bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan

bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan
Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation Logo.svg
sankshipt roop isaro
maalik भारत Bhaarat
sthaapit 15 August 1969 (1969-08-15) (46 varsh pehle)
(inakosparako hataake)
mukhyaalaya Bengaluru, Bhaarat
praathamik antariksh bandargaah sateesh dhavan antariksh kendra, shreehareekota, Andhra pradesh
aadarsh vaakya maanav jaati ki seva mein antariksh praudyogiki
prashaasak A S kiran Kumar, nideshak
bajat भारतीय रुपया67.92 billion (US$991.63 million) (2013-14)[1][2]
website isro.gov.in

bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan (isaro) Bhaarat ka raashtreeya antariksh sansthaan hai jiska mukhyaalaya Karnataka praant ki rajdhani beingaaluroo mein hai. sansthaan mein lagbhag satrah hajaar karmachaari evam vaigyaanik kaaryarat hain. sansthaan ka mukhya kaarya Bhaarat ke liye antariksh sanbadhi takaneek upalabdh karavaana hai. antariksh kaaryakram ke mukhya uddeshyon mein upagrahon, pramochak yaanon, parijnyaaapi raaketon aur bhoo-pranaaliyon ka vikaas shaamil hai.

isaro ke vartamaan nideshak A S kiran Kumar hain.[3] aaj Bhaarat na sirf apne antariksh sambandhi aavashyakataaon ki poorti karne mein saksham hai balki duniya ke bahut se deshon ko apni antariksh kshamata se vyaapaarik aur anya staron par sahayog kar raha hai. isaro vartamaan mein dhruveeya upagrah prakshepan yaan (pi.S.L.vi.) evam bhoosthir upagrah prakshepan yaan (ji.S.L.vi.) ki sahaayata se kramash: krutrim evam bhoo-sthaayi krutrim upagrah prakshepit karta hai.

isaro ko shaanti, nirstreekaran aur vikaas ke liye saal 2014 ke indira Gandhi puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya.[4] mangalayaan ke safal prakshepan ke lagbhag ek varsh baad isne 29 September 2015 ko estrosait ke roop mein Bhaarat ki pehli antariksh vedhashaala sthaapit kiya.

anukram

bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan ka itihaas

Bhaarat ka antariksheeya anubhav bahut puraana hai, jab rocket ko aatishbaaji ke roop mein pehli baar prayog mein laaya gaya, jo ki padausi desh cheen ka takaneeki aavishkaar tha aur tab donon deshon mein resham maarg se vichaaron evam vastuon ka aadaan pradaan hua karta tha. jab teepoo sultaan dvaara Mysore yuddh mein angrejon ko khadhedane mein rocket ke prayog ko dekhkar William kangreev prabhaavit hua, to usane 1804 mein kangreev rocket ka aavishkaar kiya, jo ki aaj ke aadhunik topakhaanon ki den maana jaata hai. 1947 mein angrejon ki bediyon se mukt hone ke baad, bhaarateeya vaigyaanik aur raajaneetijnya Bhaarat ki rocket takaneek ke suraksha kshetr mein upayog, evam anusandhaan evam vikaas ki sanbhaavyata ki vajah se vikhyaat hue. Bhaarat janasaankhyikeeya drushti se vishaal hone ki vajah se, doorasanchaar ke kshetr mein krutrim upagrahon ki praarthamik sanbhaavyata ko dekhte hue, Bhaarat mein antariksh anusandhaan sangathan ki sthaapana ki gayi.

1960-1970

Bhaarat ke vaahak-raaket : baayein se daayein - SLV, ASLV, PSLV, GSLV, GSLV Mk.III

bhaarateeya antariksh kaaryakram Dr vikram saaraabhaai ki sankalpana hai, jinhein bhaarateeya antariksh kaaryakram ka janak kaha gaya hai. ve vaigyaanik kalpana evam raashtra-naayak ke roop mein jaane gaye. 1957 mein spootanik ke prakshepan ke baad, unhonne krutrim upagrahon ki upayogita ko bhaanpa. Bhaarat ke pratham pradhaan mantri Jawahar laal Nehru, jinhonne Bhaarat ke bhavishya mein vaigyaanik vikaas ko aham bhaag maana, 1961 mein antariksh anusandhaan ko parmaanu oorja vibhaag ki dekharekh mein rakha. parmaanu urja vibhaag ke nideshak homi bhaabha, jo ki bhaarateeya parmaanu kaaryakram ke janak maane jaate hain, 1962 mein antariksh anusandhaan ke liye bhaarateeya raashtreeya samiti (inakospaar) ka gathan kiya, jismein dau॰ saaraabhaai ko sabhaapati ke roop mein niyukt kiya

