bhaarateeya chhandashaastr

chhand shabd anek arthon mein prayukt kiya jaata hai. "chhandas" ved ka paryaayavaachi naam hai. saamaanyat: varnon aur maatraaon ki geyavyavastha ko chhand kaha jaata hai. isi arth mein padya shabd ka bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. padya adhik vyaapak arth mein prayukt hota hai. bhaasha mein shabd aur shabdon mein varn tatha svar rahate hain. inheen ko ek nishchit vidhaan se suvyavasthit karne par chhand ka naam diya jaata hai.

chhandashaastr isaliye atyant pusht shaastr maana jaata hai kyonki vah ganit par aadhaarit hai. vastut: dekhne par aisa prateet hota hai ki chhandashaastr ki rachana isaliye ki gayi jisse agrim santati iske niyamon ke aadhaar par chhandarachana kar sake. chhandashaastr ke granthon ko dekhne se yeh bhi gyaat hota hai ki jahaaain ek or aachaarya prastaaraadi ke dvaara chhando ko viksit karte rahe vaheen doosari or kavign apni or se chhandon mein kinchit parirvan karte hue naveen chhandon ki srushti karte rahe jinka chhandashaastr ke grathon mein kaalaantar mein samaavesh ho gaya.

anukram

itihaas

chhandashaastr ki rachana kab hui? is sambandh mein koi nishchit vichaar naheen diya ja sakta. kinvadanti hai ki maharshi vaalmeeki aadikvi hain aur unka raamaayan naamak kaavya aadikaavya hai. ma nishaad pratishthaan tvan gam: shaashvati sama: yatkraunchamithunaadekamavadhi:, kaamamohitan - yeh anushtup chhand vaalmeeki ke mukh se nikla hua pratham chhand hai jo shok ke kaaran sahasa shlok ke roop mein prakat hua. yadi is kinvadanti ko maan liya jaae, chhand ki rachana pehle hui aur chhandashaastr uske pashchaat aaya. vaalmeekeeya raamaayan mein anushtup chhand ka prayog aadyopaant hua hi hai, anya upajaati aadi ka bhi prayog prachur maatra mein praapt hota hai.

ek anya kinvadanti yeh hai ki chhandashaastr ke aadi aavishkarta bhagavaan shesh hain. ek baar garud ne unhein pakad liya. shesh ne kaha ki hamaare paas ek apratim vidya hai jo aap seekh lein, taduparaant hamein khaaeain. garud ne kaha ki aap bahaane banaate hain aur svarakshaarth hamein vibhramit kar rahe hain. shesh ne uttar diya ki ham asatya bhaashan naheen karte. ispar garud ne sveekaar kar liya aur shesh unhein chhandashaastr ka upadesh karne lage. vividh chhandon ke rachanaaniym bataate hue ant mein shesh ne "bhujangaprayaati" chhand ka niyam bataaya aur sheegra hi samudra mein pravesh kar gaye. garud ne ispar kaha ki tumane hamein dhokha diya, shesh ne uttar diya ki humne jaane ke poorv aapko soochana de di. chaturbhimkaare bhujangaprayaati arthaat chaar ganon se bhujang prayaat chhand banta hai aur prayukt hota hai. is prakaar chhandashaastr ka aavirbhaav hua. isse prateet hota hai. ki chhandashaastr ek daivi vidya ke roop mein prakat hua. is prakaar bhi kaha ja sakta hai ki iske aavishkakarta shesh naamak koi aachaarya the jinke vishay mein is samay kuchh vishesh gyaan aur soochana naheen hai. iske pashchaat kaha jaata hai ki shesh ne avataar lekar pingalaachaarya ke roop mein chhandasootr ki rachana ki, jo pingalashaastr kaha jaata hai. yeh granth sootrashaili mein likha gaya hai aur is samay tak upalabdh hai. ispar teekaaeain tatha vyaakhyaaeain ho chuki hain. yahi chhandashaastr ka sarvapratham granth maana jaata hai. iske pashchaat is shaastr par sanskrut saahitya mein anek granthon ki rachana hui.

chhandashaastr ke rachiytaaon ko do shreniyon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai : ek aachaarya shreni, jo chhandashaastr ka shaastreeya niroopan karti hai aur doosari kavi shreni, jo chhandashaastr par pruthak rachanaaeain prastut karti hai. thode samay ke pashchaat ek lekhak shreni aur prakat hui jinmein aise lekhak aate hain jo chhandon ke niymaadikon ki vivechana apni or se karte hain kintu udaaharan doosare ke rache hue tatha prachalit anshon se uddhrut karte hain. hindi mein bhi chhandashaastr par anek granth likhe gaye hain.

