tatpashchaat desh mein pehli baar 1952 mein Loksabha ka gathan hua. ismein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress (Congress) 364 seaton ke saath satta mein I. iske saath, party ne kul pade voton ka 45 pratishat praapt kiya tha. poore Bhaarat mein 44.87 pratishat ki chunaavi bhaageedaari darj ki gayi. Jawahar laal Nehru desh ke pehle nirvaachit pradhaanamantri bane, unki party ne matadaan ke 75.99% (47665951) mat praapt karke virodhiyon ko spasht roop se hara diya. 17 April 1952 ko gathit hui lok sabha ne, 4 April 1957 tak ka apna kaaryakaal poora kiya.

pratham aam chunaav se theek pehle Nehru ke do poorv cabinet sahayogiyon ne Congress ke varchasv ko chunauti dene ke liye alag raajaneetik dalon ki sthaapana kar li thi. jahaan ek or shyaama prasaad mukharji ne October 1951 mein janasangh ki sthaapana ki, vaheen doosari or dalit neta bheemaaraav ambedakar ne anusoochit jaati mahaasangh (jise baad mein Republican party ka naam diya gaya) ko punarjeevit kiya. jo anya dal us samay aage aae unamein aachaarya krupaalani ki kisaan majadoor praja parishad, raamamanohar lohiya aur jayaprakaash Narayan ke netrutv waali samaajavaadi party aur bhaarateeya kamyoonist party shaamil hain. haalaanki, in chhote dalon ko pata tha ki ve vaastav mein Congress ke khilaaf kaheen khade naheen hote hain.

pehli Loksabha ke adhyaksh shri ganesh vaasudev maavalankar the. pehli Loksabha mein 677 (3784 ghante) baithakein hui, yeh ab tak hui baithakon ki uchchatam sankhya hai. is lok sabha ne 17 April 1952 se 4 April 1957 tak apna kaaryakaal poora kiya.

doosari Loksabha (1957)

bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress 1952 ki apni safalta ki kahaani ko 1957 mein aayojit hue doosare Loksabha chunaavon mein bhi doharaane mein kaamayaab rahi. Congress ke 490 ummeedavaaron mein se 371 seatein jeetne mein kaamayaab rahe. party ne kul 57,579,589 maton ki jeet ke saath 47.78 pratishat bahumat surakshit rakha. Jawahar laal Nehru achhe bahumat ke saath satta mein vaapas laute. 11 May 1957 ko, M. anantashayanam aayangar ko sarvasammati se nai lok sabha ka adhyaksh chuna gaya.

in chunaavon mein Congress ke sadasya firoj Gandhi ka udaya bhi dekha gaya (jinhonne pradhaanamantri Nehru ki beti indira se vivaah kiya). unhonne uttar pradesh ke raayabareli nirvaachan kshetr se apne niktatam pratidvandvi, nand kishor ko 29,000 se adhik maton ke antar se haraaya.

dilchasp baat yeh rahi ki 1957 ke chunaavon mein ek bhi mahila ummeedavaar maidaan mein naheen thi. 1957 mein nirdaleeyon ko matadaan ka 19 pratishat praapt hua. doosari Loksabha ne 31 March 1962 tak ka apna kaaryakaal poora kiya.

teesari Loksabha (1962)

teesari Loksabha April 1962 mein banaai gayi thi. us samay Pakistan ke saath sambandh kharaab bane hue the. cheen ke saath 'dostaana' sambandh bhi October 1962 ke seema yuddh se ek mithya hi saabit hue. apni sarkaar dvaara suraksha par paryaapt dhyaan na dene ke mudde par chaaron or aalochna hone ke baad, Nehru ko tatkaaleen raksha mantri Krishna Menon ko hataane aur America ki sainya sahaayata lene ke liye baadhya hona pada. Nehru ka svasthya teji se bigadne laga aur vah 1963 mein svaasthya laabh ke liye Kashmir mein kai maheene gujaarne ke liye baadhya ho gaye. 1964 May mein unke Kashmir se lautane par, Nehru sadme se peedit hue aur baad mein dil ka daura padne se 27 May 1964 ko unka nidhan ho gaya. visheshagyon ka kehna hai ki 1962 mein cheen ke Bhaarat ki seemaaon ke aakraman aur Pakistan ke saath ghareloo maamalon ne Nehru ko kadvaahat se bhar diya tha.

vayovruddh Congressi neta gulajaareelaal nanda ne Nehru ki mrutyu ke baad do saptaah ke liye unki jagah li. Congress dvaara laal bahaadur shaastri ko naya neta chune jaane tak unhonne kaaryavaahak pradhaanamantri ke roop mein kaam kiya. shaastri pradhaanamantri pad ke liye ek sambhaavit vikalp naheen the jinhonne, shaayad apratyaashit roop se, 1965 mein Pakistan par jeet dilaane mein desh ka netrutv kiya. shaastri aur Pakistan ke raashtrapati, mohammad ayoob Khan ne, poorv soviyt sangh ke taashakant mein 10 January 1966 ko ek shaanti sandhi par hastaakshar kiye. haalaanki, shaastri apni jeet ke faayde dekhne ke liye jyaada samay tak jeevit naheen rahe.