Japan aur Europe ko chhodkar, har mukhya antariksh kaaryakram ki tarah, Bhaarat ne apne vidit sainik prakshepaastr kaaryakram ko saksham karaane mein lagaane ke bajaay, krutrim upagrahon ko prakshepan mein samarth banaane ke uddheshya hetu kiya. 1962 mein bhaarateeya antariksh kaaryakram ki sthaapana ke saath hi, isne anusandhit rocket ka prakshepan shuroo kar diya, jismein bhoomadhya rekha ki sameepata varadaan saabit hui. ye sabhi nav-sthaapit thunba bhoo-madhyeeya rocket anusandhaan kendra se prakshepit kiye gaye, jo ki dakshin Kerala mein tiruvantapuram ke sameep sthit hai. shuruaat mein, America evam France ke anusandhit rocket kramash: naaik apaache evam keintor ki tarah, upari dabaav ka adhyayan karne ke liye prakshepit kiye gaye, jab tak ki prashaant mahaasaagar mein pot-aadhaarit anusandhit rocket se adhyayan shuroo na hua. ye England aur roos ki tarj par banaaye gaye. fir bhi pehle din se hi, antariksh kaaryakram ki vikaasasheel deshi takaneek ki uchch mahatvaakaanksha thi aur iske chalte Bhaarat ne thos indhan ka prayog karke apne anusandhit rocket ka nirmaan shuroo kar diya, jise rohini ki sanjnyaa di gayi.

Bhaarat antariksh kaaryakram ne deshi takaneek ki aavashyakta, evam kachche maal evam takaneek aapoorti mein bhaavi asthirta ki sambhaavana ko bhaanpate hue, pratyek maal aapoorti maarg, prakriya evam takaneek ko apne adhikaar mein laane ka prayatn kiya. jaise jaise bhaarateeya rohini kaaryakram ne aur adhik sankul evam vruhataakaar roket ka prakshepan jaari rakha, antariksh kaaryakram badhta chala gaya aur ise parmaanu urja vibhaag se vibhaajit kar, apna alag hi sarkaari vibhaag de diya gaya. parmaanu urja vibhaag ke antargat inkospaar kaaryakram se 1969 mein bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan ka gathan kiya gaya, jo ki praarambh mein antariksh mission ke antargat kaaryarat tha aur parinaamasvaroop June, 1972 mein, antariksh vibhaag ki sthaapana ki gayi.

1970-1980

1960 ke dashak mein dau॰ saaraabhaai ne television ke seedhe prasaaran ke jaise bahul anuprayogon ke liye prayog mein laaye jaane vaale krutrim upagrahon ki sambhavyata ke sandarbh mein naasa ke saath praarambhik adhyayan mein hissa liya aur adhyayan se yeh gyaan praapt hua ki, prasaaran ke liye yahi sabse sasta aur saral saadhan hai. shuruaat se hi, upagrahon ko Bhaarat mein laane ke faayadon ko dhyaan mein rakhakar, saaraabhaai aur isaro ne milkar ek svatantr prakshepan vaahan ka nirmaan kiya, jo ki krutrim upagrahon ko kaksh mein sthaapit karne, evam bhavishya mein vruhat prakshepan vaahanon mein nirmaan ke liye aavashyak abhyaas upalabdh karaane mein saksham tha. rohini shreni ke saath thos motor banaane mein Bhaarat ki kshamata ko parakhate hue, anya desho ne bhi samaantar kaaryakramon ke liye thos rocket ka upayog behtar samjha aur isaro ne krutrim upagrah prakshepan vaahan (S.L.vi.) ki aadhaarbhoot sanrachana evam takaneek ka nirmaan praarambh kar diya. America ke skaaut rocket se prabhaavit hokar, vaahan ko chaturstareeya thos vaahan ka roop diya gaya.