chhndashaastr ka vivechya vishay

chhandashaastr mein mukhya vivechya vishay do hain :

  • chhandon ki rachanaavidhi tatha
  • chhand sambandhi ganana jismein prastaar, pataaka, uddisht, nasht aadi ka varnan kiya gaya hai. inki sahaayata se kisi nishchit sankhyaatmak vargon aur maatraaon ke chhandon ki poorn sankhyaadi ka bodh saralata se ho jaata hai.

chhand ke prakaar

chhand mukhyat: do prakaar ke hain :

vaidik chhand

jinka prayong vedon mein praapt hota hai. inmein hrasv, deergh, plut aur svarit, in chaar prakaar ke svaron ka vichaar kiya jaata hai, yatha "anushtup" ityaadi. vaidik chhand apaurusheya maane jaate hain.

laukik chhand

inka prayog saahatyaantargat kiya jaata hain, kintu vastut: laukik chhand ve chhand hain jinka prachaar saamaanya lok athva janasamudaaya mein rahata hai. ye chhand kisi nishchit niyam par aadhaarit na hokar visheshat: taal aur laya par hi aadhaarit rahate hain, isaliye inki rachana saamaanya apathit jan bhi kar lete hain. laukik chhandon se taatparya hota hai un chhandon se jinki rachana nishchit niyamon ke aadhaar par hoti hai aur jinka prayog supathit kavi kaavyaadi rachana mein karte hain. in laukik chhandon ke rachana-vidhi-sambandhi niyam suvyavasthit roop se jis shaastr mein rakhe gaye hain use chhandashaastr kehte hain.

chhandon ka vargeekaran

chhandon ka vibhaajan varnon aur maatraaon ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai. chhand prathamat: do prakaar ke maane gaye hai : varnik aur maatrik.

varnik chhand

inmein vrutton ki sankhya nishchit rahati hai. iske do bhi prakaar hain- ganaatmak aur aganaatmak.

ganaatmak vanink chhandon ko vrutt bhi kehte hain. inki rachana teen laghu aur deergh ganon se bane hue ganon ke aadhaar par hoti hai. laghu tatha deergh ke vichaar se yadi varnon k prastaaravyavastha ki jaae aath roop bante hain. inheen ko "aath gan" kehte hain inmein bh, na, m, ya shubh gan maane gaye hain aur j, r, s, t ashubh maane gaye hain. vaakya ke aadi mein pratham chaar ganon ka prayog uchit hai, antim chaar ka prayog nishiddh hai. yadi ashubh ganon se praarambh honevaale chhand ka hi prayog karna hai, devataavaachi ya mangalavaachi varn athva shabd ka prayog pratham karna chaahiye - isse ganadosh door ho jaata hai. in ganon mein paraspar mitr, shatru aur udaaseen bhaav maana gaya hai. chhand ke aadi mein do ganon ka mel maana gaya hai. varnon ke laghu evam deergh maanane ka bhi niyam hai. laghu svar athva ek maatraavaale varn laghu athva hrasv maane gaye aur ismein ek maatra maani gayi hai. deergh svaron se yukt sanyukt varnon se poorv ka laghu varn bhi visrg yukt aur anusvaar varn tatha chhand ka varn deergh maana jaata hai.

aganaatmak varnik vrutt ve hain jinmein ganon ka vichaar naheen rakha jaata, keval varnon ki nishchit sankhya ka vichaar rahata hai vishesh maatrik chhandon mein keval maatraaon ka hi nishchit vichaar rahata hai aur yeh ek vishesh laya athva gati (paathapravaah athva paathapaddhati) par aadhaarit rahate hain. isaliye ye chhand layapradhaan hote hain.