shaastri ki mrutyu se utpann hue rikt sthaan ke kaaran Congress ne ek baar pun: neta viheen ho gayi. Nehru ki beti indira Gandhi ke pradhaanamantri banane se pehle ek baar fir nanda ko ek maheene se kam samay ke liye kaaryavaahak pradhaanamantri banaaya gaya. indira, shaastri ji ke mantrimandal mein soochana evam prasaaran mantri ke roop kaam karti theen. tatkaaleen Congress adhyaksh ke. kaamaraaj ne 1966 mein indira ko pradhaanamantri banaane mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai thi. pooraane Congressi neta moraaraji Desai se kade virodh ke baavajood, indira Gandhi 24 January 1966 ko pradhaanamantri bani. Congress ke liye vaastav mein yeh samay sabse achha naheen tha. party aantarik sankaton se joojh rahi thi aur desh haal mein lade do yuddhon ke prabhaav se Uber raha tha. arthavyavastha ko nuksaan hua tha aur manobal kaafi gira hua tha. jin anya muddon ne lok sabha ko hila kar rakh diya tha unamein mijo aadivaasi bagaavat, akaal, shramik ashaanti aur rupaya avmoolyan ke maddenajar gareebon ki badahaali shaamil thi. vaheen Punjab mein bhi bhaashaai aur dhaarmik alagaavavaad ke liye aandolan chal raha tha.

chauthi Loksabha (1967)

Bhaarat April 1967 mein chauthe chunaav ki raajanaitik gatividhiyon se gujar raha tha. jis Congress ne ab tak chunaavon mein 73 pratishat se kam seatein naheen jeeti thi, aage aane wala samay uske liye aur bura saabit hone wala tha.

Congress ke aantarik sankat ka asar 1967 ke chunaav ke parinaamon mein saaf dikhaai diya. pehli baar, Congress ne nichle sadan mein kareeb 60 seaton ko kho diya. use 283 seatein par jeet praapt hui. 1967 tak, sabse puraani party ne vidhaanasabha chunaavon mein bhi kabhi 60 pratishat se kam seatein naheen jeeti theen. yahaaain bhi Congress ko ek bada jhatka sahana pada kyonki Bihar, Kerala, udeesa, Madras, Punjab aur pashchim Bengal mein gair Congressi sarkaarein sthaapit huin. is sab ke saath, indira Gandhi ko, jo raayabareli nirvaachan kshetr se Loksabha ke liye chune gayeen thi, 13 March ko pradhaanamantri ke roop mein shapath dilaai gayi. asantusht aavaajon ke shaant rakhane ke liye, unhonne moraaraji Desai ko Bhaarat ka upapradhaanamantri aur Bhaarat ka vittamantri niyukt kiya. moraaraji Desai ne Nehru ki mrutyu ke baad indira ko pradhaanamantri banaae jaane ka virodh kiya tha.

Congress party ke bheetar matabhed badhte rahe. Congress ne 12 November 1969 "anushaasanaheenata" ke liye moraar ji Desai ko nishkaasit kar diya. is ghatna ne Congress ko do bhaagon mein vibhaajit kar diya: (1) Congress (O) - sangathan (organization) ke liye - jiska netrutv moraaraji Desai ne kiya aur (2) Congress (I) - indira ke liye - jiska netrutv indira Gandhi kar rahi theen. indira ne December 1970 tak CPI (M) ke samarthan se ek alpamat waali sarkaar ko chalaaya. vah aage alpamat ki sarkaar naheen chalaana chaahati theen, isliye unhonne chunaavon ki avadhi se ek varsh pehle madhyaavadhi Loksabha chunavon ki ghoshana kar di.

5veen Loksabha (1971)

indira Gandhi ne 1971 mein Congress ko bhaari bahumat se jeet dilaai. "gareebi hataao" ke chunaavi naare ke saath prachaar karte hue, vah 352 seaton ke saath sansad mein vaapas aayeen; yeh pichhle chunaavon ki 283 seaton ke mukaabale ullekhaneeya sudhaar tha.

indira Gandhi ne 1971 mein Bhaarat Pakistan yuddh ke dauraan saahasik nirnaya liya jiske parinaamasvaroop Bangladesh mukt ho gaya. December 1971 mein Bhaarat ki jeet ka sabhi bhaarateeyon dvaara svaagat kiya gaya kyonki yeh cheen aur sanyukt raajya America se raajanayik virodhon ka saamana karte hue praapt hui thi. us samay tatkaaleen soviyt sangh aur poorvi block ke deshon ko chhodkar shaayad hi kisi anya desh ne Bhaarat ka antararaashtreeya samarthan kiya tha.

indira aur Congress donon ke samaksh kuchh anya samasyaaen bhi theen. Bhaarat Pak yuddh mein aayi bhaari aarthik laagat, duniya mein tel ki keematon mein vruddhi aur audyogik utpaadan mein giraavat ne aarthik kathinaaiyon ko badha diya tha.