is dauraan, Bhaarat ne bhavishya mein sanchaar ki aavashyakta evam doorasanchaar ka poorvaanumaan lagte hue, upagrah ke liye takaneek ka vikaas praarambh kar diya. Bhaarat ki antariksh mein pratham yaatra 1975 mein roos ke sahayog se iske krutrim upagrah aaryabhatt ke prakshepan se shuroo huyi. 1979 tak, nav-sthaapit dviteeya prakshepan sthal sateesh dhavan antariksh kendra se S.L.vi. prakshepan ke liye taiyaar ho chuka tha. dviteeya stareeya asafalata ki vajah se iska 1979 mein pratham prakshepan safal naheen ho paaya tha. 1980 tak is samasya ka nivaaran kar liya gaya. Bhaarat ka desh mein pratham nirmit krutrim upagrah rohini-pratham prakshepit kiya gaya.

bajat

2012-17

12veen panchavarsheeya yojana, 2012-17 ke dauraan isaro ne 58 antariksh missiono ke sanchaalan ki yojana banaai hain, jiske liye anantim roop se 39,750 karod rupaye ke yojana pariv‍aayaya ki v‍aayavas‍aatha ki gayi hai. 2012-13 ke dauraan 5,615 karod rupaye ki raashi aabantit ki gayi.[5]

mahatvapoorn tithiyaaain

  • 1962: parmaanu oorja vibhaag dvaara antariksh anusandhaan ke liye ek raashtreeya samiti ka gathan aur trivendram ke sameep thumba mein raaket prakshepan sthal ke vikaas ki disha mein pehla prayaas praarambh.
  • 1963: thunba se (21 November, 1963) ko pehle raaket ka prakshepan
  • 1965: thunba mein antariksh vigyaan evam takaneeki kendra ki sthaapana.
  • 1967: Ahmedabad mein upagrah sanchaar pranaali kendra ki sthaapana.
  • 1972: antariksh aayog evam antariksh vibhaag ki sthaapana.
  • 1975: pehle bhaarateeya upagrah aaryabhatt ka (April 19, 1975) ko prakshepan.
  • 1976: upagrah ke maadhyam se pehli baar shiksha dene ke liye praayogik kadam.
  • 1979: ek praayogik upagrah bhaaskar - 1 ka prakshepan. rohini upagrah ka pehle praayogik pareekshan yaan S L vi-3 ki sahaayata se prakshepan asafal.
  • 1980: S L vi-3 ki sahaayata se rohini upagrah ka safalataapoorvak kaksha mein sthaapan.
  • 1981: 'eppal' naamak bhoovaijnyaaanik sanchaar upagrah ka safalataapoorvak prakshepan. November mein bhaaskar - 2 ka prakshepan.
  • 1982: insait-1A ka April mein prakshepan aur September akriykaran.
  • 1983: S L vi-3 ka doosra prakshepan. aar S - dee2 ki kaksha mein sthaapana. insait-1B ka prakshepan.
  • 1984: Bhaarat aur soviyt sangh dvaara sanyukt antariksh abhiyaan mein Rakesh sharma ka pehla bhaarateeya antariksh yaatri banana.
  • 1987: A S L vi ka SROSS-1 upagrah ke saath prakshepan.
  • 1988: Bhaarat ka pehla door samvedi upagrah I aar S-1A ka prakshepan. insait-1C ka July mein prakshepan. November mein parityaag.
  • 1990: insait-1D ka safal prakshepan.
  • 1991: August mein doosra door samvedi upagrah I aar S S-1B ka prakshepan.
  • 1992: SROCC-C ke saath A S L vi dvaara teesara prakshepan May maheene mein. poori tarah svedeshi takaneek se bane upagrah insait-2A ka safal prakshepan.
  • 1993: insait-2B ka julaaimaheene mein safal prakshepan. pi S L vi dvaara door samvedi upagrah I aar S S-1E ka durghatanaagrast hona.
  • 1994: maimaheene mein S S L vi ka chautha safal prakshepan.
  • 1995: December maheene mein insait-2C ka prakshepan. teesare door samvedi upagrah ka safal prakshepan.
  • 1996: teesare bhaarateeya door samvedi upagrah I aar S S-P3 ka pi S L vi ki sahaayata se March maheene mein safal prakshepan.
  • 1997: June maheene mein prakshepit insait-2D ka October maheene mein kharaab hona. September maheene mein pi S L vi ki sahaayata se bhaarateeya door samvedi upagrah I aar S S-1D ka safal prakshepan.
  • 1999: insait-2E insait-2 kram ke aakhiri upagrah ka France se safal prakshepan. bhaarateeya door samvedi upagrah I aar S S-P4 shreeharikota parikshan kendra se safal prakshepan. pehli baar Bhaarat se videshi upagrahon ka prakshepan : dakshin Korea ke kitsait-3 aur Germany ke di si aar-toobasait ka safal pareekshan.
  • 2000: insait-3B ka 22 March, 2000 ko safal prakshepan.
  • 2001: ji S L vi-D1, ka prakshepan aanshik safal.
  • 2002: January maheene mein insait-3C ka safal prakshepan. pi S L vi-C4 dvaara kalpana-1 ka September mein safal prakshepan.
  • 2004: ji S L vi edyoosait ka safalataapoorvak prakshepan.
  • 2008: 22 October ko chandrayaan ka safalataapoorvak prakshepan
  • 2013: 5 November ko mangalayaan ka safalataapoorvak prakshepan[6]
  • 2014 : 24 sitmbar ko mangalayaan (prakshepan ke 298 din baad) mangal ki kaksha mein sthaapit, bhoosthir upagrah prakshepan yaan (jeeesaelavi-dee5) ka safal prakshepan (5 January 2014), aaiaaraenaesaes-1bi (04 April 2014) va 1 si(16 ak‍aatoobar 2014) ka safal prakshepan, jeeesaelavi MK-3 ki safal pehli praayogik udaan(18 December 2014)[7]
  • 2015 - 29 September ko khagoleeya shodh ko samarpit Bhaarat ki pehli vedhashaala estrosait ka safal prakshepan kiya.
  • 2016 - 23 May ko poori tarah Bhaarat mein bana apna pehla punarprayojya antariksh shatal (riyoojebal space shatal) pramochit kiya.