gan aur yamaataaraajabhaanasalagaa:

varnik chhandon mein varn ganon ke hisaab se rakhe jaate hain. teen varnon ke samooh ko gan kehte hain . in ganon ke naam hain: yagan, magan, tagan, ragan, jagan, bhagan, nagan aur sagan . akele laghu ko 'l' aur guru ko 'g' kehte hain . kis gan mein laghu-guru ka kya kram hai, yeh jaanane ke liye nimnalikhit sootr sahaayak hota hai-

yamaataaraajabhaanasalagaa: ( ya, yamaataaraajabhaanasalagan )

jis gan ko jaanana ho usaka varn is mein dekhkar agale do varn aur saath jod lete hain aur usi kram se gan ki maatraaeain laga lete hain, jaise:

yagan - yamaata = . ऽ ऽ aadi laghu
magan - maataara = ऽ ऽ ऽ sarvaguru
tagan - taaraaj = ऽ ऽ . antalaghu
ragan - raajabha = ऽ . ऽ madhyalaghu
jagan - jabhaan = . ऽ . madhyaguru
bhagan - bhaanas = ऽ . . aadiguru
nagan - nasal = . . . sarvalaghu
sagan - salagaa: = . . ऽ antaguru

maatraaon mein jo akeli maatra hai, us ke aadhaar par inhein aadilghu ya aadiguru kaha gaya hai. jismein sab guru hai, vah 'magan' sarvaguru kahalaaya aur sabhi laghu hone se 'nagan' sarvalaghu kahalaaya.

maatrik chhand

sanskrut mein adhiktar varnik chhando ka hi gyaan karaaya jaata hai; maatrik chhandon ka kam.

doha

sanskrut mein is ka naam 'dohadika' chhand hai. iske visham charanon mein terah-terah aur sam charanon mein gyaarah-gyaarah maatraaeain hoti hain. visham charanon ke aadi mein.ऽ. (jagan) is prakaar ka maatra-kram naheen hona chaahiye aur ant mein guru aur laghu (ऽ.) varn hone chaahiye. sam charanon ki tuk aapas mein milni chaahiye. jaise:

.ऽ.ऽ.. ऽ. ऽ ऽऽ ऽ ऽऽ.
mahaddhanan yadi te bhavet, deenebhyastaddehi.
vidhehi karm sada shubhan, shubhan falan tvan prehi .

is dohe ko pehli pankti mein visham aur sam donon charanon par maatraachihn laga diye hain. isi prakaar doosari pankti mein bhi aap donon charanon par ye chinh laga sakte hain. at: doha ek ardhasam maatrik chhand hai.

harigeetika

harigeetika chhand mein pratyek charan mein 28 maatraaeain hoti hain aur ant mein laghu aur fir guru varn avashya hona chaahiye. ismein yati 16 tatha 12 maatraaon ke baad hoti hain; jaise

.. ऽ. ऽ ऽ ऽ.ऽ..ऽ. ऽ ऽ ऽ. ऽ
mam maatrubhoomi: bhaaratan dhanadhaanyapoornan syaat sada.
nagno na kshudhito koऽpi syaadih vardhataan sukh-santati:.
syurjnyaaanino gunashaalino hyupakaar-nirta maanav:,
apakaarakarta koऽpi na syaad dushtavruttirdaanv: .

geetika

is chhand mein pratyek charan mein chhabbees maatraaeain hoti hain aur 14 tatha 12 maatraaon ke baad yati hoti hai. jaise:

ऽ. ऽ . ऽ. ऽ ऽ ऽ. ऽ ऽ ऽ. ऽ
he dayaamaya deenabandho, praarthana me shrooyataan
yachch duritan deenabandho, poornato vyapaneeyataam.
chanyachalaani mam chendriyaani, maanasan me pooyataan
sharanan yaacheऽhan sada hi, sevakoऽsmyanugruhyataam .

sam, visham, ardhasam chhand

chhandon ka vibhaajan maatraaon aur varnon ki charan-bhed-sambandhi vibhinn sankhyaaon par aadhaarit hai. is prakaar chhand sam, visham, ardhasam hote hai. sam chhandon mein chhand ke chaaron charanon mein varnasvarasankhya samaan rahati hai. ardhasam mein pratham, truteeya aur dviteeya tatha chaturth mein varnasvar sankhya samaan rahati hai. visham chhand ke chaaron charanon mein varnon evam svaron ki sankhya asamaan rahati hai. ye varn paraspar pruthak hote hain varnon aur maatraaon ki kuchh nishchit sankhya ke pashchaat bahusankhyak varnon au svaron se yukt chhand dandak kahe jaate hai. inki sankhya bahut adhik hai.

svatantr chhand aur mishrit chhand

chhando ka vibhaajan fir anya prakaar se bhi kiya ja sakta hai. svatantr chhand aur mishrit chhand. svatantr chhand ek hi chhand vishesh niyam se racha hua rahata hai.

mishrit chhand do prakaar ke hai :

  • (1) jinmein do chhandon ke charan ek doosare se mila diye jaate hain. praaya: ye alag-alag jaan padte hain kintu kabhi-kabhi naheen bhi jaan padte.
  • (2) jinmein do svatantr chhand sthaan-sthaan par rakhe jaate hai aur kabhi unke milaane ka prayatn kiya jaata hai, jaise kundaliya chhand ek doha aur chaar pad rola ke milaane se banta hai.

doha aur rola ke milaane se dohe ke chaturth charan ki aavrutti uske pratham charan ke aadi mein ki jaati hai aur dohe ke praarambhik kuchh shabd role ke ant mein rakhe jaate hain. doosare prakaar ka mishrit chhand hai "chhappaya" jismein chaar charan rola ke dekar do ullaala ke diye jaate hain. iseeliye ise shatpadi athva chhappaya (chhappad) kaha jaata hai.

inke dekhne se yeh gyaat hota hai ki chhandon ka vikaas na keval prastaar ke aadhaar par hi hua hai varan kaviyon ke dvaara chhand-mishran-vidhi ke aadhaar par bhi hua hai. isi prakaar kuchh chhand kisi ek chhand ke vilom roop ke bhaav se aae hain jaise dohe ka vilom soratha hai. aisa prateet hota hai ki kaviyon ne bahudha isi ek chhand mein do ek varn athva maatra badha ghataakar bhi chhand mein roopaantar kar naya chhand banaaya hai. yeh chhand prastaar ke antargat aa sakta hai.

yati ke vichaar se chhand

laghu chhandon ko chhodkar bade chhandon ka ek charan jab ek baar mein poora naheen padha ja sakta, usamein rachana ke rukane ka sthaan nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai. is viraamasthal ko yati kehte hain. yati ke vichaar se chhand fir do prakaar ke ho jaate hain-

  • (1) yatyaatmak : jinmein kuchh nishchit varnon ya maatraaon par yati rakhi jaati hai. yeh chhand praaya: deerghaakaari hote hain jaise doha, kavitt aadi.
  • (2) ayatyaatmak : jin chhandon mein chaupaai, drut, vilanbit jaise chhand aate hain. yati ka vichaar karte hue ganaatmak vrutton mein ganon ke beech mein bhi yati rakhi gayi hai jaise maalini. isse spasht hai ki yati ka uddeshya keval rachana ko kuchh vishraam dena hi hai.

chhand mein sangeet tatv dvaara laalitya ka poora vichaar rakha gaya hai. praaya: sabhi chhand kisi na kisi roop mein geya ho jaate hain. raag aur raagini vaale sabhi pad chhandon mein naheen kahe ja sakte. isi liye "geeti" naam se katipya pad rache jaate hain. praaya: sangeetaatmak padon mein svar ke aaroh tatha avaroh mein bahudha laghu varn ko deergh, deergh ko laghu aur alp laghu bhi kar liya jaata hai. kabhi kabhi hindi ke chhandon mein deergh A aur O jaise svaron ke laghu roopon ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

pushpitaagra chhand

uda. "iti matirupakalpita vitrushna, bhagavati saatvatapuङagave vibhunmi. svasukhamupagate kkachidvihrtun, prakrutimupeyushi yadbhavapravaah:.."[1]

chhandashaastr se sambandhit sanskrut granth

  • kaalidaas (dantakatha ke adhaar par) shrutibodh
  • jayakeerti - chhandaanushaasan
  • kedaar bhatt - vruttaratnaakar
  • virhaank - vruttajaat samuchchaya
  • agyaat - chhandoratn manjoosha
  • gangaadaas - chhandamanjari
  • agyaat (poona ke bhandaarakar sanstha mein surakshit) - kavidrpan
  • agyaat (poona ke bhandaarakar sanstha mein surakshit) - vruttadeepaka
  • agyaat (poona ke bhandaarakar sanstha mein surakshit) - chhandasaar
  • agyaat (poona ke bhandaarakar sanstha mein surakshit) - chhaandogyopanishd
  • Damodar mitr - vaaneebhooshan

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • Bhagwat mahaapuraan (skandh 1, adhyayaaya 9, shlok 32)