12 June 1975 ko Allahabad uchch nyaayaalaya ne chunaavi bhrashtaachaar ke aadhaar par unke 1971 ke chunaav ko avaidh thahara diya. isteefe ke bajaay, indira gaaaindhi ne desh mein aapaatakaal ki ghoshana ki aur poore vipaksh ko jail mein daal diya.

aapaatakaal March 1977 tak chala aur 1977 mein aayojit chunaavon mein jan morcha naam ke paartiyon ke gathabandhan se unhein haar ka saamana karna pada. aisa pehli baar hua tha jab Congress ko ek gambhir haar ka saamana karna pada tha.

6veen Loksabha (1977)

Congress sarkaar dvaara aapaatakaal ki ghoshana 1977 ke chunaavon mein mukhya mudda tha. raashtreeya aapaatakaal ke dauraan 25 June 1975 se 21 March 1977 tak naagrik svatantrataaon ko samaapt kar diya gaya tha aur pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ne vishaal shaktiyaan apne haath mein le li theen.

Gandhi apne is nirnaya ki vajah se kaafi alokapriya huin aur chunaavon mein unhein iski keemat chukaani padi. 23 January ko Gandhi ne, March mein chunaav karaane ki ghoshana ki aur sabhi raajaneetik kaidiyon ko riha kar diya. chaar vipakshi dalon, Congress (O), janasangh, bhaarateeya lokadal aur samaajavaadi party ne 'janta party' ke roop mein milkar chunaav ladne ka faisala kiya.

janta party ne matadaataaon ko aapaatakaal ke dauraan hui jyaadatiyon aur maanav adhikaaron ke ullanghan ki yaad dilaai jaise anivaarya bandhyaakaran aur raajanetaaon ko jail mein daalna.. janta abhiyaan mein kaha gaya ki chunaav tay karega ki Bhaarat mein "lokatantr hoga ya taanaashaahi". Congress aashankit dikh rahi thi. krushi aur sinchaai mantri babu jagajeevan Ram ne party chhod di aur aisa karne vaale kai logon mein se ve ek the.

Congress ne ek majaboot sarkaar ki jaroorat hone ki baat kehkar matadaataaon ko lubhaane ki koshish ki lekin lahar iske khilaaf chal rahi thi.

svatantr Bhaarat mein pehli baar Congress ko chunaavon mein haar ka saamana karna pada aur janta party ne 298 seatein jeeti. moraar ji Desai 24 March ko Bhaarat ke pehle gair-Congressi pradhaanamantri bane, unhein chunaavon se do mahine pehle hi jail se riha kiya gaya tha.

Congress ki lagbhag 200 seaton par haar hui. indira Gandhi aur unke bete sanjaya Gandhi bhi chunaav haar gaye.

7veen Loksabha (1980)

janta party, Congress aur aapaatakaal ke khilaaf janta ke gusse par savaar hokar satta mein aayi lekin iski sthiti kamjor thi. Loksabha mein party ki 270 seatein theen aur satta par usaki pakad majaboot naheen thi.

bhaarateeya lok dal ke neta chaudhari charan Singh aur jagajeevan Ram, jinhonne Congress chhod di thi, janta gathabandhan ke sadasya the, lekin pradhaanamantri moraaraji Desai ke se ve khush naheen the.

aapaatakaal ke dauraan maanavaadhikaar ke hanan ki jaanch ke liye jo adaalatein sarkaar ne gathit ki theen ve indira Gandhi ke khilaaf pratishodhi dikhaai padeen, indira ne swayam ko ek pareshaan mahila ke roop mein chitrit karne ka koi mauka naheen gavaanya.

samaajavaadiyon aur hindu raashtravaadiyon ka mishran janta party, 1979 mein vibhaajit ho gayi jab bhaarateeya janasangh (BJS) ke neta atal bihaari Vajpayee aur Lal Krishna Advani ne party ko chhod diya aur beejees ne sarkaar se samarthan vaapas le liya.

Desai ne sansad mein vishvaas mat kho diya aur isteefa de diya. charan Singh, jinhonne janta gathabandhan ke kuchh bhaageedaaron ko barkaraar rakha tha, unhonne pradhaanamantri ke roop mein June 1979 mein shapath li.

Congress ne sansad mein chaudhari charan Singh ke samarthan ka vaada kiya lekin baad mein peechhe hat gayi. unhonne January 1980 mein chunaav ki ghoshana kar di aur ve akele pradhaanamantri the jo kabhi sansad naheen gaye. janta party ke netaaon ke beech ki ladaai aur desh mein faili raajaneetik asthirta ne Congress (I) ke paksh mein kaam kiya, jisne matadaataaon indira Gandhi ki majaboot sarkaar ki yaad dila di.

Congress ne Loksabha mein 351 seatein jeeteen aur janta party, ya bache hue gathabandhan ko 32 seatein mileen.

janta party ka saal dar saal vibhaajan hota raha lekin ye desh ke raajanaitik itihaas mein ek mahatvapoorn meal ka patthar saabit hua: yeh ek gathabandhan tha aur isne yeh saabit kar diya ki Congress ko haraaya ja sakta hai.

8veen Loksabha (1984-1985)

31 October 1984 ko pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ki hatya ne, Congress ke liye sahaanubhooti mat banaae. indira Gandhi ki mrutyu ke baad Loksabha ko bhang kar diya gaya aur Rajiv Gandhi ne antarim pradhaanamantri ke roop mein shapath li.

November 1984 ke liye chunaav ki ghoshana kar di gayi aur chunaav prachaar ke dauraan Rajiv ne logon ko apne parivaar ke yogadaan ki yaad dilaai.

Congress ne bhaari bahumat se jeet haasil ki. isne 409 Loksabha seatein aur lokapriya maton ka 50 feesadi apne naam kiya, yeh party ka sarvashreshth pradarshan tha. telugu desham party 30 seaton ke saath sansad mein doosari sabse badi party ban gayi. yeh bhaarateeya sansad ke itihaas ke un durlabh rikaardon mein ek hai jismein koi kshetreeya party mukhya vipakshi dal ke roop mein ubhari.

9veen Loksabha (1989)

9veen Loksabha ke chunaav bhaarateeya chunaavi raajaneeti mein kai maayanon mein aitihaasik ghatna rahe. in chunaavon ne raajanetaaon ke matadaata se vote maangane ke tareeke ko badal diya. ab jaati aur dharm ke aadhaar par vote maangana kendra bindu ban gaya.

yadyapi 1989 ke aam chunaav kai sankaton se joojh rahe yuva Rajiv ke saath lade gaye kintu Congress sarkaar apni vishvasaneeyata aur lokapriyta kho rahi thi. bofors kaand, Punjab mein badhta aatankvaad, elateeteei aur Sri Lanka sarkaar ke beech gruh yuddh un samasyaaon mein se kuchh thi jo Rajiv Gandhi ki sarkaar ke saamane theen. Rajiv ke sabse bade aalochak vishvanaath prataap Singh the jinhonne sarkaar mein vitt mantraalaya aur raksha mantraalaya ka kaamkaaj sambhaala rakha tha. raksha mantri ke roop mein Singh ke kaaryakaal ke dauraan yeh afavaah thi ki unke paas bofors raksha saude se sambandhit aisi jaankaari thi jo Rajiv Gandhi ki pratishtha ko barbaad kar sakti thi.

lekin Singh ko sheegra hi mantrimandal se barkhaast kar diya gaya aur fir unhonne Congress aur lok sabha mein apni sadasyata se isteefa de diya. unhonne Arun Nehru aur aarif mohammad Khan ke saath jan morcha ka gathan kiya aur Allahabad se Loksabha mein pravesh kiya.

11 October 1988 ko, jan morcha, janta party, lokadal aur Congress (S) ke vilay se janta dal ki sthaapana hui taaki sabhi dal ek saath milkar Rajiv Gandhi sarkaar ka virodh kar karein. jald hi, dramuk, tedepa aur agap sahit kai kshetreeya dal janta dal se mil gaye aur national frant ki sthaapana ki. paanch paartiyon wala national frant, bhaarateeya janta party aur do kamyoonist paartiyon- bhaarateeya kamyoonist party - maarksavaadi (CPI-M) aur bhaarateeya kamyoonist party (CPI) ke saath milkar 1989 ke chunaav maidaan mein utara.

Loksabha mein 525 seaton ke liye yeh chunaav 22 November aur 26 November 1989 ko do charanon mein aayojit hue. national frant ko Loksabha mein aasaan bahumat praapt hua aur usane vaam morche aur bhaarateeya janta party ke baahari samarthan se sarkaar banaai. raashtreeya morche ki sabse bade ghatak janta dal ne 143 seatein jeeteen, iske alaava maakapa aur bhaakapa ne kramash: 33 aur 12 seatein haasil keen. nirdaleeya aur anya chhote dal 59 seatein jeetne mein kaamayaab rahe.

haalaanki, Congress abhi bhi 197 saansadon ke saath Loksabha mein akeli sabse badi party thi. bhaajapa 1984 ke chunaavon mein do seaton ke mukaabale is baar ke chunaavon mein 85 saansadon ke saath sabse jyaada faayde mein rahi. vishvanaath prataap Singh Bhaarat ke 10vein pradhaanamantri bane aur deveelaal up pradhaanamantri bane. unhonne 2 December 1989 se 10 November 1990 tak kaaryaalaya sambhaala. bhaajapa neta Lal Krishna Advani dvaara Ram janmabhoomi-baabari masjid mudde par rath yaatra shuroo kiye jaane aur Bihar ke mukhyamantri laaloo Yadav dvaara Bihar mein giraftaar kiye jaane ke baad party ne vi.pi. Singh sarkaar se samarthan vaapas le liya. VP Singh ne vishvaas mat haarne ke baad isteefa de diya.

chandrashekhar 64 saansadon ke saath janta dal se alag ho gaye aur unhonne 'samaajavaadi janta party' banaai. unhein baahar se Congress ka samarthan mila aur ve Bhaarat ke 11vein pradhaanamantri bane. unhonne aakhirkaar 6 March 1991 ko isteefa de diya, jab Congress ne aarop lagaaya ki sarkaar Rajiv Gandhi par jaasoosi kar rahi hai.

10veen Loksabha (1991)

10 veen Loksabha ke chunaav madhyaavadhi chunaav the kyonki pichhli Loksabha ko sarkaar ke gathan ke sirf 16 maheene baad bhang kar diya gaya tha. yeh chunaav vipreet vaataavaran mein hue aur do sabse mahatvapoorn chunaavi muddon, mandal aayog ki sifaarisein laagoo karne aur Ram janmabhoomi baabari masjid vivaad ke chalte inhein 'mandal-mandir' chunaav bhi kaha jaata hai.

jahaan ek or vi.pi. Singh sarkaar dvaara laagoo mandal aayog ki report mein sarkaari naukariyon mein anya pichhdi jaatiyon (OBC) ko 27 pratishat aarakshan diya gaya tha, jiske kaaran bade paimaane par hinsa hui aur saamaanya jaatiyon ke desh bhar mein iska virodh kiya, vaheen doosari or mandir ayodhya ke vivaadit baabari masjid dhaanche ka pratinidhitv karta tha jise bhaarateeya janta party apne pramukh chunaavi mudde ke roop mein upayog kar rahi thi.

mandir mudde ke falasvarup desh ke kai hisson mein dange hue aur matadaataaon ka jaati aur dhaarmik aadhaar par dhruveekaran ho gaya. raashtreeya morche mein faili avyavastha ne Congress ki vaapasi ke sanket de diye the.

chunaav teen charanon mein 20 May 12 June aur 15 June 1991 aayojit kiye gaye. yeh Congress, bhaajapa aur raashtreeya morcha-janta dal (S)- vaamapanthiyon morche ke gathabandhan ke beech ek trikoneeya mukaabala tha.

matadaan ke pehle daur ke ek din baad 20 May ko, poorv pradhaanamantri Rajiv gaaaindhi ki tamil ilam liberation tiger dvaara shreeperanbadoor mein chunaav prachaar karte hue hatya kar di gayi. chunaav ke shesh dinon ko June ke madhya tak ke liye sthagit kar diye gaya aur ant mein matadaan 12 June aur 15 June ko hua. is baar ke sansadeeya chunaavon mein ab tak ka sabse kam matadaan hua, ismein keval 53 pratishat matadaataaon ne apne mataadhikaar ka prayog kiya.

in chunaavon ke parinaamon se ek trishanku sansad bani, jismein 232 seaton ke saath Congress sabse badi party ke roop mein ubhari aur 120 seaton ke saath bhaajapa doosare sthaan par rahi. janta dal sirf 59 seaton ke saath teesare sthaan par raha.

21 June ko, Congress ke pi vi narasinh Rao ne pradhaanamantri ke roop mein shapath li. Rao, Nehru-Gandhi parivaar ke baahar doosare Congressi pradhaanamantri the. Nehru-Gandhi parivaar ke baahar pehle Congressi pradhaanamantri laal bahaadur shaastri the.

11veen Loksabha (1996)

11 veen Loksabha ke liye hue chunaav ke parinaamon se ek trishanku sansad ka gathan hua aur do varsh tak raajanaitik asthirta rahi jiske dauraan desh ke teen pradhaanamatri bane.

pradhaanamantri pi.vi. narasinh Rao ki Congress (I) sarkaar ne sudhaaron ki ek shrunkhala ko laagoo kiya jisne videshi niveshakon ke liye desh ki arthavyavastha ko khol diya. Rao ke samarthakon ne unhein desh ki arthavyavastha ko bachaane aur desh ki videsh neeti ko sfoorti dene ka shreya diya lekin unki sarkaar April se May mein chunaav se pehle anishchit aur kamjor thi.

May 1995 mein, varishth neta arjun Singh aur Narayan datt tivaari ne Congress chhod di aur apni party ka gathan kiya. harshad Mehta ghotaale, raajaneeti ke aparaadheekaran par vohara ki report, jain havaala kaand aur 'tandoor hatyaakaand' maamale ne Rao sarkaar ki vishvasaneeyata ko kshatigrast kiya.

bhaajapa va uske sahayogi dal aur sanyukt morcha, vaam morcha aur janta dal ka gathabandhan, chunaavon mein Congress ke mukhya pratidvandvi the.

teen saptaah ke abhiyaan ke dauraan, Rao ne apne dvaara laagoo kiye gaye aarthik sudhaaron ko mudda banaakar matadaataaon ko aakarshit kiya aur bhaajapa ne hindutv aur raashtreeya suraksha ke muddon par matadaataaon ko rijhaaya.

matadaata kisi bhi party se prabhaavit naheen lagte the. bhaajapa ne 161 seatein jeeti aur Congress ne 140. sansad ki seaton ki aadhi sankhya 271 thi.

raashtrapati ne bhaajapa neta atal bihaari Vajpayee ko sarkaar banaane ke liye aamantrit kiya, choonki ve sansad mein sabse badi party ke mukhiya the.