Amreeki pratibandh

soviyt sangh ke saath Bhaarat ke boostar takaneek ke kshetr mein sahayog ka amareeka dvaara parmaanu aprasaar neeti ki aad mein kaafi pratirodh kiya gaya. 1992 mein bhaarateeya sanstha isaro aur soviyt sanstha glaavakaasmos par pratibandh ki dhamaki di gayi. in dhamakiyon ki vajah se soviyt sangh ne is sahayog se apna haath peechhe kheench liya[tathya vaanchhit]. soviyt sangh kraayojenik likveed raaket engine to Bhaarat ko dene ke liye taiyaar tha lekin iske nirmaan se judi takaneek dene ko taiyaar nahi hua jo Bhaarat soviyt sangh se khareedna chaahata tha.

is asahayog ka parinaam yeh hua ki Bhaarat Amreeki pratibandhon ka saamana karte huye bhi soviyt sangh se behtar svadeshi takaneek do saalo ke athak shodh ke baad viksit kar li. halaaki isaro mein abhi bhi roosi injano ka prayog jaari hai kintu ise charanbaddh tareeke se svadeshi takaneek se charanon mein badla ja raha hai.

isaro ke upagrah

insait-1B

insait

I aar S

prakshepan yaan

maanav antariksh udaan kaaryakram

isaro ne maanav antariksh udaan kaaryakram ke liye kraantik praudyogikiyon par keindrit pariyojana poorv anusandhaan evam vikaas kriyaakalaap shuroo kiye hain. March 2012 ke aaainkadon ke anusaar is disha mein aavantit nidhi 145 karod hain. vibhin‍aan takaneeki kriyaakalaapon liye aavantit nidhi mukh‍aaya sheershon ke tahat hai-karmidl maadyool pranaali (61 karod), maanav anukool pramochak raaket (27 karod) raash‍aatreeya evam antarraash‍aatreeya sans‍aathaanon ke saath adh‍aayayan theke (36 karod) aur vaayu gatiki vishish‍aateekaran evam mission adh‍aayayan jaise an‍aaya kriyaakalaap (21 karod).[8]

sandarbh

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain