bhaarateeya arthavyavastha ki samayarekha

yahaaain bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke aarthik itihaas ki pramukh ghatanaaeain sankshep mein di gayi hain.

anukram

praacheen kaal evam madhyakaal

  • 500 isaapoorv
    • mahaajanapadon dvaara chaaaindi ke panch kiye hue sikke (punch-marked coins)[1] dhaale jaate the. in sikkon ne saghan vyaapaar mein tatha nagareeya vikaas mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai..[2][3]
  • 1500
    • vishv arthavyavastha mein bhaarateeya arthavyavastha ka hisa 24.5% tha jo cheen ke baad doosari sabse badi arthavyavastha thi. is kaal mein vishv arthavyavastha mein cheen ka hissa lagbhag 25% tha.[5]
  • 1600
    • Bhaarat ki aay 17.5 million paaund thi (janasankhya lagbhag 150 million) jo san 1800 mein Britain ki sampoorn trejari (lagbhag 16 million paaund) se bhi adhik thi.[6]
  • 1700
    • Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha, vishv ki sampoorn aay ki 24.4% ke baraabar thi jo vishv mein sarvaadhik thi.[7]
sakal ghareloo utpaad (dollar)
varsh 1000AD 1500 AD 1600 AD 1700 AD
Bhaarat 33,750 60,500 74,250 90,750
cheen 26,550 61,800 96,000 82,800
pashchimi yorap 10,165 44,345 65,955 83,395
sampoorn vishv 116,790 247,116 329,417 371,369

britaani upanivesh kaal

East indiya company

  • 1793
    • Bengal mein sthaayi bandobast laagoo
  • 1806
    • Bhaarat mein patra-mudra (pepar currency) ka chalan aarambh hua.
  • 1820
    • Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha cheen aur UK ke baad teesare sthaan par aa gayi. Britain dvaara Bhaarat ke aupaniveshik shoshn tatha Britain mein audyogik kraanti ke parinaamasvaroop UK arthavyavastha ki drushti se pehli baar Europe mein bhi sabse aage pahuainch gaya. ab Britain ki videsh neeti tatha aarthik neeti mein Bhaarat ko asamaan bhaageedaar ke roop mein vyavahaar kiya jaana aarambh hua.
  • 1850
    • 1850 mein Bhaarat ki sakal ghareloo utpaad ghatkar 5-10% rah gaya. yeh cheen ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ka lagbhag 40 anumaanit tha. 1850 tak Bhaarat ke 30 pratishat baajaar par Britain ke kapaas ka kabja ho gaya.[8]

british raaj

  • 1943
    • Bengal mein bheeshan akaal

svaadheenata ke baad

Nehru kaal

  • 1948
    • pratham audyogik neeti ghoshit ki gayi.
  • 1956
    • dviteeya audyogik neeti ki ghoshana
  • 1962
    • cheen ka Bhaarat par aakraman
  • 1965
  • 1966
    • roopae ka avmoolyan karna pada
  • 1969
    • raajaaon-navaabon ke priveeyars evam visheshaadhikaar ki samaapti
    • sheeghrata tatha ekdam apratyaashit dhang se 14 bade bhaarateeya vaanijyik bankon ke raashtreeyakaran ki ghoshana. aajaadi se lekar us samay tak Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara liye gaye aarthik nirnayon mein se is nirnaya ko sabse mahatvapoorn nirnaya maana ja sakta hai. raashtreeyakaran se banking network ka teji se vistaar hua tatha graameen kshetron mein iski achhi paith ho gayi.
  • 1971
    • bangalaadesh mukti ; bahut se bangalaadeshi sharanaarthi Bhaarat aae.
  • 1973
    • bhaarateeya arthavyavastha 494.8 billion ameriki dollar ke baraabar thi jo vishv ki sakal aay ka 3.1% hota hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

1980–1991

  • 1980
    • 15 April 1980 ko pun: 6 aur bankon ka raashtreeyakaran kiya gaya.
  • 1988
    • April 1988 mein bhaarateeya pratibhooti evam vinimay board (SEBI) ki sthaapana
  • 1989
    • bhaarateeya paryatan vitt nigam ki sthaapana

1991 se ab tak

  • 1991
    • roopae ka avmoolyan kiya gaya.
    • narasinh Rao tatha unke vittamantri Manmohan Singh dvaara udaar aarthik neetiyaaain shuroo ki gain va da Manmohan Singh ne apni nitiyo se Bhaarat ko aarthik mandi se bachaaya.[9]
  • 1996
    • vinivesh aayog ki sthaapana
  • 1999
    • December 1999 mein beema niyaamak evam vikaas praadhikran (IRDA) vidheyak paarit hua.
  • 2010
    • bhaarateeya arthavyavastha 4.002 billion ameriki dollar ke baraabar ho gayi jo vishv ki sakal aay ka 6.3% hai. is drushti se yeh vishv ki chauthi sabse badi aay hai.[10]
  • 2012
    • bhaarateeya arthavyavastha 4,824.551 billion ameriki dollar ke baraabar ho gayi. is drushti se yeh vishv ki teesari sabse badi aay hai.[11]
  • 2013
    • Bhaarat mein ek ke baad ek aarthik ghotaale prakaash mein aaye. bhaari mandi.
    • dollar evam anya mudraaon ke saapeksh roopae ka bhaav lagaataar gir raha hai. 3 September 2013 ko dollar ke saapeksh roopae ka bhaav 67 tak ja pahuncha.[12]
    • 2012-13 mein vikaas dar girkar 10 varshon ke nyoonatam star 5% tak aa gayi.[13]
  • 2014
    • teesari sabse badi arthavyavastha- April 2014 mein jaari world bank ki ek report ke anusaar, bhaarateeya arthavyavastha parachejing power pairiti ke lihaaj se Japan ko pachhaadkar duniya ki teesari sabse badi arthavyavastha ban gayi hai. bank ke intaranaishanal kanperijn program (aaiseepi) ke 2011 round mein ameriki aur cheen ke baad Bhaarat ko sthaan diya gaya hai. isse pehle 2005 ke sarvekshan mein bhaarateeya arthavyavastha 10vein sthaan par thi.[14]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Nupam Mahajan and R. Balasubramaniam, "Scanning electron microscopy study of an ancient silver punch-marked coin with central pentagonal mark", Numismatic Digest v. 22.
  2. "Ancient Indian Coinage", RBI Monetary Museum, rbi.org
  3. a aa The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Angus Maddison
  4. Angus Maddison (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, OECD, Paris
  5. Angus Maddison (2003). The World Economy: Historical Statistics, OECD, Paris
  6. Bowen, H. V. Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756-1833 (2006), 304pp
  7. Kumar, Dharma and Meghnad Desai, eds. The Cambridge Economic History of India: Volume 2, c.1751-c.1970 (1983).
  8. http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/papers/broadberry-gupta.pdf
  9. "Timeline: India". BBC News. 2011-02-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1155813.stm. abhigman tithi: 2011-03-06.
  10. "The Indian Economy In The Next Decade". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2010/01/07/india-economy-inflation-entrepreneurs-wharton.html. abhigman tithi: 2011-03-06.
  11. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=51&pr.y=6&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=534&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. abhigman tithi: 2013-01-24.
  12. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/et-now/forex/rupee-weakens-breaches-67-per-dollar-mark/videoshow/22253703.cms
  13. "bhaarateeya rijrv bank ki vaarshik report 2012-13, pru-1, paira-1.1". http://www.rbi.org.in/hindi1/Upload/Publications/PDFs/1IASSPR280813.pdf.
  14. "Bhaarat bana duniya ki teesari sabse badi ikaunami". navabhaarat taaims. 30 April 2014. http://hindi.economictimes.indiatimes.com/business/business-news/india-displaces-japan-to-become-third-largest-world-economy-in-terms-of-ppp-world-bank/businessarticleshow/34389534.cms. abhigman tithi: 30 April 2014.

pathaneeya