Vajpayee ne 16 May ko pradhaanamantri ke roop mein padabhaar sambhaala aur sansad mein kshetreeya dalon se samarthan paane ki koshish ki. vah is kaam mein vifal rahe aur 13 dinon ke baad unhonne isteefa de diya.

janta dal ke neta H di devegauda ne 1 June ko ek sanyukt morcha gathabandhan sarkaar ka gathan kiya. unki sarkaar 18 maheene chali.

devegauda ke videsh mantri indrakumaar gujaraal ne pradhaanamantri ke roop mein April 1997 mein padabhaar sambhaala jab Congress baahar se ek nai sanyukt morcha sarkaar ka samarthan karne ke liye sahamat ho gayi. lekin gujaraal keval ek kaamachalaaoo vyavastha ke roop mein the. desh mein 1998 mein fir se chunaav hona tay tha.

12veen Loksabha (1998)

11veen Loksabha ka jeevan chhota tha, yeh mushkil se dedh saal chali. alpamat waali Indra Kumar gujaraal ki sarkaar (May 1996 ke aam chunaavon se 18 maheenon ke bheetar sanyukt morcha ki doosari sarkaar), 28 November 1997 ko gir gayi jab seetaaraam kesari ke netrutv waali Congress ne Rajiv Gandhi ki hatya mein dramuk neta. on ke shaamil hone ke vivaad ke chalte sarkaar se samarthan vaapas le liya.

nae chunaavon ki ghoshana ki gayi aur 10 March 1998 ko 12 veen Loksabha ka gathan hua aur varishth bhaajapa neta atal bihaari Vajpayee ke netrutv vaale gathabandhan ko nau din baad shapath dilaai gayi. 12 veen Loksabha keval 413 din chali, jo us tithi tak ka sabse kam samay tha.

ek vyavahaarya vikalp ke abhaav ke kaaran tab vightan ho gaya jab 13 maheene puraani bhaarateeya janta party ke netrutv waali sarkaar ko 17 April ko keval ek mat se bedakhal kar diya gaya. aisa paanchaveen baar hua tha jab Loksabha ko apna kaaryakaal poora karne se pehle bhang kar diya gaya.

4 December 1997 ko lok sabha ke vightan ke baad samay se pehle hi sabhi Loksabha seaton ke liye chunaav hue.

chunaav pashchaat gathabandhan ki rananeeti ne bhaajapa ke netrutv vaale gathabandhan ko 265 seaton ka kaaryakaari bahumat pradaan kiya. is sandarbh mein 15 March ko, raashtrapati ke aar Narayanan ne Vajpayee ko agali sarkaar banaane ke liye aamantrit kiya. 19 March ko Vajpayee ne pradhaanamantri ke roop mein shapath li.

13veen Loksabha (1999)

17 April 1999 ko, Vajpayee ne Loksabha mein vishvaas mat kho diya aur iske falasvaroop unki gathabandhan sarkaar ne isteefa de diya. unhonne iska kaaran apne 24 party vaale raashtreeya janataantrik gathabandhan (raajag) mein saamanjasya ki kami hona bataaya. bhaajapa, gathabandhan ki apne sahayogi jayalalita ke netrutv waali annaadramuk ke peechhe hatne ke kaaran matadaan mein ek vote se haar gayi thi.

jayalalita apni maange poori na hone par lagaataar samarthan vaapas lene ki dhamaki de rahi theen, in maangon mein vishesh roop se Tamil Nadu sarkaar se barkhaast karna shaamil tha jiska niyantran ve teen saal pehle kho chuki theen. bhaajapa ne aarop lagaaya ki jayalalita bhrashtaachaar ke aaropon ki jaanch se bachane ki maang kar raheen theen aur paartiyon ke beech koi samjhauta naheen kiya ja saka jisse sarkaar ki haar hui.

mukhya vipakshi party Congress, kshetreeya aur vaamapanthi samoohon ke saath milkar bahumat waali sarkaar banaane ke liye paryaapt samarthan naheen pa saki. 26 April ko, Bhaarat ke tatkaaleen raashtrapati ke. aar. Narayanan ne Loksabha bhang kar di aur jaldi chunaav karne ki ghoshana kar di. bhaajapa ne matadaan hone tak ek antarim prashaasan ke roop mein shaasan karna jaari rakha, chunaav aayog dvaara chunaavon ki tithi 4 May ghoshit ki gayi thi.

choonki pichhle chunaav 1996 aur 1998 mein aayojit hue the, isliye 1999 ke chunaav 40 maheene mein teesari baar ho rahe the. chunaavi dhokhaadhadi aur hinsa ko rokane ke liye desh ke 31 raajyon va kendra shaasit pradeshon mein suraksha balon ko tainaat karne hetu ye chunaav paanch saptaah tak chale the. kul milaakar 45 paartiyon ne (chhah raashtreeya, shesh kshetreeya) 543 Loksabha seaton par chunaav lada.

lambe chunaav abhiyaan ke dauraan, bhaajapa aur Congress ne aam taur par aarthik aur videsh neeti ke muddon par sahamati vyakt ki, ismein Pakistan ke saath Kashmir seema vivaad ka niptaara bhi shaamil tha. unki pratidvandvita keval Congress adhyaksh Sonia Gandhi aur Vajpayee ke beech ke vyaktigat takaraav ke roop mein hi adhik prakat hui.

Sonia Gandhi ko 1998 mein kaafi kam umr mein party ke adhyaksh pad ke liye nirvaachit kiya gaya, Sonia ki janmabhoomi Italy hone ki baat ko mudda banaakar Maharashtra ke Congressi neta sharad Pawar ne Sonia ke chayan ko chunauti di. is kaaran se Congress mein aatanrik sankat paida ho gaye aur bhaajapa ne prabhaavi roop se ek chunaavi mudde ke roop mein iska prayog kiya.

Vajpayee dvaara Kargil yuddh se nipatne ka sakaaraatmak drushtikon bhi ek mudda tha jo bhaajapa ke paksh mein kaam kar raha tha. yeh yuddh chunaavon se kuchh maheene pehle hi samaapt hua tha aur isne Kashmir mein Bhaarat ki sthiti ko majaboot kiya tha. iske alaava, pichhle do varshon mein Bhaarat ne aarthik udaareekaran aur vitteeya sudhaaron ke chalte aarthik roop se kaafi vruddhi tainaat ki thi, iske saath-saath mudraasfeeti ki darein kam aur audyogik vikaas ki darein bhi uchch theen.

anya dalon ke saath majaboot aur vyaapak gathajod ke madhyam se raajanaitik vistaar ke aadhaar par, 1991, 1996 aur 1998 ke chunaavon mein bhaajapa aur uske sahayogiyon ne lagaataar vikaas kiya tha; aur kshetreeya vistaar ke kaaran raajag pratispardhi ban gaya aur yahaan tak ki usane Congress ki bahulata vaale kshetron jaise udeesa, Andhra pradesh aur asam mein bhi sabse jyaada vote praapt kiye the. ye kaarak 1999 ke chunaav parinaamon mein nirnaayak saabit hue.

6 October ko aae parinaam mein raajag ko 298 seatein mileen, Congress aur uske sahayogiyon ko 136 seaton par viyj praapt hui. Vajpayee ne 13 October ko pradhaanamantri ke roop mein shapath li.

14 veen Loksabha (2004)

bhaajapa ke netrutv waali raajag sarkaar ne 2004 mein pradhaanamantri atal bihaari Vajpayee ki dekharekh mein apne shaasan ke paanch saal poore kiye aur 20 April se 10 May 2004 ke beech chaar charanon ke chunaav hue.

adhikaansh vishleshakon ka maanana tha ki raajag, 'feel gud factor' aur apne prachaar abhiyaan 'Bhaarat udaya' ki madad se, satta virodhi lahar ko hara degi aur spasht bahumat praapt karegi. bhaajapa shaasan ke dauraan arthavyavastha mein lagaataar vruddhi dikhaai di thi aur saarvajanik kshetr ke upakramon ke vinivesh ko patari par lagaaya gaya tha. Bhaarat ke videshi mudra bhandaar mein 100 arab dollar se adhik raashi jama thi (duniya mein saatavein sabse bada aur Bhaarat ke liye ek record). seva kshetr ne bhi dheron naukriyaan upalabdh utpann hui theen.

1990 ke dashak ke anya sabhi Loksabha chunaavon ki tulana mein in chunaavon mein, do vyaktitvon ka takaraav (Vajpayee aur Sonia Gandhi) adhik dekha gaya kyonki vahaan koi teesara vyavahaarya vikalp maujood naheen tha. bhaajapa aur iske sahayogiyon ka jhagada ek taraf tha aur Congress aur uske sahayogiyon ka jhagada doosari taraf. haalaanki, kshetreeya matabhed raashtreeya paridrushya par ubhare the.

bhaajapa ne raajag ke sadasya ke roop mein chunaav lada, haalaanki iske seaton ke bantavaare ko lekar iske samjhaute raajag ke baahar kuchh majaboot kshetreeya dalon ke saath bhi the jaise Andhra pradesh mein telugu desham party aur Tamil Nadu mein akhil bhaarateeya anna Dravid munetr kadgam party.

Congress ke netrutv mein raashtreeya star ka vipakshi morcha banaane ki koshish bhi hui. ant mein, koi samjhauta naheen ho paaya, lekin kshetreeya star par kai raajyon mein Congress aur kshetreeya paartiyon ke gathabandhan ho gaya. yeh pehli baar tha ki Congress ne sansadeeya chunaavon mein is tarah ke gathabandhan ke saath chunaav lada tha.

vaamapanthi dalon, visheshakar bhaarateeya communist party (maarksavaadi) aur communist party of India, ne apne majaboot kshetron jaise pashchim Bengal, tripura aur Kerala mein apne dam par chunaav lada aur Congress aur raajag donon ka saamana kiya. anya raajyon jaise Punjab aur Andhra pradesh mein unhonne Congress ke saath seatein baanti. Tamil Nadu mein ve dramuk ke netrutv vaale janataantrik pragatisheel gathabandhan ka hissa the.

bahujan samaaj party aur samaajavaadi party ne Congress ya bhaajapa donon mein se kisi ke saath bhi jaane se inkaar kar diya. ye donon Bhaarat ke sarvaadhik aabaadi vaale raajya uttar pradesh mein aadhaarit hain.

haalaanki chunaav poorv bhavishyavaaniyon mein bhaajapa ke liye bhaari bahumat ki baat kahi gayi thi, lekin egjit paul (chunaav ke turant baad aur ginti shuroo hone se pehle) mein trishanku sansad ki bhavishyavaani hui. yeh bhi aam dhaarana hai ki jaise hi bhaajapa ne yeh maanana aarambh kiya ki chunaav poori tarah se uske paksh mein naheen hue hain, isne bhaajapa ke abhiyaan ka dhyaan India shaaining se hataakar sthirta ke muddon par keindrit kar diya. jis Congress ko bhaajapa ne "puraane dhng waali" ka naam diya tha use mukhyat: gareebon, graameenon, nichli jaatiyon aur alpasankhyak matadaataaon ka bhaari samarthan mila jisse Congress ne badi jeet haasil ki; in logon ko ek vishaalakaaya madhyamavarg ko janm dene waali vigat varshon ki aarthik vruddhi ka koi vishesh laabh praapt naheen hua.

chunaav poorv bhavishyavaaniyon mein paraajaya ke liye vibhinn kaaranon ko jimmedaar maana jaata hai. raashtreeya muddon ki bajaay log apne aaspaas ke muddon, jaise paani ki kami, sookha, aadi, ke baare mein jyaada chintit the; aur bhaajapa ke sahayogi satta virodhi bhaavanaaon ka saamana kar rahe the.

13 May ko, bhaajapa ne haar ko sveekaar kiya aur Congress apne sahayogiyon ki madad aur Sonia Gandhi ke maargadarshan mein 543 mein se 335 sadasyon (basapa, sapa, emadeeemake aur vaam morcha ke baahari samarthan sahit) ka bahumat praapt karne mein safal rahi. chunaav ke baad hue is gathabandhan ko sanyukt pragatisheel gathabandhan kaha gaya.

Sonia Gandhi ne pradhaanamantri banane se inkaar kar lagbhag sabhi ko hairaan kar diya. iske bajaay poorv vitt mantri dau॰ Manmohan Singh se yeh daayitv uthaane ke liye kaha gaya. dau॰ Singh isse pehle narasinh Rao ki sarkaar mein 1990 ke dashak ki shurooaat mein apni sevaaen de chuke the, jahaaain unhein Bhaarat ki aisi pehli aarthik udaareekaran neeti ke rachayitaaon mein se ek maana jaata tha jisne aasann raashtreeya maudrik sankat se ubarane mein madad ki thi.

15veen Loksabha (2009)

May 2009 mein, 15veen Loksabha ke chunaav ke parinaamon ki ghoshana ki gayi. pun: Congress ke netrutv vaale sanyukt pragatisheel gathabandhan (samprag) ki sarkaar bani. shreemati meera Kumar lok sabha adhyaksh bani.

16veen Loksabha (2014)

aprail–mai 2014 mein Bhaarat mein sohalaveen Loksabha ke chunaav huye. in chunaavon mein bhaarateeya janta party ko Narendra Modi ke netrutv mein poorn bahumat praapt hua. raashtreeya janataantrik gathabandhan ko kul 336 seatein praapt huin. bhaarateeya janta party ko akele 282 seatein praapt huin jo saadhaaran bahumat ke liye aavashyak 272 seaton se 10 adhik hai. Congress ko maatr 44 seatein hi mil sakeen jo is party se aajatak ka sabse kharaab pradarshan hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • 49-O, jise 'no vote (koi mat naheen)' ke roop mein adhik jaana jaata hai
  • Bhaarat mein aam chunaav
  • Bhaarat mein raajya vidhaanasabha chunaav
  • nota

sandarbh

  • subrat ke. mitr aur vi.bi. Singh. 1999. Bhaarat mein lokatantr va saamaajik parivartan : raashtreeya matadaataaon ka ek gahan vishleshan . nai Delhi: sej prakaashan. aaiesabeeen 81-7036-809-X (Bhaarat echabi) aaiesabeeen 0-7619-9344-4 (you.S.echabi).
  • subrat ke. mitr, Mike enskat, klemeins spiyes (aadi). 2004. dakshin Asia mein raajaneetik dal . greenavud: prejer.
  • subrat ke.mitr/Mike enskat/vi.bi.Singh. 2001. Bhaarat mein: nohlen, deetar (Ed.). Asia aur prashaant kshetr mein chunaav

baahya kadiyaan